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1.
J Inorg Biochem ; 203: 110903, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683124

RESUMO

Three water-soluble tris-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)(phen)(bpg)]2+ (1), [Ru(bpy)(dppz)(bpg)]2+ (2), and [Ru(phen)(dppz)(bpg)]2+ (3) (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine, bpg = 4b,5,7,7a-tetrahydro-4b,7a-epiminomethanoimino-6H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1,10] phenanthroline-6,13-dione) have been synthesized and characterized. Molecular structures of complexes 1 and 3 are confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. Interaction of complexes 1-3 with DNA is explored by various spectroscopic techniques. The complexes 1-3 show solvent dependent photophysical properties. Complexes 2 and 3 show extensive "molecular light switch" effect for DNA. The complexes 1-3 are low toxic towards HeLa (human cervical cancer) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cell lines. Further, the cellular uptake of complexes 2 and 3 by cells shows that complexes mainly localised on the nucleus of the cells.

2.
ACS Omega ; 3(8): 10296-10305, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198006

RESUMO

Donor-acceptor systems forming exciplexes are versatile models for the study of magnetic field effects (MFEs) on charge recombination reactions. The MFEs originate from singlet-triplet interconversion within transient radical ion pairs (RIPs), which exist in a dynamic equilibrium with the exciplexes. Here, we describe the synthesis and MFEs of the chain-linked N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA)/9-methylanthracene (MAnt) donor-acceptor system MAnt-(CH2) n -O-CH2-CH2-DMA for n = 6, 8, 10, and 16. The MFEs are found to increase with increasing chain length. Effects as large as 37.5% have been observed for the long-chain compound with n = 16. The solvent dependence of the MFEs at magnetic field intensity 75 mT is reported. For the range of solvent static dielectric constants εs = 6.0-36.0, the MFEs go through a maximum for intermediate polarities, for which the direct formation of RIPs prevails and their dissociation and reencounter are balanced. Field-resolved measurements (MARY spectra) are reported for solutions in butyronitrile. The MARY spectra reveal that for n = 8, 10, 16, the average exchange interaction is negligible during the coherent lifetime of the radical pair. However, singlet-triplet dephasing broadens the lineshape; the shorter the linker, the more pronounced this effect is. For n = 6, a dip in the fluorescence intensity reveals a nonzero average exchange coupling of the order of ±5 mT. We discuss the field-dependence in the framework of the semiclassical theory taking spin-selective recombination, singlet-triplet dephasing, and exchange coupling into account. Singlet recombination rates of the order of 0.1 ns-1 and various degrees of singlet-triplet dephasing govern the spin dynamics. In addition, because of a small free energy gap between the exciplex and the locally excited fluorophore quencher pair, a fully reversible interconversion between the RIP, exciplex, and locally excited fluorophore is revealed by spectrally resolved MFE measurements for the long-chain systems (n = 10, 16).

3.
Chemphyschem ; 18(20): 2932-2938, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745418

RESUMO

An experimental and theoretical study on hydrogen-atom transfer dynamics in the hydrogen-bonded substituted phenol/phenoxyl complex of the blue aroxyl (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl) is presented. The experimental exchange dynamics is determined in different organic solvents from the temperature-dependent alternating line-width effect in the continuous-wave ESR spectrum. From bent Arrhenius plots, effective tunnelling contributions with parallel heavy-atom motion are concluded. To clarify the transfer mechanism, reaction paths for different conformers of the substituted phenol/phenoxyl complex are modelled theoretically. Various DFT and post-Hartree-Fock methods including multireference methods are applied. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical data it is concluded that the system favours concerted hydrogen-atom transfer along a parabolic reaction path caused by heavy-atom motion.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(17): 6200-6209, 2017 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402115

