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1.
Clin Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL), healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and clinical outcomes of stable post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without DM. HYPOTHESIS: In post-MI patients, DM is associated with worse HRQoL, increased HRU, and worse clinical outcomes. METHODS: The prospective, observational long-term risk, clinical management, and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery disease study obtained data from 8968 patients aged ≥50 years 1 to 3 years post-MI (369 centers; 25 countries). Patients with ≥1 of the following risk factors were included: age ≥65 years, history of a second MI >1 year before enrollment, multivessel coronary artery disease, creatinine clearance ≥15 and <60 mL/min, and DM treated with medication. Self-reported health status was assessed at baseline, 1 and 2 years and converted to EQ-5D scores. The main outcome measures were baseline HRQoL and HRU during follow-up. RESULTS: DM at enrollment was 33% (2959 patients, 869 insulin treated). Mean baseline EQ-5D score (0.86 vs 0.82; P < .0001) was higher; mean number of hospitalizations (0.38 vs 0.50, P < .0001) and mean length of stay (LoS; 9.3 vs 11.5; P = .001) were lower in patients without vs with DM. All-cause death and the composite of CV death, MI, and stroke were significantly higher in DM patients, with adjusted 2-year rate ratios of 1.43 (P < .01) and 1.55 (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stable post-MI patients with DM (especially insulin treated) had poorer EQ-5D scores, higher hospitalization rates and LoS, and worse clinical outcomes vs those without DM. Strategies focusing specifically on this high-risk population should be developed to improve outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01866904 (https://clinicaltrials.gov).

3.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(8): JC44, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075264

RESUMO

SOURCE CITATION: Navarese EP, Khan SU, Kolodziejczak M, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of oral P2Y 12 inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome: network meta-analysis of 52 816 patients from 12 randomized trials. Circulation. 2020;142:150-60. 32468837.

4.
Am Heart J ; 229: 110-117, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies showing underuse of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) predated the advent of the non-vitamin K antagonist OACs. We retrospectively examined use of OACs in a large commercially insured population. METHODS: Administrative claims data from 4 research partners participating in FDA-Catalyst, a program of the Sentinel Initiative, were queried in September 2017. Patients were included if they were ≥30 years old with ≥365 days of medical/pharmacy coverage, and had ≥2 diagnosis codes for AF, a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, absence of contraindications to OAC use, and no evidence of OAC use in the 365 days before the index AF diagnosis. The main outcome measures of the current analysis were rates of OAC use in the prior 12 months of cohort identification and factors associated with non-use. RESULTS: A total of 197,806 AF patients met the eligibility criteria prior to assessment of OAC treatment. Of these, 179,580 (91%) patients were ≥65 years old and 73,286 (37%) patients were ≥80 years old. Half of the patients (98,903) were randomized to the early intervention arm in the IMPACT-AFib trial and constitute the cohort for this analysis. Of these, 32,295 (33%) had no evidence of OAC use in the prior 12 months. Compared with patients with evidence of OAC use in the prior 12 months, patients without OAC use were more likely to be ≥80 years old, women, and have a history of anemia (51% vs 47%) and less likely to have diabetes (41% vs 44%), history of stroke or TIA (15% vs 19%), and history of heart failure (39% vs 48%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high risk of stroke, one-third of privately insured patients with AF and no obvious contraindications to an OAC were not treated with an OAC. There is an unmet need for evidence-based interventions that could lead to greater use of OACs in patients with AF at risk for stroke.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 41(41): 4037-4046, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984892

