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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801339

RESUMO

Knowledge of the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and weight loss is limited. The aim was to analyse whether selected obesity-associated SNPs within the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), SEC16 homolog B (SEC16B), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene are associated with anthropometric changes during behavioural intervention for weight loss. genetic and anthropometric data from 576 individuals with overweight and obesity from four lifestyle interventions were obtained. A genetic predisposition score (GPS) was calculated. Our results show that study participants had a mean age of 48.2 ± 12.6 years and a mean baseline body mass index of 33.9 ± 6.4 kg/m2. Mean weight reduction after 12 months was -7.7 ± 10.9 kg. After 12 months of intervention, the MC4R SNPs rs571312 and rs17782313 were significantly associated with a greater decrease in body weight and BMI (p = 0.012, p = 0.011, respectively). The investigated SNPs within the other four genetic loci showed no statistically significant association with changes in anthropometric parameters. The GPS showed no statistically significant association with weight reduction. In conclusion there was no consistent evidence for statistically significant associations of SNPs with anthropometric changes during a behavioural intervention. It seems that other factors play a more significant in weight management than the investigated SNPs.

2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 61, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome impacts human health through various mechanisms and is involved in the development of a range of non-communicable diseases. Diet is a well-known factor influencing microbe-host interaction in health and disease. However, very few findings are based on large-scale analysis using population-based studies. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between habitual dietary intake and gut microbiota structure in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 study. RESULTS: Fecal microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) was applied to samples from 1992 participants to identify 20 microbial subgroups within the study population. Each participant's gut microbiota was subsequently described by a unique composition of these 20 subgroups. Associations between habitual dietary intake, assessed via repeated 24-h food lists and a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the 20 subgroups, as well as between prevalence of metabolic diseases/risk factors and the subgroups, were assessed with multivariate-adjusted Dirichlet regression models. After adjustment for multiple testing, eight of 20 microbial subgroups were significantly associated with habitual diet, while nine of 20 microbial subgroups were associated with the prevalence of one or more metabolic diseases/risk factors. Subgroups 5 (Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiracea incertae sedis, Gemmiger, Roseburia) and 14 (Coprococcus, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus) were particularly strongly associated with diet. For example, participants with a high probability for subgroup 5 were characterized by a higher Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Score and a higher intake of food items such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, while participants with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus were characterized by a lower probability for subgroup 5. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between habitual diet, metabolic diseases, and microbial subgroups identified in this analysis not only expand upon current knowledge of diet-microbiota-disease relationships, but also indicate the possibility of certain microbial groups to be modulated by dietary intervention, with the potential of impacting human health. Additionally, LDA appears to be a powerful tool for interpreting latent structures of the human gut microbiota. However, the subgroups and associations observed in this analysis need to be replicated in further studies. Video abstract.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1279, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627659

RESUMO

Blood circulating proteins are confounded readouts of the biological processes that occur in different tissues and organs. Many proteins have been linked to complex disorders and are also under substantial genetic control. Here, we investigate the associations between over 1000 blood circulating proteins and body mass index (BMI) in three studies including over 4600 participants. We show that BMI is associated with widespread changes in the plasma proteome. We observe 152 replicated protein associations with BMI. 24 proteins also associate with a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for BMI. These proteins are involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways impacting clinically relevant pathways of adiposity. Mendelian randomization suggests a bi-directional causal relationship of BMI with LEPR/LEP, IGFBP1, and WFIKKN2, a protein-to-BMI relationship for AGER, DPT, and CTSA, and a BMI-to-protein relationship for another 21 proteins. Combined with animal model and tissue-specific gene expression data, our findings suggest potential therapeutic targets further elucidating the role of these proteins in obesity associated pathologies.


