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1.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; : 1093526619881541, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635528

RESUMO

We report a term female infant born to nonconsanguineous parents who presented with renal failure at birth, hypothyroidism, cholestasis, and progressive cardiac dysfunction. Multigene next-generation sequencing panels for cholestasis, cardiomyopathy, and cystic renal disease did not reveal a unifying diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in ANKS6 (Ankyrin Repeat and Sterile Alpha Motif Domain Containing 6), which encodes a protein that interacts with other proteins of the Inv compartment of cilium (NEK8, NPHP2/INVS, and NPHP3). ANKS6 has been shown to be important for early renal development and cardiac looping in animal models. Autopsy revealed cystic renal dysplasia and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, disarray, and focal necrosis. Liver histology revealed cholestasis and centrilobular necrosis, which was likely a result of progressive cardiac failure. This is the first report of compound heterozygous variants in ANKS6 leading to a nephronopthisis-related ciliopathy-like phenotype. We conclude that pathogenic variants in ANKS6 may present early in life with severe renal and cardiac failure, similar to subjects with variants in genes encoding other proteins in the Inv compartment of the cilium.

2.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101916, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491833

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a recessive disorder characterized by disruption in the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). Prior research indicates that individuals with PKU have substantial white matter (WM) compromise. Much less is known about gray matter (GM) in PKU, but a small body of research suggests volumetric differences compared to controls. To date, developmental trajectories of GM structure in individuals with PKU have not been examined, nor have trajectories of WM and GM been examined within a single study. To address this gap in the literature, we compared longitudinal brain development over a three-year period in individuals with PKU (n = 35; 18 male) and typically-developing controls (n = 71; 35 male) aged 7-21 years. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we observed whole-brain and regional WM differences between individuals with PKU and controls, which were often exacerbated with increasing age. In marked contrast with trajectories of WM development, trajectories of GM development did not differ between individuals with PKU and controls, indicating that neuropathology in PKU is more prominent in WM than GM. Within individuals with PKU, mediation analyses revealed that whole-brain mean diffusivity (MD) and regional MD in the corpus callosum and centrum semiovale mediated the relationship between dietary treatment compliance (i.e., Phe control) and executive abilities, suggesting a plausible neurobiological mechanism by which Phe control may influence cognitive outcomes. Our findings clarify the specificity, timing, and cognitive consequences of whole-brain and regional WM pathology, with implications for treatment and research in PKU.

3.
J Pediatr ; 214: 165-167.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcome of population-based newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) during the first year of screening in Illinois. STUDY DESIGN: Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) activity in dried blood spot specimens obtained from 162 000 infant samples sent to the Newborn Screening Laboratory of the Illinois Department of Public Health in Chicago. RESULTS: One case of MPS II and 14 infants with pseudodeficiency for I2S were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Newborn screening for MPS II by measurement of I2S enzyme activity was successfully integrated into the statewide newborn screening program in Illinois.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1585-1590, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175705

RESUMO

Cantú syndrome (CS), characterized by hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, and complex cardiovascular abnormalities, is caused by pathogenic variants in ABCC9 and KCNJ8 genes. These genes encode gain-of-function mutations in the regulatory (SUR2) and pore-forming (Kir6.1) subunits of KATP channels, respectively, suggesting that channel-blocking sulfonylureas could be a viable therapy. Here we report a neonate with CS, carrying a heterozygous ABCC9 variant (c.3347G>A, p.Arg1116His), born prematurely at 32 weeks gestation. Initial echocardiogram revealed a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and high pulmonary pressures with enlarged right ventricle. He initially received surfactant and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation and was invasively ventilated for 4 weeks, until PDA ligation. After surgery, he still had ongoing bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) requirement, but was subsequently weaned to nocturnal BiPAP. He was treated for pulmonary hypertension with Sildenafil, but failed to make further clinical improvement. A therapeutic glibenclamide trial was commenced in week 11 (initial dose of 0.05 mg-1 kg-1 day-1 in two divided doses). After 1 week of treatment, he began to tolerate time off BiPAP when awake, and edema improved. Glibenclamide was well tolerated, and the dose was slowly increased to 0.15 mg-1 kg-1 day-1 over the next 12 weeks. Mild transient hypoglycemia was observed, but there was no cardiovascular dysfunction. Confirmation of therapeutic benefit will require studies of more CS patients but, based on this limited experience, consideration should be given to glibenclamide as CS therapy, although problems associated with prematurity, and complications of hypoglycemia, might limit outcome in critically ill neonates with CS.