RESUMO

To address the question whether donor substituents can be utilized to accelerate the hole transfer (HT) between redox sites attached in para- or in meta-positions to a central benzene bridge, we investigated three series of mixed valence compounds based on triarylamine redox centers that are connected to a benzene bridge via alkyne spacers at para- and meta-positions. The electron density at the bridge was tuned by substituents with different electron donating or accepting character. By analyzing optical spectra and by DFT computations we show that the HT properties are independent of bridge substituents for one of the meta-series, while donor substituents can strongly decrease the intrinsic barrier in the case of the para-series. In stark contrast, temperature-dependent ESR measurements demonstrate a dramatic increase of both the apparent barrier and the rate of HT for strong donor substituents in the para-cases. This is caused by an unprecedented substituent-dependent change of the HT mechanism from that described by transition state theory to a regime controlled by solvent dynamics. For solvents with slow longitudinal relaxation (PhNO2, oDCB), this adds an additional contribution to the intrinsic barrier via the dielectric relaxation process. Attaching the donor substituents to the bridge at positions where the molecular orbital coefficients are large accelerates the HT rate for meta-conjugated compounds just as for the para-series. This effect demonstrates that the para-meta paradigm no longer holds if appropriate substituents and substitution patterns are chosen, thereby considerably broadening the applicability of meta-topologies for optoelectronic applications.

5.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(12): 2677-2683, 2017 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263599

RESUMO

External magnetic fields can impact recombination yields of photoinduced electron transfer reactions by affecting the spin dynamics in transient, spin-correlated radical pair intermediates. For exciplex-forming donor-acceptor systems, this magnetic field effect (MFE) can be investigated sensitively by studying the delayed recombination fluorescence. Here, we investigate the effect of preferential solvation in microheterogeneous solvent mixtures on the radical pair dynamics of the system 9,10-dimethylanthracene (fluorophore)/N,N-dimethylaniline (quencher) by means of time-resolved magnetic field effect (TR-MFE) measurements, wherein the exciplex emission is recorded in the absence and the presence of an external magnetic field using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). In microheterogeneous environments, the MFE of the exciplex emission occurs on a faster time scale than in iso-dielectric homogeneous solvents. In addition, the local polarity reported by the exciplex is enhanced compared to homogeneous solvent mixtures of the same macroscopic permittivity. Detailed analyses of the TR-MFE reveal that the quenching reaction directly yielding the radical ion pair is favored in microheterogeneous environments. This is in stark contrast to homogeneous media, for which the MFE predominantly involves direct formation of the exciplex, its subsequent dissociation to the magneto-sensitive radical pair, and re-encounters. These observations provide evidence for polar microdomains and enhanced caging, which are shown to have a significant impact on the reaction dynamics in microheterogeneous binary solvents.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(8): 6274-6285, 2017 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28195278

RESUMO

The effect of multiple light excitation events on bimolecular photo-induced electron transfer reactions in liquid solution is studied experimentally. It is found that the decay of fluorescence can be up to 25% faster if a second photon is absorbed after a first cycle of quenching and recombination. A theoretical model is presented which ascribes this effect to the enrichment of the concentration of quenchers in the immediate vicinity of fluorophores that have been previously excited. Despite its simplicity, the model delivers a qualitative agreement with the observed experimental trends. The original theory by Burshtein and Igoshin (J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 10930-10940) was created for continuous light excitation though. A qualitative extrapolation from the here presented pulse experiments to the continuous excitation conditions lead us to conclude that in the latter the order of magnitude of the increase of the quenching efficiency upon increasing the light intensity of excitation, must also be on the order of tens of percent. These results mean that the rate constant for photo-induced bimolecular reactions depends not only on the usual known factors, such as temperature, viscosity and other properties of the medium, but also on the intensity of the excitation light.

7.
Chemphyschem ; 18(10): 1288-1292, 2017 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28233947

RESUMO

A binary system of two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][NTf2 ] and [OMA][NTf2 ], respectively), with varying molar fractions, is introduced. It allows the dynamic viscosity to remain constant over a range of almost 60 K; this means that any activated process can be studied independent of the temperature dependence of viscosity itself. This principle is proven upon reinvestigation of electron self-exchange kinetics of tetrathiafulvalene by continuous-wave ESR line-broadening experiments. From these results, it is also confirmed that this process is totally diffusion controlled.