Assuntos
Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Proteômica/métodos
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 24, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402679

RESUMO

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Insulina/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/etnologia , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Relação Cintura-Quadril
5.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009236, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465068

RESUMO

The endo-lysosomal two-pore channel (TPC2) has been established as an intracellular cation channel of significant physiological and pathophysiological relevance in recent years. For example, TPC2-/- mice show defects in cholesterol degradation, leading to hypercholesterinemia; TPC2 absence also results in mature-onset obesity, and a role in glucagon secretion and diabetes has been proposed. Infections with bacterial toxins or viruses e.g., cholera toxin or Ebola virus result in reduced infectivity rates in the absence of TPC2 or after pharmacological blockage, and TPC2-/- cancer cells lose their ability to migrate and metastasize efficiently. Finally, melanin production is affected by changes in hTPC2 activity, resulting in pigmentation defects and hair color variation. Here, we analyzed several publicly available genome variation data sets and identified multiple variations in the TPC2 protein in distinct human populations. Surprisingly, one variation, L564P, was found to be the predominant TPC2 isoform on a global scale. By applying endo-lysosomal patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that L564P is a prerequisite for the previously described M484L gain-of-function effect that is associated with blond hair. Additionally, other gain-of-function variants with distinct geographical and ethnic distribution were discovered and functionally characterized. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies was performed, finding the polymorphisms to be associated with both distinct and overlapping traits. In sum, we present the first systematic analysis of variations in TPC2. We functionally characterized the most common variations and assessed their association with various disease traits. With TPC2 emerging as a novel drug target for the treatment of various diseases, this study provides valuable insights into ethnic and geographical distribution of TPC2 polymorphisms and their effects on channel activity.

6.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 147-155, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462482

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome is implicated as an important modulating factor in multiple inflammatory1,2, neurologic3 and neoplastic diseases4. Recent genome-wide association studies yielded inconsistent, underpowered and rarely replicated results such that the role of human host genetics as a contributing factor to microbiome assembly and structure remains uncertain5-11. Nevertheless, twin studies clearly suggest host genetics as a driver of microbiome composition11. In a genome-wide association analysis of 8,956 German individuals, we identified 38 genetic loci to be associated with single bacteria and overall microbiome composition. Further analyses confirm the identified associations of ABO histo-blood groups and FUT2 secretor status with Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium spp. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causative and protective effects of gut microbes, with clade-specific effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This holistic investigative approach of the host, its genetics and its associated microbial communities as a 'metaorganism' broaden our understanding of disease etiology, and emphasize the potential for implementing microbiota in disease treatment and management.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Faecalibacterium/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinically, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is heterogeneous, but the prevailing pathophysiologic hypothesis nevertheless contends that components of metabolic syndrome are central to all cases of T2DM. Here, we reevaluated this hypothesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 138 women from the monocenter, post gestational diabetes study PPSDiab, 73 of which had incident prediabetes or T2DM. Additionally, we examined all the 412 incident cases of T2DM in phases 3-9 of the Whitehall II Study in comparison to healthy controls. Our analysis included a medical history, anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance testing, and laboratory chemistry in both studies. Additional analyses from the PPSDiab Study consisted of cardiopulmonary exercise testing, magnetic resonance imaging, auto-antibody testing, and the exclusion of glucokinase maturity-onset diabetes of the young. RESULTS: We found that 33 (45%) of the women with prediabetes or T2DM in the PPSDiab Study displayed no components of metabolic syndrome. They reached no point for metabolic syndrome in the NCEP ATP3 score other than hyperglycemia and, moreover, had levels of liver fat content, plasma triglycerides, hdl cholesterol, c-reactive protein, and blood pressure that were comparable to healthy controls. In the Whitehall II Study, 62 (15%) of the incident T2DM cases fulfilled the same criteria. In both studies, these cases without metabolic syndrome revealed insulin resistance and inadequately low insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contradict the hypothesis that components of metabolic syndrome are central to all cases of T2DM. Instead, they suggest the common occurrence of a second, unrelated pathophysiology.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517400

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed-effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on Chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.