5.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 625-634, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963242

RESUMO

Rare heterozygous variants in SMAD6 have been identified as a significant genetic contributor to bicuspid aortic valve-associated thoracic aortic aneurysm on one hand and non-syndromic midline craniosynostosis on the other. In this study, we report two individuals with biallelic missense variants in SMAD6 and a complex cardiac phenotype. Trio exome sequencing in Proband 1, a male who had aortic isthmus stenosis, revealed the homozygous SMAD6 variant p.(Ile466Thr). He also had mild intellectual disability and radio-ulnar synostosis. Proband 2 is a female who presented with a more severe cardiac phenotype with a dysplastic and stenotic pulmonary valve and dilated cardiomyopathy. In addition, she had vascular anomalies, including a stenotic left main coronary artery requiring a bypass procedure, narrowing of the proximal left pulmonary artery and a venous anomaly in the brain. Proband 2 has compound heterozygous SMAD6 missense variants, p.(Phe357Ile) and p.(Ser483Pro). Absence of these SMAD6 variants in the general population and high pathogenicity prediction scores suggest that these variants caused the probands' phenotypes. This is further corroborated by cardiovascular anomalies and appendicular skeletal defects in Smad6-deficient mice. SMAD6 acts as an inhibitory SMAD and preferentially inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced signaling. Our data suggest that biallelic variants in SMAD6 may affect the inhibitory activity of SMAD6 and cause enhanced BMP signaling underlying the cardiovascular anomalies and possibly other clinical features in the two probands.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteína Smad6/genética , Alelos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414627

RESUMO

Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS), also known as neonatal progeroid syndrome, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. It has been proposed to be autosomal-recessive and is characterized by variable clinical features, such as intrauterine growth restriction and poor postnatal weight gain, characteristic facial features (triangular appearance to the face, convex nasal profile or pinched nose, and small mouth), widened fontanelles, pseudohydrocephalus, prominent scalp veins, lipodystrophy, and teeth abnormalities. A previous report described a single WRS patient with bi-allelic truncating and splicing variants in POLR3A. Here we present seven additional infants, children, and adults with WRS and bi-allelic truncating and/or splicing variants in POLR3A. POLR3A, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III, is a DNA-directed RNA polymerase that transcribes many small noncoding RNAs that regulate transcription, RNA processing, and translation. Bi-allelic missense variants in POLR3A have been associated with phenotypes distinct from WRS: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without oligodontia. Our findings confirm the association of bi-allelic POLR3A variants with WRS, expand the clinical phenotype of WRS, and suggest specific POLR3A genotypes associated with WRS and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy.

8.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(3): 281-291, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177229

RESUMO

An increasing number of mitochondrial diseases are found to be caused by pathogenic variants in nuclear encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. FARS2 encodes mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mtPheRS) which transfers phenylalanine to its cognate tRNA in mitochondria. Since the first case was reported in 2012, a total of 21 subjects with FARS2 deficiency have been reported to date with a spectrum of disease severity that falls between two phenotypes; early onset epileptic encephalopathy and a less severe phenotype characterized by spastic paraplegia. In this report, we present an additional 15 individuals from 12 families who are mostly Arabs homozygous for the pathogenic variant Y144C, which is associated with the more severe early onset phenotype. The total number of unique pathogenic FARS2 variants known to date is 21 including three different partial gene deletions reported in four individuals. Except for the large deletions, all variants but two (one in-frame deletion of one amino acid and one splice-site variant) are missense. All large deletions and the single splice-site variant are in trans with a missense variant. This suggests that complete loss of function may be incompatible with life. In this report, we also review structural, functional, and evolutionary significance of select FARS2 pathogenic variants reported here.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(9): 1272-1281, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904177