RESUMO

AIMS: The global COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus entering human cells using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cell surface receptor. ACE2 is shed to the circulation, and a higher plasma level of soluble ACE2 (sACE2) might reflect a higher cellular expression of ACE2. The present study explored the associations between sACE2 and clinical factors, cardiovascular biomarkers, and genetic variability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma and DNA samples were obtained from two international cohorts of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (n = 3999 and n = 1088). The sACE2 protein level was measured by the Olink Proteomics® Multiplex CVD II96 × 96 panel. Levels of the biomarkers high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, D-dimer, and cystatin-C were determined by immunoassays. Genome-wide association studies were performed by Illumina chips. Higher levels of sACE2 were statistically significantly associated with male sex, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and older age. The sACE2 level was most strongly associated with the levels of GDF-15, NT-proBNP, and hs-cTnT. When adjusting for these biomarkers, only male sex remained associated with sACE2. We found no statistically significant genetic regulation of the sACE2 level. CONCLUSIONS: Male sex and clinical or biomarker indicators of biological ageing, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes are associated with higher sACE2 levels. The levels of GDF-15 and NT-proBNP, which are associated both with the sACE2 level and a higher risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease, might contribute to better identification of risk for severe COVID-19 infection.

6.
Heart ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938772

RESUMO

AIMS: The ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial randomised patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke to apixaban or warfarin. We sought to describe patients from ARISTOTLE who prematurely permanently discontinued study drug. METHODS/RESULTS: We performed a posthoc analysis of patients from ARISTOTLE who prematurely permanently discontinued study drug during the study or follow-up period. Discontinuation rates and reasons for discontinuation were described. Death, thromboembolism (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, systemic embolism), myocardial infarction and major bleeding rates were stratified by ≤30 days or >30 days after discontinuation. A total of 4063/18 140 (22.4%) patients discontinued study drug at a median of 7.3 (2.2, 15.2) months after randomisation. Patients with discontinuation were more likely to be female and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment and anaemia. Premature permanent discontinuation was more common in those randomised to warfarin than apixaban (23.4% vs 21.4%; p=0.002). The most common reasons for discontinuation were patient request (46.1%) and adverse event (34.9%), with no significant difference between treatment groups. The cumulative incidence of clinical events ≤30 days after premature permanent discontinuation for all-cause death, thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and major bleeding was 5.8%, 2.6%, 0.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. No significant difference was seen between treatment groups with respect to clinical outcomes after discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Premature permanent discontinuation of study drug in ARISTOTLE was common, less frequent in patients receiving apixaban than warfarin and was followed by high 30-day rates of death, thromboembolism and major bleeding. Initiatives are needed to reduce discontinuation of oral anticoagulation.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e017155, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865097

RESUMO

Background We compared different methods of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and their association with cardiovascular death and major bleeding in 14 980 patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Methods and Results eGFR was calculated using equations based on creatinine (Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or cystatin C (CKD-EPICysC and CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine). These 5 eGFR equations, as well as the individual variables that are used in these equations, were assessed for correlation and discriminatory ability for cardiovascular death and major bleeding. The median age was 70.0 years, and 35.6% were women. The median eGFR was highest with Cockcroft-Gault (74.1 mL/min) and CKD-EPICysC (74.2 mL/min), and lowest with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (66.5 mL/min). Correlation between methods ranged from 0.49 (Cockroft-Gault and CKD-EPICysC) to 0.99 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and CKD-EPI). Among the eGFR equations, those based on cystatin C yielded the highest C indices for cardiovascular death and major bleeding: 0.628 (CKD-EPICysC) and 0.612 (CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine), respectively. A model based on the variables within the different eGFR equations (age, sex, weight, creatinine, and cystatin C) yielded the highest discriminatory value for both outcomes, with a C index of 0.673 and 0.656, respectively. Conclusions In patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation, correlation between eGFR calculated using different methods varied substantially. Cystatin C-based eGFRs seem to provide the most robust information for predicting death and bleeding. A model based on the individual variables within the eGFR equations, however, provided the highest discriminatory value. Our findings may help refine risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and define how renal function should be determined in future atrial fibrillation studies. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015943, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936298

