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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association of magnesium levels with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) despite emerging evidence of magnesium contributing to vascular calcification. Moreover, no data are available on whether the magnesium-PAD relationship is independent of or modified by kidney function. METHODS: A cohort of 11 839 participants free of PAD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 2 (1990-92) was studied. We investigated the association of serum magnesium and other bone-mineral metabolism markers [calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and intact fibroblast growth factor-23] with incident PAD using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Over a median of 23 years, there were 471 cases of incident PAD. The hazard ratio for incident PAD in Quartile 1 (<1.5 mEq/L) versus Quartile 4 (>1.7 mEq/L) of magnesium was 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.40-2.74) after adjustment for potential confounders. Lower magnesium levels were associated with greater incidence of PAD, particularly in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 11 606). In contrast, the association was largely flat in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 233) with P-for-interaction 0.03. Among bone-mineral metabolism markers, only higher iPTH showed an interaction with kidney function (P-for-interaction 0.01) and iPTH >65 pg/mL was significantly related to PAD only in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS: Lower magnesium was independently associated with incident PAD, but this association was significantly weaker in those with reduced kidney function. In contrast, higher iPTH levels were particularly related to PAD risk in this clinical population.

2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150237

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether and when angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) treatment should be discontinued in individuals with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Objective: To investigate the association of ACE-I or ARB therapy discontinuation after eGFR decreases to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 with the risk of mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study included 3909 patients from an integrated health care system that served rural areas of central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Patients who initiated ACE-I or ARB therapy from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2018, and had an eGFR decrease to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 during therapy were enrolled, with follow-up until January 25, 2019. Exposures: Individuals were classified based on whether they discontinued ACE-I or ARB therapy within 6 months after an eGFR decrease to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between ACE-I or ARB therapy discontinuation and mortality during the subsequent 5 years was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for patient characteristics at the time of the eGFR decrease in a propensity score-matched sample. Secondary outcomes included MACE and ESKD. Results: Of the 3909 individuals receiving ACE-I or ARB treatment who experienced an eGFR decrease to below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (2406 [61.6%] female; mean [SD] age, 73.7 [12.6] years), 1235 discontinued ACE-I or ARB therapy within 6 months after the eGFR decrease and 2674 did not discontinue therapy. A total of 434 patients (35.1%) who discontinued ACE-I or ARB therapy and 786 (29.4%) who did not discontinue therapy died during a median follow-up of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 1.3-5.0 years). In the propensity score-matched sample of 2410 individuals, ACE-I or ARB therapy discontinuation was associated with a higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.60]) and MACE (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20-1.56), but no statistically significant difference in the risk of ESKD was found (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.86-1.65). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that continuing ACE-I or ARB therapy in patients with declining kidney function may be associated with cardiovascular benefit without excessive harm of ESKD.

3.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(3): 311-319, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to detrimental health effects. This study aimed to describe the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and kidney disease, including eGFR, level of albuminuria, and incident CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The study included 10,997 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who were followed from 1996-1998 through 2016. Monthly mean PM2.5 concentrations (µg/m3) were estimated at geocoded participant addresses using geographic information system-based, spatiotemporal generalized additive mixed models-including geospatial covariates such as land use-and then averaged over the 12-month period preceding participant examination. Covariate-adjusted, cross-sectional associations of PM2.5, baseline eGFR, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) were estimated using linear regression. PM2.5 and incident CKD (defined as follow-up eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with ≥25% eGFR decline relative to baseline, CKD-related hospitalization or death based on International Classification of Diseases 9/10 codes, or development of ESKD) associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Modeling was stratified by study site, and stratum-specific estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Baseline mean participant age was 63 (±6) years and eGFR was 86 (±16) ml/min per 1.73 m2. There was no significant PM2.5-eGFR association at baseline. Each 1-µg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher UACR after adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and clinical covariates (percentage difference, 6.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.6% to 10.7%). Each 1-µg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with a significantly higher risk of incident CKD (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to higher annual average PM2.5 concentrations was associated with a higher level of albuminuria and higher risk for incident CKD in a community-based cohort.