9.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(1): e205142, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315090

RESUMO

Importance: Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci influencing obesity risk in children. However, the importance of these loci in the associations with weight reduction through lifestyle interventions has not been investigated in large intervention trials. Objective: To evaluate the associations between various obesity susceptibility loci and changes in body weight in children during an in-hospital, lifestyle intervention program. Design, Setting, and Participants: Long-term Effects of Lifestyle Intervention in Obesity and Genetic Influence in Children (LOGIC), an interventional prospective cohort study, enrolled 1429 children with overweight or obesity to participate in an in-hospital lifestyle intervention program. Genotyping of 56 validated obesity single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) was performed, and the associations between the SNVs and body weight reduction during the intervention were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models for each SNV. The LOGIC study was conducted from January 6, 2006, to October 19, 2013; data analysis was performed from July 15, 2015, to November 6, 2016. Exposures: A 4- to 6-week standardized in-hospital lifestyle intervention program (daily physical activity, calorie-restricted diet, and behavioral therapy). Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between 56 obesity-relevant SNVs and changes in body weight and body mass index. Results: Of 1429 individuals enrolled in the LOGIC Study, 1198 individuals (mean [SD] age, 14.0 [2.2] years; 670 [56%] girls) were genotyped. A mean (SD) decrease was noted in body weight of -8.7 (3.6) kg (95% CI, -15.7 to -1.8 kg), and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) decreased by -3.3 (1.1) (95% CI, -5.4 to -1.1) (both P < .05). Five of 56 obesity SNVs were statistically significantly associated with a reduction of body weight or body mass index (all P < 8.93 × 10-4 corresponding to Bonferroni correction for 56 tests). Compared with homozygous participants without the risk allele, homozygous carriers of the rs7164727 (LOC100287559: 0.42 kg; 95% CI, 0.31-0.53 kg, P = 4.00 × 10-4) and rs12940622 (RPTOR: 0.35 kg; 95% CI, 0.18-0.52 kg; P = 1.86 × 10-5) risk alleles had a lower reduction of body weight, whereas carriers of the rs13201877 (IFNGR1: 0.65 kg; 95% CI, 0.51-0.79 kg; P = 2.39 × 10-5), rs10733682 (LMX1B: 0.45 kg; 95% CI, 0.27-0.63 kg; P = 6.37 × 10-4), and rs2836754 (ETS2: 0.56 kg; 95% CI, 0.38-0.74 kg; P = 1.51 × 10-4) risk alleles were associated with a greater reduction of body weight after adjustment for age and sex. Conclusions and Relevance: Genes appear to play a minor role in weight reduction by lifestyle in children with overweight or obesity. The findings suggest that environmental, social, and behavioral factors are more important to consider in obesity treatment strategies.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(4): e1647-e1659, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382400

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Improved strategies to identify persons at high risk of type 2 diabetes are important to target costly preventive efforts to those who will benefit most. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to assess whether novel biomarkers improve the prediction of type 2 diabetes beyond noninvasive standard clinical risk factors alone or in combination with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: We used a population-based case-cohort study for discovery (689 incident cases and 1850 noncases) and an independent cohort study (262 incident cases, 2549 noncases) for validation. An L1-penalized (lasso) Cox model was used to select the most predictive set among 47 serum biomarkers from multiple etiological pathways. All variables available from the noninvasive German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRSadapted) were forced into the models. The C index and the category-free net reclassification index (cfNRI) were used to evaluate the predictive performance of the selected biomarkers beyond the GDRSadapted model (plus HbA1c). RESULTS: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, soluble E-selectin, decorin, adiponectin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were selected as the most relevant biomarkers. The simultaneous addition of these 6 biomarkers significantly improved the predictive performance both in the discovery (C index [95% CI], 0.053 [0.039-0.066]; cfNRI [95% CI], 67.4% [57.3%-79.5%]) and the validation study (0.034 [0.019-0.053]; 48.4% [35.6%-60.8%]). Significant improvements by these biomarkers were also seen on top of the GDRSadapted model plus HbA1c in both studies. CONCLUSION: The addition of 6 biomarkers significantly improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes when added to a noninvasive clinical model or to a clinical model plus HbA1c.