RESUMO

Importance: Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease have indications for preventing stroke with oral anticoagulation therapy and preventing myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis with platelet inhibition. Objective: To evaluate whether the recently developed ABC (age, biomarkers, and clinical history)-bleeding risk score might be useful to identify patients with AF with different risks of bleeding during concomitant aspirin and anticoagulation therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The biomarkers in the ABC-bleeding risk score (growth differentiation factor 15, hemoglobin, and troponin) were measured in blood samples collected at randomization between 2006 and 2010 in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial and between 2005 and 2009 in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, both of which were multinational randomized clinical trials. The trials were reported 2011 and 2009, respectively. A total of 24 349 patients with AF (14 980 patients from the ARISTOTLE trial and 9369 patients from the RE-LY trial) were analyzed in the present cohort study. The median (interquartile range) length of follow-up was 1.8 (1.3-2.3) years in the ARISTOTLE cohort and 2.0 (1.6-2.3) years in the RE-LY cohort. Data analysis was performed from February 2018 to June 2019. Exposures: Concomitant aspirin treatment during study follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to first occurrence of a major bleeding was determined according to International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis definition. Hazard ratios were estimated with Cox models adjusted for ABC-bleeding risk score and randomized treatment. Results: The median (interquartile range) age was 70 (63-76) years in the ARISTOTLE cohort and 72 (67-77) years in the RE-LY cohort (5238 patients [35.6%] in the ARISTOTLE cohort and 3086 patients [36.4%] in the RE-LY cohort were women). The total number of patients with a first major bleeding event was 651 (207 with aspirin and 444 without) in ARISTOTLE and 463 (238 with aspirin and 225 without) in RE-LY. For both cohorts, in those with a low ABC-bleeding risk score, the absolute bleeding rate was low even with concomitant aspirin treatment, whereas in those with a higher ABC-bleeding risk score, the rate of bleeding was higher with concomitant aspirin compared with oral anticoagulation alone (ARISTOTLE, hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.40-1.95; P < .001; RE-LY, hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.42-2.04; P < .001). Thus, a low annual ABC-bleeding risk (eg, 0.5% without aspirin use) would with concomitant aspirin result in an annual rate of 0.8%, and a high estimated ABC-bleeding risk (eg, 3.0%) would result in a substantially higher rate of 5.0%. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the ABC-bleeding risk score identifies patients with different risks of bleeding when combining aspirin and oral anticoagulation. The ABC-bleeding risk score may, therefore, be a useful tool for decision support concerning intensity and duration of combination antithrombotic treatment in patients with AF and coronary artery disease.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1286-1297, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745162

RESUMO

Importance: Conducting a clinical trial involves significant risks, time, and resources. The return on investment for these trials, measured by advancing health care and contributions to the scientific literature, is often uncertain. Objective: To assess the long-term effects of major clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes contemporary to the Assessment of Pexelizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction (APEX-AMI) trial, which did not achieve its primary objective. Evidence Review: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database was screened for clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes (including unstable angina, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction) with more than 1000 participants and primary results published between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009, in Circulation, European Heart Journal, JAMA, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, The Lancet, and The New England Journal of Medicine. For identified trials, bibliographic information, citations, trial name, registration, inclusion diagnosis, intervention type, sample size, primary outcome result, sponsor information, and academic involvement were extracted. To identify secondary analyses, bibliographic information for citing articles, their citations, and their abstracts were extracted. Clinical practice guideline bibliographies for citations of trial publications were reviewed, and the class and level of evidence of resulting recommendations were extracted. Findings: Of 784 records screened, 30 were primary publications of 25 clinical trials. Through December 31, 2018, these trials were cited a median of 497 times (interquartile range [IQR], 424-931 citations). Trials that did not achieve their primary objective had fewer primary citations (the number of times that each published journal article with the primary [main] results of a trial was cited) (median, 443 [IQR, 396-468] vs 868 [IQR, 645-1774] citations, P = .006). The frequency of secondary analyses peaked within 5 years of the primary trial at 643. Trials that did not achieve the primary objective had fewer secondary analyses (median, 15 [IQR, 5-31] vs 18 [IQR, 10-43] analyses, P = .44) that were not cited significantly less often (median, 484 [IQR, 191-1299] vs 1124 [IQR, 410-4283] citations, P = .16). All trials were cited by at least 1 clinical practice guideline. Conclusions and Relevance: This review found that trials that achieved the primary objective were frequently cited. Secondary research activity did not differ by primary result, and the primary trials and secondary analyses contributed to clinical practice recommendations. These data show the long-term importance of clinical trials regardless of primary outcome result.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 580-589, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731936