4.
Kidney Int ; 97(3): 477-486, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001066

RESUMO

With the increasing availability of linked electronic health records, long-running cohorts, and high-throughput technologies, the potential for epidemiology research to improve the care of patients with kidney disease is greater than ever before. In this review, we highlight the application of epidemiology techniques to identify, evaluate, and address chronic kidney disease. We discuss studies that inform guidelines, identify health disparities, evaluate the genetic basis of disease, and relate data on omics, such as proteomics, metabolomics, and genetics, to outcomes. We describe how observational data have been used to facilitate the conduct of randomized controlled trials through enhanced identification of high-risk individuals and the evaluation of surrogate kidney disease outcomes as well as to address clinical questions where randomized controlled trials are impractical or infeasible. Finally, we discuss consumer engagement in research, including that of patients, policymakers, payers, and health care system, and the role of kidney disease epidemiology research in implementation science and as a key source of data and methodology for precision medicine.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(2): 405-414, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome is a well known concept, bolstered by extensive investigations of CKD as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. However, data on whether cardiovascular disease increases long-term risk of ESKD are sparse. METHODS: We assessed the association of incident hospitalization with major cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and stroke) with subsequent risk of ESKD among individuals enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study; the analysis included 9047 individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at their fourth study visit. Each relevant incident cardiovascular disease event was entered into multivariable Cox proportional hazard models as a time-varying exposure to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 17.5 years, there were 2598 cases of hospitalization with cardiovascular disease (heart failure, n=1269; atrial fibrillation, n=1337; coronary heart disease, n=696; and stroke, n=559) and 210 cases of incident ESKD. The incidence of major cardiovascular disease was associated with increased risk of ESKD, with the highest risk for heart failure (hazard ratio, 11.40; 95% confidence interval, 8.38 to 15.50), followed by coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. When we analyzed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction separately, the risk was nominally higher for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Major incident cardiovascular disease events were associated with ESKD, independent of kidney risk factors. In particular, heart failure showed a very strong association with ESKD. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring and managing kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular disease. The potentially distinct contribution to ESKD of heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction deserves future investigation.

6.
Kidney Int ; 97(1): 42-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706619

RESUMO

Potassium disorders are common in patients with kidney disease, particularly in patients with tubular disorders and low glomerular filtration rate. A multidisciplinary group of researchers and clinicians met in October 2018 to identify evidence and address controversies in potassium management. The issues discussed encompassed our latest understanding of the regulation of tubular potassium excretion in health and disease; the relationship of potassium intake to cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, with increasing evidence showing beneficial associations with plant-based diet and data to suggest a paradigm shift from the idea of dietary restriction toward fostering patterns of eating that are associated with better outcomes; the paucity of data on the effect of dietary modification in restoring abnormal serum potassium to the normal range; a novel diagnostic algorithm for hypokalemia that takes into account the ascendency of the clinical context in determining cause, aligning the educational strategy with a practical approach to diagnosis; and therapeutic approaches in managing hyperkalemia when chronic and in the emergency or hospital ward. In sum, we provide here our conference deliberations on potassium homeostasis in health and disease, guidance for evaluation and management of dyskalemias in the context of kidney diseases, and research priorities in each of the above areas.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(1): 95-101, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that treatment with metformin be considered for prevention of type 2 diabetes in persons with prediabetes. However, metformin use outside the setting of diagnosed diabetes in US adults is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in self-reported prediabetes and treatment with metformin. We also compared characteristics of adults self-reported prediabetes who were vs. were not taking metformin. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults ≥ 20 years of age who participated in the 2005-2014 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES), n = 28,461. APPROACH: We characterized trends in self-reported prediabetes and metformin use in this population. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify predictors of metformin use among adults with self-reported prediabetes. All analyses accounted for the weighted complex survey design to generate nationally representative estimates. KEY RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported prediabetes increased from 5.1% in 2005-2006 to 7.4% in 2013-2014 (P-for-trend < 0.001). In persons with self-reported prediabetes, metformin use increased, from 2.4 to 8.3% (P-for-trend = 0.013). Adults who were taking metformin were more likely to be obese and to report trying to lose weight in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported prediabetes has increased in the past decade. Metformin use in the setting of prediabetes has also increased but remains relatively uncommon at 8% in adults who self-report prediabetes, despite current clinical recommendations.