8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 166: 28-34, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855305

RESUMO

Photooxidation kinetics of phenol, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, tyrosine (TyrOH) and N-acetyl-tyrosine (AcTyrOH), tryptophan (TrpH) by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 (1), [Ru(phen)3]Cl2 (2), [Ru(bpy)(phen)(bpg)]Cl2 (3), and [Ru(dpq)2(bxbg)]Cl2 (4) where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, phen - 1,10-phenanthroline, bpg - bipyridine-glycoluril, dpq - dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline, and bxbg - bis(o-xylene)bipyridine-glycoluril are investigated. Rate constants have been measured by steady-state luminescence and phase-modulation fluorometry in aqueous solutions at different pH's. The rates for the oxidation of the phenols and phenolic aromatic amino acids spreads over a wide range from 4.2×106 to 6.8×109M-1s-1, depending on pH and the nature of solutes. At pH>pKa of the quenchers, the presence of reactive species (PhO-) in the alkaline solutions is accounted for the rapid ET rates. In the pH range between 4 and 10 (pH

Assuntos
Fenóis/química , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Triptofano/química , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Cinética , Soluções , Água/química
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(27): 18460-9, 2016 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27339434

RESUMO

The properties of binary mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide and glycerol, measured using several techniques, are reported. Special attention is given to those properties contributing or affecting chemical reactions. In this respect the investigated mixture behaves as a relatively simple solvent and it is especially well suited for studies on the influence of viscosity on chemical reactivity. This is due to the relative invariance of the dielectric properties of the mixture. However, special caution must be taken with specific solvation, as the hydrogen-bonding properties of the solvent change with the molar fraction of glycerol.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(40): 27204-9, 2015 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412007

RESUMO

CW-ESR line broadening experiments are used to investigate the kinetics of fast hydrogen atom self-exchange reactions. The system NHPI/PINO˙ was studied in five different aprotic organic solvents at room temperature with a focus on the influence of the viscosity of the medium. Our findings support the theoretical descriptions derived from the statistical dynamics of the impact of the reorganization of the medium. In an Arrhenius type description the influence appears in the preexponential factor as a linear dependence on the dynamic viscosity.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Ftalimidas/química , Piperidinas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Viscosidade
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(12): 4501-11, 2015 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25775000

RESUMO

During the past two decades, several studies have established a significant role played by a thermally activated process in the electron spin relaxation of nitroxyl free radicals in liquid solutions. Its role has been used to explain the spin relaxation behavior of these radicals in a wide range of viscosities and microwave frequencies. However, no temperature dependence of this process has been reported. In this work, our main aim was to investigate the temperature dependence of this process in neat solvents. Electron spin-lattice relaxation times of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and 4-hydroxy-TEMPO (TEMPOL), in X-band microwave frequency, were measured by the pulse saturation recovery technique in three room-temperature ionic liquids ([bmim][BF4], [emim][BF4], and [bmim][PF6]), di-isononyl phthalate, and sec-butyl benzene. The ionic liquids provided a wide range of viscosity in a modest range of temperature. An auxiliary aim was to examine whether the dynamics of a probe molecule dissolved in ionic liquids was different from that in conventional molecular liquids, as claimed in several reports on fluorescence dynamics in ionic liquids. This was the reason for the inclusion of di-isononyl phthalate, whose viscosities are similar to that of the ionic liquids in similar temperatures, and sec-butyl benzene. Rotational correlation times of the nitroxyl radicals were determined from the hyperfine dependence of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line widths. Observation of highly well-resolved proton hyperfine lines, riding over the nitrogen hyperfine lines, in the low viscosity regime in all the solvents, gave more accurate values of the rotational correlation times than the values generally measured in the absence of these hyperfine lines and reported in the literature. The measured rotational correlation times obeyed a modified Stokes-Einstein-Debye relation of temperature dependence in all solvents. By separating the contributions of g-anisotropy, A-anisotropy and spin-rotation interactions from the observed electron spin-lattice relaxation rates, the contribution of the thermally activated process was obtained and compared with its expression for the temperature dependence. Consistent values of various fitted parameters, used in the expression of the thermal process, have been found, and the applicability of the expression of the thermally activated process to describe the temperature dependence in liquid solutions has been vindicated. Moderate solvent dependence of the thermally activated process has also been observed. The rotational correlation times and the spin-lattice relaxation processes of nitroxyls in ionic liquids and in conventional organic liquids are shown to be explicable on a similar footing, requiring no special treatment for ionic liquids.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Temperatura , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Hidroxilamina/química , Nitrogênio/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Prótons , Rotação , Solventes/química , Viscosidade
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(13): 3200-8, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25789609