RESUMO

Concerns about the external validity of traditional randomized clinical trials (RCTs), together with the widespread availability of real-world data and advanced data analytic tools, have led to claims that common sense and clinical observation, rather than RCTs, should be the preferred method to generate evidence to support clinical decision-making. However, over the past 4 decades, results from well-done RCTs have repeatedly contradicted practices supported by common sense and clinical observation. Common sense and clinical observation fail for several reasons: incomplete understanding of pathophysiology, biases and unmeasured confounding in observational research, and failure to understand risks and benefits of treatments within complex systems. Concerns about traditional RCT models are legitimate, but randomization remains a critical tool to understand the causal relationship between treatments and outcomes. Instead, development and promulgation of tools to apply randomization to real-world data are needed to build the best evidence base in cardiovascular medicine.

12.
Thromb Res ; 193: 180-189, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) convey pathophysiological information and are possible biomarkers for risk of stroke. METHODS: EVs were measured in 836 patients with AF (of which 280 were stroke cases) selected from the ARISTOTLE trial and in a cohort of unselected 70 year old individuals (n = 1007, reference material). EVs from platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes and inflammatory endothelial cells were measured using flow cytometry and a solid-phase proximity ligation assay. RESULTS: Concentrations of EVs were higher in the ARISTOTLE patients than in the PIVUS cohort for all the EV groups except EVs from endothelial cells (p < 0.0001). The distributions of the concentrations of the EVs were similar among the control group and the stroke cases for all of the sources of EVs in the ARISTOTLE study. EVs were modestly correlated with the levels of NT-ProBNP, Cystatin C, GDF-15 and D-dimer. Stronger correlations were found for platelet EVs as well as phosphatidyl serine positive EVs that were correlated with CD40 ligand in the ARISTOTLE study. Leukocyte EVs were correlated with IL-6 in both the ARISTOTLE and the PIVUS study, implicating them in different physiological processes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of EVs were found in anticoagulated patients with AF and a higher risk of stroke than in a general population of similar age, possibly due to the high disease burden in AF patients. Our data with EVs representing a broad repertoire of activated blood cells in AF patients suggest that EVs are likely not a key mediator of occurrence of stroke in this population.

14.
Am Heart J ; 226: 49-59, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547998

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression may increase due to upregulation in patients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Because renin-angiotensin system blockers increase levels of ACE2, a protein that facilitates coronavirus entry into cells, there is concern that these drugs could increase the risk of developing a severe and fatal form of COVID-19. The impact of discontinuing ACEI and ARBs in patients with COVID-19 remains uncertain. DESIGN: BRACE CORONA is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized, phase IV, clinical trial that aims to enroll around 500 participants at 34 sites in Brazil. Participants will be identified from an ongoing national registry of suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19. Eligible patients using renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACEI/ARBs) with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 will be randomized to a strategy of continued ACEI/ARB treatment versus temporary discontinuation for 30 days. The primary outcome is the median days alive and out of the hospital at 30 days. Secondary outcomes include progression of COVID-19 disease, all-cause mortality, death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, new or worsening heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, hypertensive crisis, respiratory failure, hemodynamic decompensation, sepsis, renal failure, and troponin, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal-proBNP, and D-dimer levels. SUMMARY: BRACE CORONA will evaluate whether the strategy of continued ACEI/ARB therapy compared with temporary discontinuation of these drugs impacts clinical outcomes among patients with COVID-19.