8.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(1): 84-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473020

RESUMO

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) are currently willing to consider a 30% to 40% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline as a surrogate end point for kidney failure for clinical trials of kidney disease progression under appropriate conditions. However, these end points may not be practical for early stages of kidney disease. In March 2018, the National Kidney Foundation sponsored a scientific workshop in collaboration with the FDA and EMA to evaluate changes in albuminuria or GFR as candidate surrogate end points. Three parallel efforts were presented: meta-analyses of observational studies (cohorts), meta-analyses of clinical trials, and simulations of trial design. In cohorts, after accounting for measurement error, relationships between change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) or estimated GFR (eGFR) slope and the clinical outcome of kidney disease progression were strong and consistent. In trials, the posterior median R2 of treatment effects on the candidate surrogates with the clinical outcome was 0.47 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 0.02-0.96) for early change in UACR and 0.72 (95% BCI, 0.05-0.99) when restricted to baseline UACR>30mg/g, and 0.97 (95% BCI, 0.78-1.00) for total eGFR slope at 3 years and 0.96 (95% BCI, 0.63-1.00) for chronic eGFR slope (ie, the slope excluding the first 3 months from baseline, when there might be acute changes in eGFR). The magnitude of the relationships of changes in the candidate surrogates with risk for clinical outcome was consistent across cohorts and trials: a UACR reduction of 30% or eGFR slope reduction by 0.5 to 1.0mL/min/1.73m2 per year were associated with an HR of ∼0.7 for the clinical outcome in cohorts and trials. In simulations, using GFR slope as an end point substantially reduced the required sample size and duration of follow-up compared with the clinical end point when baseline eGFR was high, treatment effects were uniform, and there was no acute effect of the treatment. We conclude that both early change in albuminuria and GFR slope fulfill criteria for surrogacy for use as end points in clinical trials for chronic kidney disease progression under certain conditions, with stronger support for change in GFR than albuminuria. Implementation requires understanding conditions under which each surrogate is likely to perform well and restricting its use to those settings.

9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(1): 102-116, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GSTM1 encodes glutathione S-transferase µ-1 (GSTM1), which belongs to a superfamily of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes. The highly prevalent GSTM1 deletion variant is associated with kidney disease progression in human cohorts: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: We generated a Gstm1 knockout mouse line to study its role in a CKD model (involving subtotal nephrectomy) and a hypertension model (induced by angiotensin II). We examined the effect of intake of cruciferous vegetables and GSTM1 genotypes on kidney disease in mice as well as in human ARIC study participants. We also examined the importance of superoxide in the mediating pathways and of hematopoietic GSTM1 on renal inflammation. RESULTS: Gstm1 knockout mice displayed increased oxidative stress, kidney injury, and inflammation in both models. The central mechanism for kidney injury is likely mediated by oxidative stress, because treatment with Tempol, an superoxide dismutase mimetic, rescued kidney injury in knockout mice without lowering BP. Bone marrow crosstransplantation revealed that Gstm1 deletion in the parenchyma, and not in bone marrow-derived cells, drives renal inflammation. Furthermore, supplementation with cruciferous broccoli powder rich in the precursor to antioxidant-activating sulforaphane significantly ameliorated kidney injury in Gstm1 knockout, but not wild-type mice. Similarly, among humans (ARIC study participants), high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with fewer kidney failure events compared with low consumption, but this association was observed primarily in participants homozygous for the GSTM1 deletion variant. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support a role for the GSTM1 enzyme in the modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and protective metabolites in CKD.