11.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 109, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) poses a major global challenge. It remains unresolved to what extent transcriptomic signatures of metabolic dysregulation and T2D can be observed in easily accessible tissues such as blood. Additionally, large-scale human studies are required to further our understanding of the putative inflammatory component of insulin resistance and T2D. Here we used transcriptomics data from individuals with (n = 789) and without (n = 2127) T2D from the IMI-DIRECT cohorts to describe the co-expression structure of whole blood that mainly reflects processes and cell types of the immune system, and how it relates to metabolically relevant clinical traits and T2D. METHODS: Clusters of co-expressed genes were identified in the non-diabetic IMI-DIRECT cohort and evaluated with regard to stability, as well as preservation and rewiring in the cohort of individuals with T2D. We performed functional and immune cell signature enrichment analyses, and a genome-wide association study to describe the genetic regulation of the modules. Phenotypic and trans-omics associations of the transcriptomic modules were investigated across both IMI-DIRECT cohorts. RESULTS: We identified 55 whole blood co-expression modules, some of which clustered in larger super-modules. We identified a large number of associations between these transcriptomic modules and measures of insulin action and glucose tolerance. Some of the metabolically linked modules reflect neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in blood while others are independent of white blood cell estimates, including a module of genes encoding neutrophil granule proteins with antibacterial properties for which the strongest associations with clinical traits and T2D status were observed. Through the integration of genetic and multi-omics data, we provide a holistic view of the regulation and molecular context of whole blood transcriptomic modules. We furthermore identified an overlap between genetic signals for T2D and co-expression modules involved in type II interferon signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results offer a large-scale map of whole blood transcriptomic modules in the context of metabolic disease and point to novel biological candidates for future studies related to T2D.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009190, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370286

RESUMO

The genetic landscape of diseases associated with changes in bone mineral density (BMD), such as osteoporosis, is only partially understood. Here, we explored data from 3,823 mutant mouse strains for BMD, a measure that is frequently altered in a range of bone pathologies, including osteoporosis. A total of 200 genes were found to significantly affect BMD. This pool of BMD genes comprised 141 genes with previously unknown functions in bone biology and was complementary to pools derived from recent human studies. Nineteen of the 141 genes also caused skeletal abnormalities. Examination of the BMD genes in osteoclasts and osteoblasts underscored BMD pathways, including vesicle transport, in these cells and together with in silico bone turnover studies resulted in the prioritization of candidate genes for further investigation. Overall, the results add novel pathophysiological and molecular insight into bone health and disease.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/genética , Animais , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Caracteres Sexuais , Transcriptoma
13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002769, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D). RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 157, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a well-known modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the proposed underlying mechanism linking smoking to disease is via epigenetic modifications, which could affect the expression of disease-associated genes. Here, we conducted a three-way association study to identify the relationship between smoking-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression and their associations with cardio-metabolic traits. RESULTS: We selected 2549 CpG sites and 443 gene expression probes associated with current versus never smokers, from the largest epigenome-wide association study and transcriptome-wide association study to date. We examined three-way associations, including CpG versus gene expression, cardio-metabolic trait versus CpG, and cardio-metabolic trait versus gene expression, in the Rotterdam study. Subsequently, we replicated our findings in The Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. After correction for multiple testing, we identified both cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTM) associations in blood. Specifically, we found 1224 smoking-related CpGs associated with at least one of the 443 gene expression probes, and 200 smoking-related gene expression probes to be associated with at least one of the 2549 CpGs. Out of these, 109 CpGs and 27 genes were associated with at least one cardio-metabolic trait in the Rotterdam Study. We were able to replicate the associations with cardio-metabolic traits of 26 CpGs and 19 genes in the KORA study. Furthermore, we identified a three-way association of triglycerides with two CpGs and two genes (GZMA; CLDND1), and BMI with six CpGs and two genes (PID1; LRRN3). Finally, our results revealed the mediation effect of cg03636183 (F2RL3), cg06096336 (PSMD1), cg13708645 (KDM2B), and cg17287155 (AHRR) within the association between smoking and LRRN3 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that smoking-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. These findings may provide additional insights into the molecular mechanisms linking smoking to the development of CVD.