RESUMO

Au-Kline syndrome (AKS, OMIM 616580) is a multiple malformation syndrome, first reported in 2015, associated with intellectual disability. AKS has been associated with de novo loss-of-function variants in HNRNPK (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K), and to date, only four of these patients have been described in the literature. Recently, an additional patient with a missense variant in HNRNPK was also reported. These patients have striking facial dysmorphic features, including long palpebral fissures, ptosis, deeply grooved tongue, broad nose, and down-turned mouth. Patients frequently also have skeletal and connective tissue anomalies, craniosynostosis, congenital heart malformations, and renal anomalies. In this report, we describe six new patients and review the clinical information on all reported AKS patients, further delineating the phenotype of AKS. There are now a total of 9 patients with de novo loss-of-function variants in HNRNPK, one individual with a de novo missense variant in addition to 3 patients with de novo deletions of 9q21.32 that encompass HNRNPK. While there is considerable overlap between AKS and Kabuki syndrome (KS), these additional patients demonstrate that AKS does have a distinct facial gestalt and phenotype that can be differentiated from KS. This growing AKS patient cohort also informs an emerging approach to management and health surveillance for these patients.

10.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 43(3): 207-218, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432026

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a hereditary disorder characterized by disrupted phenylalanine metabolism and cognitive impairment. However, the precise nature and developmental trajectory of this cognitive impairment remains unclear. The present study used a verbal fluency task to dissociate executive and verbal processes in children with PKU (n = 23; 7-18 years) and controls (n = 44; 7-19 years). Data were collected at three longitudinal timepoints over a three-year period, and the contributions of age, group, and their interaction to fluency performance were evaluated. Results indicated impairments in executive processes in children with PKU, which were exacerbated by declining metabolic control.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenilcetonúrias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Biol Chem ; 293(6): 2041-2052, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275331

RESUMO

The complex disorder Cantu syndrome (CS) arises from gain-of-function mutations in either KCNJ8 or ABCC9, the genes encoding the Kir6.1 and SUR2 subunits of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, respectively. Recent reports indicate that such mutations can increase channel activity by multiple molecular mechanisms. In this study, we determined the mechanism by which KATP function is altered by several substitutions in distinct structural domains of SUR2: D207E in the intracellular L0-linker and Y985S, G989E, M1060I, and R1154Q/R1154W in TMD2. We engineered substitutions at their equivalent positions in rat SUR2A (D207E, Y981S, G985E, M1056I, and R1150Q/R1150W) and investigated functional consequences using macroscopic rubidium (86Rb+) efflux assays and patch-clamp electrophysiology. Our results indicate that D207E increases KATP channel activity by increasing intrinsic stability of the open state, whereas the cluster of Y981S/G985E/M1056I substitutions, as well as R1150Q/R1150W, augmented Mg-nucleotide activation. We also tested the responses of these channel variants to inhibition by the sulfonylurea drug glibenclamide, a potential pharmacotherapy for CS. None of the D207E, Y981S, G985E, or M1056I substitutions had a significant effect on glibenclamide sensitivity. However, Gln and Trp substitution at Arg-1150 significantly decreased glibenclamide potency. In summary, these results provide additional confirmation that mutations in CS-associated SUR2 mutations result in KATP gain-of-function. They help link CS genotypes to phenotypes and shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms, including consequences for inhibitory drug sensitivity, insights that may inform the development of therapeutic approaches to manage CS.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 73, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo missense variants in CDK13 have been described as the cause of syndromic congenital heart defects in seven individuals ascertained from a large congenital cardiovascular malformations cohort. We aimed to further define the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of this newly described disorder. METHODS: To minimise ascertainment bias, we recruited nine additional individuals with CDK13 pathogenic variants from clinical and research exome laboratory sequencing cohorts. Each individual underwent dysmorphology exam and comprehensive medical history review. RESULTS: We demonstrate greater than expected phenotypic heterogeneity, including 33% (3/9) of individuals without structural heart disease on echocardiogram. There was a high penetrance for a unique constellation of facial dysmorphism and global developmental delay, as well as less frequently seen renal and sacral anomalies. Two individuals had novel CDK13 variants (p.Asn842Asp, p.Lys734Glu), while the remaining seven unrelated individuals had a recurrent, previously published p.Asn842Ser variant. Summary of all variants published to date demonstrates apparent restriction of pathogenic variants to the protein kinase domain with clustering in the ATP and magnesium binding sites. CONCLUSIONS: Here we provide detailed phenotypic and molecular characterisation of individuals with pathogenic variants in CDK13 and propose management guidelines based upon the estimated prevalence of anomalies identified.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Face/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Síndrome
14.
J Pediatr ; 190: 130-135, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of newborn screening for 5 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in the first cohort of infants tested in the state of Illinois. STUDY DESIGN: Tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay for the 5 LSD-associated enzymes in dried blood spot specimens obtained from 219 973 newborn samples sent to the Newborn Screening Laboratory of the Illinois Department of Public Health in Chicago. RESULTS: The total number of cases with a positive diagnosis and the incidence for each disorder were as follows: Fabry disease, n = 26 (1 in 8454, including the p.A143T variant); Pompe disease, n = 10 (1 in 21 979); Gaucher disease, n = 5 (1 in 43 959); mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type 1, n = 1 (1 in 219 793); and Niemann-Pick disease type A/B, n = 2 (1 in 109 897). Twenty-two infants had a positive screen for 1 of the 5 disorders but could not be classified as either affected or unaffected after follow-up testing, including genotyping. Pseudodeficiencies for alpha-L-iduronidase and alpha-glucosidase were detected more often than true deficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of Fabry disease and Pompe disease were significantly higher than published estimates, although most cases detected were predicted to be late onset. The incidences of Gaucher disease, MPS I, and Niemann-Pick disease were comparable with previously published estimates. A total of 16 infants could not be positively identified as either affected or unaffected. To validate the true risks and benefits of newborn screening for LSD, long term follow-up in these infants and those detected with later-onset disorders will be essential.