10.
J Ren Nutr ; 30(1): 22-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): Moderate alcohol consumption has been found to be associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, which share similar risk factors and pathophysiology with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is inconsistent evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and CKD. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 12,692 participants aged 45-64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We categorized participants into 6 alcohol consumption categories: never drinkers, former drinkers, ≤1 drink per week, 2 to 7 drinks per week, 8 to 14 drinks per week, and ≥15 drinks per week based on food frequency questionnaire responses at visit 1 (1987-1989). Incident CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 accompanied by ≥25% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, a kidney disease-related hospitalization or death or end-stage renal disease. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 24 years, there were 3,664 cases of incident CKD. Current drinkers were more likely to be men, whites, and to have a higher income level and education level. After adjusting for total energy intake, age, sex, race-center, income, education level, health insurance, smoking, and physical activity, there was no significant association between being a former drinker and risk of incident CKD. Participants who drank ≤1 drink per week, 2 to 7 drinks per week, 8 to 14 drinks per week, and ≥15 drinks per week had, respectively, a 12% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.97), 20% (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89), 29% (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62-0.83), and 23% (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.91) lower risk of CKD compared with never drinkers. CONCLUSION(S): Consuming a low or moderate amount of alcohol may lower the risk of developing CKD. Therefore, moderate consumption of alcohol may not likely be harmful to the kidneys.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813664

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults but particularly for older adults and those with high-risk conditions. Reduced kidney function is an important high-risk condition, but the effectiveness of influenza vaccination across kidney function is uncharacterized. We assessed the effectiveness of influenza vaccination among older adults with and without reduced kidney function. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 454,634 person-seasons among 110,968 individuals 65 years or older in the Geisinger Health System between the 2005 and 2015 influenza seasons, with baseline characteristics matched between those with and without vaccination using inverse probability weighting. EXPOSURES: Status of influenza vaccination. OUTCOMES: Incident hospitalization with pneumonia/influenza, coronary heart disease, and heart failure during influenza season stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; ≥ 60, 30-59, and < 30mL/min/1.73m2). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Pooled logistic regression analysis to estimate adjusted ORs. RESULTS: In the 2014-2015 influenza season, the prevalence of influenza vaccination was 63.3% without evident difference across eGFR categories. The incidence of hospitalization was higher in lower eGFRs (eg, 2.2% per person-season among those not vaccinated with eGFR < 30 vs 0.7% with ≥ 60mL/min/1.73m2 for pneumonia/influenza). Overall, influenza vaccination was associated with lower odds of hospitalization with pneumonia/influenza (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93), coronary heart disease (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97), and heart failure (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99). When assessing by eGFR categories, the association was consistent in eGFR ≥ 30, but not significant in < 30mL/min/1.73m2 (ORs of 1.04 [95% CI, 0.79-1.36] for pneumonia/influenza, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.87-1.23] for coronary heart disease, and 1.10 [95% CI, 0.92-1.33] for heart failure). LIMITATIONS: Possible unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination was associated with lower risk for hospitalizations with pneumonia/influenza and major cardiac diseases in eGFR ≥ 30mL/min/1.73m2. Studies are needed to explore optimal vaccination strategies for eGFR < 30mL/min/1.73m2.

12.
JAMA ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703124

RESUMO

Importance: Early identification of individuals at elevated risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) could improve clinical care through enhanced surveillance and better management of underlying health conditions. Objective: To develop assessment tools to identify individuals at increased risk of CKD, defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual-level data analysis of 34 multinational cohorts from the CKD Prognosis Consortium including 5 222 711 individuals from 28 countries. Data were collected from April 1970 through January 2017. A 2-stage analysis was performed, with each study first analyzed individually and summarized overall using a weighted average. Because clinical variables were often differentially available by diabetes status, models were developed separately for participants with diabetes and without diabetes. Discrimination and calibration were also tested in 9 external cohorts (n = 2 253 540). Exposures: Demographic and clinical factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Among 4 441 084 participants without diabetes (mean age, 54 years, 38% women), 660 856 incident cases (14.9%) of reduced eGFR occurred during a mean follow-up of 4.2 years. Of 781 627 participants with diabetes (mean age, 62 years, 13% women), 313 646 incident cases (40%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 3.9 years. Equations for the 5-year risk of reduced eGFR included age, sex, race/ethnicity, eGFR, history of cardiovascular disease, ever smoker, hypertension, body mass index, and albuminuria concentration. For participants with diabetes, the models also included diabetes medications, hemoglobin A1c, and the interaction between the 2. The risk equations had a median C statistic for the 5-year predicted probability of 0.845 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.789-0.890) in the cohorts without diabetes and 0.801 (IQR, 0.750-0.819) in the cohorts with diabetes. Calibration analysis showed that 9 of 13 study populations (69%) had a slope of observed to predicted risk between 0.80 and 1.25. Discrimination was similar in 18 study populations in 9 external validation cohorts; calibration showed that 16 of 18 (89%) had a slope of observed to predicted risk between 0.80 and 1.25. Conclusions and Relevance: Equations for predicting risk of incident chronic kidney disease developed from more than 5 million individuals from 34 multinational cohorts demonstrated high discrimination and variable calibration in diverse populations. Further study is needed to determine whether use of these equations to identify individuals at risk of developing chronic kidney disease will improve clinical care and patient outcomes.