15.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2766-2778, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928870

RESUMO

With an estimated prevalence of 463 million affected, type 2 diabetes represents a major challenge to health care systems worldwide. Analyzing the plasma proteomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes may illuminate hitherto unknown functional mechanisms underlying disease pathology. We assessed the associations between type 2 diabetes and >1,000 plasma proteins in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 cohort (n = 993, 110 cases), with subsequent replication in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3) cohort (n = 940, 149 cases). We computed logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension. Additionally, we investigated associations with incident type 2 diabetes and performed two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to prioritize our results. Association analysis of prevalent type 2 diabetes revealed 24 replicated proteins, of which 8 are novel. Proteins showing association with incident type 2 diabetes were aminoacylase-1, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2. Aminoacylase-1 was associated with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. MR analysis yielded nominally significant causal effects of type 2 diabetes on cathepsin Z and rennin, both known to have roles in the pathophysiological pathways of cardiovascular disease, and of sex hormone-binding globulin on type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, our high-throughput proteomics study replicated previously reported type 2 diabetes-protein associations and identified new candidate proteins possibly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

16.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(2): 258-272.e6, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619440

RESUMO

Lifestyle, obesity, and the gut microbiome are important risk factors for metabolic disorders. We demonstrate in 1,976 subjects of a German population cohort (KORA) that specific microbiota members show 24-h oscillations in their relative abundance and identified 13 taxa with disrupted rhythmicity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cross-validated prediction models based on this signature similarly classified T2D. In an independent cohort (FoCus), disruption of microbial oscillation and the model for T2D classification was confirmed in 1,363 subjects. This arrhythmic risk signature was able to predict T2D in 699 KORA subjects 5 years after initial sampling, being most effective in combination with BMI. Shotgun metagenomic analysis functionally linked 26 metabolic pathways to the diurnal oscillation of gut bacteria. Thus, a cohort-specific risk pattern of arrhythmic taxa enables classification and prediction of T2D, suggesting a functional link between circadian rhythms and the microbiome in metabolic diseases.

18.
Microorganisms ; 8(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290101

RESUMO

The analysis of the gut microbiome with respect to health care prevention and diagnostic purposes is increasingly the focus of current research. We analyzed around 2000 stool samples from the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) cohort using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing representing a total microbial diversity of 2089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). We evaluated the combination of three different components to assess the reflection of obesity related to microbiota profiles: (i) four prediction methods (i.e., partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine regression (SVMReg), random forest (RF), and M5Rules); (ii) five OTU data transformation approaches (i.e., no transformation, relative abundance without and with log-transformation, as well as centered and isometric log-ratio transformations); and (iii) predictions from nine measurements of obesity (i.e., body mass index, three measures of body shape, and five measures of body composition). Our results showed a substantial impact of all three components. The applications of SVMReg and PLS in combination with logarithmic data transformations resulted in considerably predictive models for waist circumference-related endpoints. These combinations were at best able to explain almost 40% of the variance in obesity measurements based on stool microbiota data (i.e., OTUs) only. A reduced loss in predictive performance was seen after sex-stratification in waist-height ratio compared to other waist-related measurements. Moreover, our analysis showed that the contribution of OTUs less prevalent and abundant is minor concerning the predictive power of our models.

19.
Mov Disord ; 35(7): 1245-1248, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impaired lysosomal degradation of α-synuclein and other cellular constituents may play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Rare genetic variants in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene were consistently associated with PD. Here we examine the association between rare variants in lysosomal candidate genes and PD. METHODS: We investigated the association between PD and rare genetic variants in 23 lysosomal candidate genes in 4096 patients with PD and an equal number of controls using pooled targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Genewise association of rare variants in cases or controls was analyzed using the optimized sequence kernel association test with Bonferroni correction for the 23 tested genes. RESULTS: We confirm the association of rare variants in GBA with PD and report novel associations for rare variants in ATP13A2, LAMP1, TMEM175, and VPS13C. CONCLUSION: Rare variants in selected lysosomal genes, first and foremost GBA, are associated with PD. Rare variants in ATP13A2 and VPC13C previously linked to monogenic PD and more common variants in TMEM175 and VPS13C previously linked to sporadic PD in genome-wide association studies are associated with PD. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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