RESUMO

We report the results of our investigation on the electron spin relaxation mechanism of the monoanion of C60 fullerene in liquid solution. The solvent chosen was carbon disulfide, which is rather uncommon in EPR spectroscopy but proved very useful here because of its liquid state over a wide temperature range. The conditions for exclusive formation of the monoanion of C60 in CS2 were first determined using electrochemical measurements. Using these results, only the monoanion of C60 was prepared by chemical reduction using Hg2I2/Hg as the reducing agent. The EPR line width was measured over a wide temperature range of 120-290 K. The line widths show weak dependence on temperature, changing by a factor of only about 2, over this temperature range. We show that the observed temperature dependence does not obey the Kivelson-Orbach mechanism of electron spin relaxation in liquids, applicable for radicals with low-lying, thermally accessible excited electronic states. The observed temperature dependence can be empirically fitted to an Arrhenius type of exponential function, from which an activation energy of 74 ± 3 cm(-1) is obtained. From the qualitative similarities in the characteristics of the spin relaxation rates of C60 monoanion radical and the cyclohexane type of cation radicals reported in the literature, we propose that a pseudorotation-induced electron spin relaxation process could be operating in the C60 monoanion radical in liquid solution. The low activation energy of 74 cm(-1) observed here is consistent with the pseudorotation barrier of C60 monoanion, estimated from reported Jahn-Teller energy levels.

13.
J Org Chem ; 80(5): 2724-32, 2015 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25642974

RESUMO

Surface-modified titanium dioxides by highly dispersed NiO particles have an extended absorption in the visible light region and a reduced hole-electron pair recombination than unmodified TiO2. They have now been successfully applied as highly active heterogeneous photocatalysts in the visible light mediated direct cyclization of tertiary anilines with maleimides to give tetrahydroquinoline products in moderate to high yields at ambient temperature. In contrast with unmodified titanium dioxide catalysts that are conventionally used in a stoichiometric amount in combination with UVA light, only a catalytic amount (1 mol %) of the surface-modified TiO2 catalyst is needed along with visible light to efficiently catalyze the reaction. Compared with transition-metal complexes such as Ru(bpy)3Cl2 or Ir(ppy)2(dtbbpy)PF6, advantages of these surface-modified titanium dioxides as photocatalyst include high catalytic activity, low cost, ease of recovering, and being able to be used for at least nine times without significant decay of catalytic activity.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/síntese química , Maleimidas/síntese química , Níquel/química , Titânio/química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Catálise , Ciclização , Luz , Maleimidas/química , Fotoquímica
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(18): 3188-3194, 2014 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25243054

RESUMO

Many donor-acceptor systems can undergo a photoinduced charge separation reaction, yielding loose ion pairs (LIPs). LIPs can be formed either directly via (distant) electron transfer (ET) or indirectly via the dissociation of an initially formed exciplex or tight ion pair. Establishing the prevalence of one of the reaction pathways is challenging because differentiating initially formed exciplexes from LIPs is difficult due to similar spectroscopic footprints. Hence, no comprehensive reaction model has been established for moderately polar solvents. Here, we employ an approach based on the time-resolved magnetic field effect (MFE) of the delayed exciplex luminescence to distinguish the two reaction channels. We focus on the effects of the driving force of ET and the solvent permittivity. We show that, surprisingly, the exciplex channel is significant even for an exergonic ET system with a free energy of ET of -0.58 eV and for the most polar solutions studied (butyronitrile). Our findings demonstrate that exciplexes play a crucial role even in polar solvents and at moderate driving forces, contrary to what is usually assumed.