13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(11): 1581-1589, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most opioids undergo kidney excretion. The goal of this study was to evaluate opioid-associated risks of death and hospitalization across the range of eGFR. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The study population included adult primary care patients in Geisinger Health (Danville, PA) between 2008 and 2017. People receiving their first opioid prescription were propensity matched to people receiving NSAIDS (and, in sensitivity analysis, gabapentinoids) and the risk of death and hospitalization were compared, classifying opioid medication exposure as time-varying daily oral morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) across time-varying eGFR. RESULTS: The propensity-matched cohort included 46,246 patients prescribed either opioids or NSAIDs between 2008 and 2017 (mean [SD] age, 54 [16] years; 56% female; 3% of black race). Prescriptions for 1-59 and ≥60 MMEs were associated with higher risk of death (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.05 for 1-59 MMEs; HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.79 for ≥60 MMEs) and hospitalization (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.46 for 1-59 MMEs; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.56 to 1.81 for ≥60 MMEs) compared with NSAID prescriptions, when evaluated at eGFR 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The relative risk of death associated with ≥60 MMEs was higher at lower GFR (e.g., eGFR, 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2; HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.70 to 5.75; P for interaction, 0.01). When gabapentinoids were used as the comparison medication, only ≥60 MMEs were significantly associated with higher risk of death (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.34), although both 1-59 and ≥60 MMEs were associated with risk of hospitalization (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.43 for 1-59 MMEs; HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.86 for ≥60 MMEs). CONCLUSIONS: The receipt of prescription opioids was associated with a higher risk of death and hospitalization compared with other pain medications, particularly with higher doses and at lower eGFR.