Assuntos
Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Genótipo , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1477-1484, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726266

RESUMO

Biallelic GLDN mutations have recently been identified among infants with lethal congenital contracture syndrome 11 (LCCS11). GLDN encodes gliomedin, a protein required for the formation of the nodes of Ranvier and development of the human peripheral nervous system. We report six infants and children from four unrelated families with biallelic GLDN mutations, four of whom survived beyond the neonatal period into infancy, childhood, and late adolescence with intensive care and chronic respiratory and nutritional support. Our findings expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of LCCS11 and demonstrate that the condition may not necessarily be lethal in the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Artrogripose/genética , Genes Letais , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Artrogripose/mortalidade , Biópsia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/ultraestrutura , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(9): 2408-2414, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691769

RESUMO

X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is a genetic disorder that affects ectodermal structures and presents with a characteristic facial appearance. The ability of automated facial recognition technology to detect the phenotype from images was assessed . In Phase 1 of this study we examined if the age of male patients affected the technology's recognition. In Phase 2 we investigated how well the technology discriminated affected males cases from female carriers and from individuals with other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. The system detected XLHED to be the most likely diagnosis in all genetically confirmed affected male patients of all ages, and in 55% of heterozygous females. Interestingly, patients with other ED syndromes were also detected by the XLHED-targeted analysis, consistent with shared developmental features. Thus the automated facial recognition system represents a promising non-invasive technology to screen patients at all ages for a possible diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia, with greatest sensitivity and specificity for males affected with XLHED.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Face/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
17.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 1040-1048, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluation of the clinician's role in the optimal interpretation of clinical exome sequencing (ES) results. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of the first 155 patients who underwent clinical ES in our Exome Clinic and direct interaction with the ordering geneticist to evaluate the process of interpretation of results. RESULTS: The most common primary indication was neurodevelopmental problems (~66%), followed by multiple congenital anomalies (~10%). Based on sequencing data, the overall diagnostic yield was 36%. After assessment by the medical geneticist, incorporation of detailed phenotypic and molecular data, and utilization of additional diagnostic modalities, the final diagnostic yield increased to 43%. Seven patients in our cohort were included in initial case series that described novel genetic syndromes, and 23% of patients were involved in subsequent research studies directly related to their results or involved in efforts to move beyond clinical ES for diagnosis. Clinical management was directly altered due to the ES findings in 12% of definitively diagnosed cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasize the usefulness of ES, demonstrate the significant role of the medical geneticist in the diagnostic process of patients undergoing ES, and illustrate the benefits of postanalytical diagnostic work-up in solving the "diagnostic odyssey." Genet Med advance online publication 02 March 2017.