15.
J Mol Model ; 20(7): 2344, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992990

RESUMO

The triplet-triplet absorption spectra of three newly synthesized N-substituted 4,5,6,7-tetrachlorophthalimides (TCP) were measured experimentally and calculated with density functional theory. The heavy atom effect increases the intersystem crossing rate, and the transient triplet absorbance could be measured. Fluorescence emission was not observed. The transient absorption spectra show two peaks in the region of 385-410 nm and 770-830 nm having a red shift with increasing size of N substituent. The singlet and triplet states and their vertical transitions were investigated theoretically by NEVPT2/CASSCF(12,9) and CAM-B3LYP methods for a benchmark molecule N-Phenyl-maleimide, and by CAM-B3LYP for N-Phenyl-TCP. It is shown that the singlet excited S1 state and the pi-pi* triplet state have similar geometries, thus intersystem crossing is most likely for N-Phenyl-TCP. No crossing between the singlet ground state and the singlet excited states could be found on the linear synchronous transit paths of S0-S1-T1-S0 states using CAM-B3LYP method. The computed singlet ground state absorption and triple-triplet absorption spectra agree well with the experimental ones, in both spectra the first state is a pi-pi* state while the second state is the n-pi* state with an energetic difference of 0.1 eV.

16.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(27): 4966-74, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24926567

RESUMO

The photo-oxidation of purine nucleotides adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) by 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid (TCBP) has been investigated in aqueous solutions using nanosecond laser flash photolysis (LFP) and time-resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP). The pH dependences of quenching rate constants and of geminate polarization are measured within a wide range of pH values. As a result, the chemical reactivity of reacting species in different protonation states is determined. In acidic solution (pH < 4.9), the quenching rate constant is close to the diffusion-controlled limit: kq = 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) (GMP), and kq = 1.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) (AMP), whereas in neutral and basic solutions it is significantly lower: kq = 2.6 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (GMP, 4.9 < pH < 9.4), kq = 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) (GMP, pH > 9.4), kq = 1.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (AMP, pH > 6.5). Surprisingly, the strong influence of the protonation state of the phosphoric group on the oxidation of adenosine-5'-monophosphate is revealed: the deprotonation of the AMP phosphoric group (6.5) decreases the quenching rate constant from 5.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (4.9 < pH < 6.5) to 1.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (pH > 6.5).


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nucleotídeos de Purina/química , Oxirredução , Soluções , Água/química
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 118: 138-45, 2014 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24051282

RESUMO

The exciplex emission spectra of N-ethylcarbazole with 1,2-dicyanobenzene (NEC/1,2-DCB), N-methylcarbazole with 1,2-dicyanobenzene (NMC/1,2-DCB), 1,3-dicyanobenzene (NMC/1,3-DCB), and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (NMC/1,4-DCB) are studied in tetrahydrofuran (THF) for the temperature range starting from 253 K to 334 K. Thermochromic shifts along with the spectral properties including change in peak intensities and the ratio of exciplex peak intensity to fluorophore peak intensity are studied. Effect of temperature on the energy of zero-zero transitions hνo('), Huang-Rhys factor (S), Gauss broadening of vibronic level (σ) and the dominant high-frequency vibration (hνν) are also part of investigation. Enthalpy of exciplex formation (ΔH(EX)(∗)) calculated by the model proposed by A. Weller and the Gibb's energy of electron transfer (ΔG(et)(∗)) for all exciplex systems are also discussed in the present paper. All the exciplexes under study were observed to be dipolar in nature. The exciplex of the N-methylcarbazole/1,4-dicyanobenzene was found to be the most stable and the N-methylcarbazole/1,3-dicyanobenzene was the weakest exciplex system.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Furanos/química , Nitrilos/química , Elétrons , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Termodinâmica
18.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(2): 339-49, 2014 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24354419