14.
JAMA ; 322(13): 1294-1304, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573641

RESUMO

Importance: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the 16th leading cause of years of life lost worldwide. Appropriate screening, diagnosis, and management by primary care clinicians are necessary to prevent adverse CKD-associated outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, end-stage kidney disease, and death. Observations: Defined as a persistent abnormality in kidney structure or function (eg, glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria ≥30 mg per 24 hours) for more than 3 months, CKD affects 8% to 16% of the population worldwide. In developed countries, CKD is most commonly attributed to diabetes and hypertension. However, less than 5% of patients with early CKD report awareness of their disease. Among individuals diagnosed as having CKD, staging and new risk assessment tools that incorporate GFR and albuminuria can help guide treatment, monitoring, and referral strategies. Optimal management of CKD includes cardiovascular risk reduction (eg, statins and blood pressure management), treatment of albuminuria (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers), avoidance of potential nephrotoxins (eg, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and adjustments to drug dosing (eg, many antibiotics and oral hypoglycemic agents). Patients also require monitoring for complications of CKD, such as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and anemia. Those at high risk of CKD progression (eg, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria ≥300 mg per 24 hours, or rapid decline in estimated GFR) should be promptly referred to a nephrologist. Conclusions and Relevance: Diagnosis, staging, and appropriate referral of CKD by primary care clinicians are important in reducing the burden of CKD worldwide.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Medição de Risco
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2220-2229, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified incident ACE-I/ARB users with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without end-stage renal disease in the Geisinger Health System between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015. We investigated the associations of CKD stage, hospitalizations with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), serum potassium, bicarbonate level, thiazide, and loop diuretic use with ACE-I/ARB discontinuation. RESULTS: Among the 53,912 ACE-I/ARB users, the mean age was 59.9 years, and 50.6% were female. More than half of users discontinued ACE-I/ARB within 5 years of therapy initiation. The risk of ACE-I/ARB discontinuation increased with more advanced CKD stage. For example, patients who initiated ACE-I/ARB with CKD stage G4 (eGFR: 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) were 2.09-fold (95% CI, 1.87-2.34) more likely to discontinue therapy than those with eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Potassium level greater than 5.3 mEq/L, systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg, bicarbonate level < 22 mmol/L, and intervening hospitalization-particularly AKI-related-were also strong risk factors for ACE-I/ARB discontinuation. Thiazide diuretic use was associated with lower risk, whereas loop diuretic use was associated with higher risk of discontinuation. CONCLUSION: In a real-world cohort, discontinuation of ACE-I/ARB was common, particularly in patients with lower eGFR. Hyperkalemia, hypotension, low bicarbonate level, and hospitalization (AKI-related, in particular) were associated with a higher risk of ACE-I/ARB discontinuation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk-benefit balance of discontinuing ACE-I/ARB in the setting of CKD progression.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(1): 30-39, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of multiplexed aptamer-based assays for large-scale proteomic studies. However, the analytic, short- and long-term variation of the measured proteins is largely uncharacterized. METHODS: We quantified 4001 plasma protein analytes from 42 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in split samples and at multiple visits using a multiplexed modified aptamer assay. We calculated the CV, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) between split samples and evaluated the short-term (4-9 weeks) and long-term (approximately 20 years) variability using paired t-tests with log-transformed protein concentrations and Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. We performed principal component (PC) analysis of protein analyte concentrations and evaluated their associations with age, sex, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: The mean baseline age was 57 years at the first visit, 43% of participants were male and 57% were white. Among 3693 protein analytes that passed quality control, half (n = 1846) had CVs < 5.0%, Spearman correlations > 0.89, and ICCs > 0.96 among the split samples. Over the short term, only 1 analyte had a statistically significant difference between the 2 time points, whereas, over approximately 20 years, 866 analytes (23.4%) had statistically significant differences (P < 1.4 × 10-5, 681 increased, 185 decreased). PC1 had high correlations with age (-0.73) and eGFR (0.60). PC2 had moderate correlation with male sex (0.18) and white race (0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Multiplexed modified aptamer technology can assay thousands of proteins with excellent precision. Our results support the potential for large-scale studies of the plasma proteome over the lifespan.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e012177, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500474

