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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with solid tumors who undergo chemotherapy have an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation, but a low proportion of these patients are screened for HBV infection and guidelines make conflicting recommendations. Further, the cost-effectiveness of newer treatments for HBV prophylaxis has not been examined for this population. We aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of HBV screening before chemotherapy for patients with solid tumors. METHODS: We compared 3 HBV screening strategies (screen all, screen only high-risk patients, or screen none) using a Markov model of a population of adults in the United States who initiated chemotherapy for a solid tumor. We modeled use of entecavir prophylaxis for HB surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients and surveillance for HBsAg-negative patients who are positive for HBV core antibody. The Markov cycle length was 1 year, with model simulation for up to 5 years. RESULTS: The screen all strategy was the most cost effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $42,761 compared to screening only high-risk patients. The screen none strategy was less effective and less costly than screening all patients or only high-risk patients. The screen-all strategy was the most cost effective for all estimates of prevalence of HBsAg-positive patients and estimates of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive patients. Screening only high-risk patients was the most cost-effective strategy when more than 25% of high-risk patients were screened for HBV infection. CONCLUSIONS: In a Markov model analysis, we found screening all patients with solid tumors for HBV infection before chemotherapy to be the most cost-effective strategy. Guidelines should consider recommending HBV tests for patients initiating chemotherapy.

2.
World J Hepatol ; 10(11): 887-891, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533189

RESUMO

Abdominal pain with elevated transaminases from inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction is a relatively common reason for referral and further workup by a hepatologist. The differential for the cause of IVC obstruction is extensive, and the most common etiologies include clotting disorders or recent trauma. In some situations the common etiologies have been ruled out, and the underlying process for the patient's symptoms is still not explained. We present one unique case of abdominal pain and hepatomegaly secondary to IVC constriction from extrinsic compression of the diaphragm. Based on this patient's presentation, we urge that physicians be cognizant of the IVC diameter and consider extrinsic compression as a contributor to the patient's symptoms. If IVC compression from the diaphragm is confirmed, early referral to vascular surgery is strongly advised for further surgical intervention.

3.
Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) ; 13(7): 421-425, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867970

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has generally been associated with a slightly increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For the past several decades, most patients with chronic HCV cirrhosis have been treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapies, which were known to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) but also carried their own side effects and toxicities. The recent implementation of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatments revealed an increased efficacy in difficult-to-treat populations and higher adherence rates given the all-oral nature of the regimens. However, while these regimens are excellent in terms of improving the side-effect profile and achieving SVR at a higher rate and in a shorter time frame than interferon and ribavirin, some researchers are now discovering an increased rate of de novo and recurrent HCC in patients with HCV cirrhosis compared to interferon treatment protocols. Although other studies were not able to reproduce similar findings, the question as to the role of DAA therapy in HCC occurrence after achieving SVR in patients with HCV cirrhosis continues to persist. Possible theories as to the mechanisms behind tumor relapse after DAA therapy include alterations of immunosurveillance and gene expression, a protective and antineoplastic effect from inflammation secondary to chronic HCV infection that is then abolished with DAA therapy, and delay in radiographic identification of previously undetectable tumors. This article reviews the current literature regarding concern for the possible increase of HCC after DAA therapy.

4.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(11): 2054-2060, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data suggest dietary modification can improve clinical responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an autoimmune protocol diet in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We enrolled adults with active IBD (Harvey-Bradshaw index ≥ 5 or partial Mayo score ≥3 and erosions on endoscopy and/or elevated fecal calprotectin). For the autoimmune protocol, patients underwent 6-week elimination followed by 5-week maintenance phase. Clinical indices, laboratories, and biomarkers were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 11. Endoscopy was performed at study completion. RESULTS: The final cohort included 15 patients with IBD, with mean disease duration 19 years (SD 14.6) and active biological use in 7 (47%) patients. Nutrient repletion was initiated for deficiencies in vitamin D (n = 3) and iron (n = 6). From week 0 to weeks 6 and 11, mean partial Mayo score significantly improved from 5.8 (SD 1.2) to 1.2 (SD 2.0) and 1.0 (SD 2.0) for ulcerative colitis, and mean Harvey-Bradshaw index significantly improved from 7 (SD 1.5) to 3.6 (SD 2.1) and 3.4 (SD 2.6) for Crohn's disease. C-reactive protein did not significantly change during study. Mean fecal calprotectin improved from 471 (SD 562) to 112 (SD 104) at week 11 (P = 0.12). Among those with follow-up endoscopy at week 11 (n = 7), improvements were noted in simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease (n = 1), Rutgeerts score (n = 1), and Mayo endoscopy subscore (n = 4). DISCUSSION: Dietary elimination can improve symptoms and endoscopic inflammation in patients with IBD. Randomized controlled trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Dieta , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Endoscopia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(2): 665-7, 2011 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21113530

RESUMO

Acid-degradable microcapsules were prepared via an interfacial polymerization. Degradation of the thin wall of the capsules leads to all-or-nothing cargo release. The only byproducts of degradation are acetone, and a non-toxic triamide. Proof-of-concept experiments showed that cargo can be delivered to and released in cells.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Cápsulas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(4): 756-8, 2011 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21171594

RESUMO

Dextran, a water-soluble, biocompatible polymer of glucose, was modified at its hydroxyls with arylboronic esters to make it soluble in common organic solvents, allowing for the facile preparation of oxidation-sensitive dextran (Oxi-DEX) carrier microparticles. These particles were found to release their payload with a half-life of 36 min at 1 mM H2O2, which can be compared with a half-life of greater than 1 week in the absence of H2O2. When used in a model vaccine application, Oxi-DEX particles loaded with ovalbumin (OVA) increased the presentation to CD8+ T-cells 27-fold relative to OVA encapsulated in a classical vehicle not sensitive to oxidation. No presentation was observed from cells incubated with unencapsulated OVA. Additionally, Oxi-DEX was found to be nontoxic in preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Because it is easy to prepare, sensitive to biological oxidation, and biocompatible, this material may represent an attractive new platform for selective delivery applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Dextranos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dextranos/toxicidade , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hidróxidos/química , Camundongos , Ovalbumina/química , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Oxirredução , Solubilidade , Solventes/química
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