RESUMO

The kinetics of the photooxidation of aromatic amino acids histidine (His), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp) by 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (TCBP) has been investigated in aqueous solutions using time-resolved laser flash photolysis and time-resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization. The pH dependence of quenching rate constants is measured within a large pH range. The chemical reactivities of free His, Trp, and Tyr and of their acetylated derivatives, N-AcHis, N-AcTyr, and N-AcTrp, toward TCBP triplets are compared to reveal the influence of amino group charge on the oxidation of aromatic amino acids. The bimolecular rate constants of quenching reactions between the triplet-excited TCBP in the fully deprotonated state and tryptophan, histidine, and tyrosine with a positively charged amino group are kq = 2.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) (4.9 < pH < 9.4), kq = 1.6 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) (6.0 < pH < 9.2), and kq = 1.5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) (4.9 < pH < 9.0), respectively. Tryptophan, histidine, and tyrosine with a neutral amino group quench the TCBP triplets with the corresponding rate constants kq = 8.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (pH > 9.4), kq = 3.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (pH > 9.2), and kq = (4.0-10.0) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) (9.0 < pH < 10.1) that are close to those for the N-acetylated derivatives. Thus, it has been established that the presence of charged amino group changes oxidation rates by a significant factor; i.e., His with a positively charged amino group quenches the TCBP triplets 5 times more effectively than N-AcHis and His with a neutral amino group. The efficiency of quenching reaction between the TCBP triplets and Tyr and Trp with a positively charged amino group is about 3 times as high as that of both Tyr and Trp with a neutral amino group, N-AcTyr and N-AcTrp.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Aromáticos/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(40): 15144-52, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041160

RESUMO

We describe the experimental investigation of time-resolved magnetic field effects in exciplex-forming organic donor-acceptor systems. In these systems, the photoexcited acceptor state is predominantly deactivated by bimolecular electron transfer reactions (yielding radical ion pairs) or by direct exciplex formation. The delayed fluorescence emitted by the exciplex is magnetosensitive if the reaction pathway involves loose radical ion pair states. This magnetic field effect results from the coherent interconversion between the electronic singlet and triplet radical ion pair states as described by the radical pair mechanism. By monitoring the changes in the exciplex luminescence intensity when applying external magnetic fields, details of the reaction mechanism can be elucidated. In this work we present results obtained with the fluorophore-quencher pair 9,10-dimethylanthracene/N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in solvents of systematically varied permittivity. A simple theoretical model is introduced that allows discriminating the initial state of quenching, viz., the loose ion pair and the exciplex, based on the time-resolved magnetic field effect. The approach is validated by applying it to the isotopologous fluorophore-quencher pairs pyrene/DMA and pyrene-d10/DMA. We detect that both the exciplex and the radical ion pair are formed during the initial quenching stage. Upon increasing the solvent polarity, the relative importance of the distant electron transfer quenching increases. However, even in comparably polar media, the exciplex pathway remains remarkably significant. We discuss our results in relation to recent findings on the involvement of exciplexes in photoinduced electron transfer reactions.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(33): 7655-60, 2013 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906227

RESUMO

The photo-oxidation of the nucleobase, thymine (Thy), and nucleoside, thymidine (dThy), by dipyridyl (DP) has been investigated in aqueous solution using time-resolved laser flash photolysis. The pH dependence of the oxidation rate constants is measured within a large pH scale. As a consequence, the chemical reactivity of the reactants existing in solution at a certain range of pH is predicted. Bimolecular rate constants of the quenching reactions between triplet dipyridyl and thymine and thymidine are, respectively, kq = 2.4 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) (pH < 5.8) and kq = 1.0 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) (5.8 < pH < 9.8). Cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the potentials of thymine oxidation and dipyridyl reduction in water at pH < 7. Both results give hints for a proton coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reaction from thymine to triplet dipyridyl.


Assuntos
2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Timidina/química , Timina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Soluções , Água/química
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