RESUMO

Background There are no available lifetime risk estimates of lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Methods and Results Using data from 6 US community-based cohorts and the vital statistics, we estimated the prevalence and incidence of PAD, defined as an ankle-brachial index < 0.90, at each year of age from birth to 80 years for white, black, and Hispanic men and women. Then, we used Markov Monte Carlo simulations in a simulated cohort of 100 000 individuals to estimate lifetime risk of PAD. On the basis of odds ratios of PAD for traditional atherosclerotic risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and smoking), we developed a calculator providing residual lifetime risk of PAD. In an 80-year horizon, lifetime risks of PAD were 30.0% in black men and 27.6% in black women, but ≈19% in white men and women and ≈22% in Hispanic men and women. From another perspective, 9% of blacks were estimated to develop PAD by 60 years of age, while the same proportion was seen at ≈70 years for whites and Hispanics. The residual lifetime risk within the same race/ethnicity varied by 3.5- to 5-fold according to risk factors (eg, residual lifetime risk in 45-year-old black men was 19.9% when current smoking, diabetes mellitus, and history of cardiovascular disease were absent versus 70.4% when all were present). Conclusions In the United States, ≈30% of blacks are estimated to develop PAD during their lifetime, whereas the corresponding estimate is ≈20% for whites and Hispanics. The residual lifetime risk within the same race/ethnicity substantially varies according to traditional risk factors.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219899, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although hypokalemia has been viewed as a significant concern among patients with heart failure (HF), recent advances in HF management tend to increase the risk of hyperkalemia. OBJECTIVE: To characterize contemporary data regarding correlates and prognostic values of dyskalemia in patients with HF. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we studied 142,087 patients with newly diagnosed HF in US nationwide Veterans Administration database from 2005 through 2013. EXPOSURES: Demographic characteristics, laboratory variables, comorbidities, and medication use for the analysis of correlates of dyskalemia as well as potassium level in the analysis of mortality. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Dyskalemia and mortality. RESULTS: Hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) at baseline was observed in 3.0% of the population, whereas hyperkalemia (≥5.5 mmol/L) was seen in 0.9%. An additional 20.4% and 5.7% had mild hypokalemia (3.5-3.9 mmol/L) and mild hyperkalemia (5.0-5.4 mmol/L). Key correlates were black race, higher blood pressure, and use of potassium-wasting diuretics for hypokalemia, and lower kidney function for hyperkalemia. Baseline potassium levels showed a U-shaped association with mortality, with the lowest risk between 4.0-4.5 mmol/L. With respect to potassium levels over a year after HF diagnosis, persistent (>50% of measurements), intermittent (>1 occurrence but ≤50%), and transient (1 occurrence) hypo- and hyperkalemia were also related to increased mortality in a graded fashion regardless of the aforementioned thresholds for dyskalemia. These dyskalemic patterns were also related to other clinical actions and demands such as emergency room visit. CONCLUSIONS: Potassium levels below 4 mmol/L and above 5 mmol/L at and after HF diagnosis were associated with poor prognosis and the clinical actions. HF patients (particularly with risk factors for dyskalemia like black race and kidney dysfunction) may require special attention for both hypo- and hyperkalemia.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2027-2036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two coding variants in the apo L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with kidney disease in blacks. Kidney disease itself increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether these variants have an independent direct effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. Previous studies have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of APOL1 kidney-risk variants with adjudicated cardiovascular disease events and death, independent of kidney measures. The analysis included 21,305 blacks from eight large cohorts. RESULTS: Over 8.9±5.0 years of follow-up, 2076 incident cardiovascular disease events occurred in the 16,216 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at study enrollment. In fully-adjusted analyses, individuals possessing two APOL1 kidney-risk variants had similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.28) compared to individuals with zero or one kidney-risk variant. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure considered individually was also comparable by APOL1 genotype. APOL1 genotype was also not associated with death. There was no difference in adjusted associations by level of kidney function, age, diabetes status, or body-mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis, APOL1 kidney-risk variants were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease or death independent of kidney measures.

20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 713-721, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to healthy dietary patterns, measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and alternate Mediterranean diet (aMed) scores, is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between these scores and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is undetermined. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the association between the HEI, AHEI, and aMed scores and risk of incident CKD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis in 12,155 participants aged 45-64 y from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We calculated HEI-2015, AHEI-2010, and aMed scores for each participant and categorized them into quintiles of each dietary score. Incident CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 accompanied by ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, a kidney disease-related hospitalization or death, or end-stage renal disease. We used cause-specific hazard models to estimate risk of CKD from the quintile of the dietary score through to 31 December 2017. RESULTS: There were 3980 cases of incident CKD over a median follow-up of 24 y. Participants who had higher adherence to the HEI-2015, AHEI-2010, and aMed scores were more likely to be female, have higher educational attainment, higher income level, be nonsmokers, more physically active, and diabetic compared with participants who scored lower. All 3 dietary scores were associated with lower CKD risk (P-trend < 0.001). Participants who were in the highest quintile of HEI-2015 score had a 17% lower risk of CKD (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.92) compared with participants in the lowest quintile. Those in quintile 5 of AHEI-2010 and aMed scores, respectively, had a 20% and 13% lower risk of CKD compared with those in quintile 1. CONCLUSION: Higher adherence to healthy dietary patterns during middle age was associated with lower risk of CKD.

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