Assuntos
Exoma , Prova Pericial , Testes Genéticos , Genética Médica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genética Médica/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 12: 8-13, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28271047

RESUMO

Sapropterin dihydrochloride (BH4) reduces phenylalanine (Phe) levels and improves white matter integrity in a subset of individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) known as "responders." Although prior research has identified biochemical and genotypic differences between BH4 responders and non-responders, cognitive and neural differences remain largely unexplored. To this end, we compared intelligence and white matter integrity prior to treatment with BH4 in 13 subsequent BH4 responders with PKU, 16 subsequent BH4 non-responders with PKU, and 12 healthy controls. Results indicated poorer intelligence and white matter integrity in non-responders compared to responders prior to treatment. In addition, poorer white matter integrity was associated with greater variability in Phe across the lifetime in non-responders but not in responders. These results underscore the importance of considering PKU as a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional disorder and point to the need for additional research to delineate characteristics that predict response to treatment with BH4.

19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41803, 2017 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28205584

RESUMO

Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) is a skeletal disorder characterized by progressive vertebral, carpal and tarsal fusions, and mild short stature. The majority of affected individuals have an autosomal recessive form of SCT and are homozygous or compound heterozygous for nonsense mutations in the gene that encodes the cytoskeletal protein filamin B (FLNB), but a subset do not have FLNB mutations. Exome sequence analysis of three SCT patients negative for FLNB mutations identified an autosomal dominant form of the disease due to heterozygosity for missense or nonsense mutations in MYH3, which encodes embryonic myosin. Cells transfected with the MYH3 missense mutations had reduced TGFß signaling, revealing a regulatory role for embryonic myosin in the TGFß signaling pathway. In wild-type mice, there was persistent postnatal expression of embryonic myosin in the small muscles joining the neural arches of the spine suggesting that loss of myosin function in these muscles contribute to the disease. Our findings demonstrate that dominant mutations in MYH3 underlie autosomal dominant SCT, identify a postnatal role for embryonic myosin and suggest that altered regulation of signal transduction in the muscles within the spine may lead to the development of vertebral fusions.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Genes Dominantes , Vértebras Lombares/anormalidades , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/metabolismo , Mutação , Miosinas/genética , Miosinas/metabolismo , Escoliose/congênito , Transdução de Sinais , Sinostose/genética , Sinostose/metabolismo , Vértebras Torácicas/anormalidades , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Alelos , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Radiografia , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/genética , Escoliose/metabolismo , Sinostose/diagnóstico , Vértebras Torácicas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Hum Mutat ; 38(5): 600-608, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106320

RESUMO

Ascertaining a diagnosis through exome sequencing can provide potential benefits to patients, insurance companies, and the healthcare system. Yet, as diagnostic sequencing is increasingly employed, vast amounts of human genetic data are produced that need careful curation. We discuss methods for accurately assessing the clinical validity of gene-disease relationships to interpret new research findings in a clinical context and increase the diagnostic rate. The specifics of a gene-disease scoring system adapted for use in a clinical laboratory are described. In turn, clinical validity scoring of gene-disease relationships can inform exome reporting for the identification of new or the upgrade of previous, clinically relevant gene findings. Our retrospective analysis of all reclassification reports from the first 4 years of diagnostic exome sequencing showed that 78% were due to new gene-disease discoveries published in the literature. Among all exome positive/likely positive findings in characterized genes, 32% were in genetic etiologies that were discovered after 2010. Our data underscore the importance and benefits of active and up-to-date curation of a gene-disease database combined with critical clinical validity scoring and proactive reanalysis in the clinical genomics era.


Assuntos
Exoma , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/normas , Genômica/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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