15.
Am Heart J ; 226: 49-59, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245496

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression may increase due to upregulation in patients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Because renin-angiotensin system blockers increase levels of ACE2, a protein that facilitates coronavirus entry into cells, there is concern that these drugs could increase the risk of developing a severe and fatal form of COVID-19. The impact of discontinuing ACEI and ARBs in patients with COVID-19 remains uncertain. DESIGN: BRACE CORONA is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized, phase IV, clinical trial that aims to enroll around 500 participants at 34 sites in Brazil. Participants will be identified from an ongoing national registry of suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19. Eligible patients using renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACEI/ARBs) with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 will be randomized to a strategy of continued ACEI/ARB treatment versus temporary discontinuation for 30 days. The primary outcome is the median days alive and out of the hospital at 30 days. Secondary outcomes include progression of COVID-19 disease, all-cause mortality, death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, new or worsening heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, hypertensive crisis, respiratory failure, hemodynamic decompensation, sepsis, renal failure, and troponin, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal-proBNP, and D-dimer levels. SUMMARY: BRACE CORONA will evaluate whether the strategy of continued ACEI/ARB therapy compared with temporary discontinuation of these drugs impacts clinical outcomes among patients with COVID-19.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory biomarker interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: To investigate if repeated IL-6 measurements improve the prognostication for stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. METHODS: IL-6 levels by ELISA were measured at study entry and at 2 months in 4830 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial with 1.8 years median follow-up. In the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, IL-6 was measured at study entry, 3, 6, and 12 months in 2559 patients with 2.0 years median follow-up. Associations between a second IL-6 measurement and outcomes, adjusted for baseline IL-6, clinical variables, and other cardiovascular biomarkers, were analyzed by Cox regression. RESULTS: Median IL-6 levels were 2.0 ng/L (interquartile range [IQR] 1.30-3.20) and 2.10 ng/L (IQR 1.40-3.40) at the two time-points in ARISTOTLE, and, in RE-LY, 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.3), 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.2), 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.6, 3.9), and 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.5, 3.9), respectively. IL-6 was associated with mortality; hazard ratios per 50% higher IL-6 at 2 or 3 months, respectively, were 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.41; P < .0001) in ARISTOTLE, and 1.11 (1.01-1.22, P = .0290) in RE-LY; with improved C index from 0.74 to 0.76 in ARISTOTLE, but not in the smaller RE-LY cohort. There were no consistent associations with second IL-6 and stroke or systemic embolism, or major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent systemic inflammatory activity, assessed by repeated IL-6 measurements, is associated with mortality independent of established clinical risk factors and other strong cardiovascular biomarkers in anticoagulated patients with AF.

18.
Clin Trials ; 17(4): 360-367, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589056

RESUMO

IMPACT-AFib was an 80,000-patient randomized clinical trial implemented by five US insurance companies (health plans) aimed at increasing the use of oral anticoagulants by individuals with atrial fibrillation who were at high risk of stroke and not on treatment. The underlying thesis was that patients could be change agents to initiate prescribing discussions with their providers. We tested the effect of mailing information to both patients and their providers. We used administrative medical claims and pharmacy dispensing data to identify eligible patients, to randomize them to an early or delayed intervention, and to assess clinical outcomes. The core data were analysis-ready datasets each site had created and curated for the FDA's Sentinel System, supplemented by updated "fresh" pharmacy and enrollment data to ensure eligibility at the time of intervention. Following mutually agreed upon procedures, sites linked to additional internal source data to implement the intervention-educational information mailed to patients and their providers in the early intervention arm, and to providers of patients in the delayed intervention arm approximately 12 months later. The primary analysis compares the early intervention arm to the delayed intervention arm, prior to the delayed intervention being conducted (i.e. compares intervention to non-intervention). The endpoints of interest were evidence of initiation of anticoagulation (primary) as well as clinical endpoints, including stroke and hospitalization for bleeding. Major challenges, some unanticipated, identified during the planning phase include convening multi-stakeholder investigator teams and advisors, addressing ethical concerns about not intervening in a usual care comparison group, and identifying and avoiding interference with sites' routine programs that were similar to the intervention. Needs and challenges during the implementation phase included the fact that even limited site-specific programming greatly increased time and effort, the need to refresh research data extracts immediately before outreach to patients and providers, potential difficulty identifying low-cost medications such as warfarin that may not be reimbursed by health plans and so not discoverable in dispensing data, the need to develop workarounds when "providers" in claims data were facilities, difficulty addressing clustering of patients by provider because providers can have multiple identifiers within and between health plans, and the need to anticipate loss to follow up because of health plan disenrollment or change in benefits. As pragmatic trials begin to shape evidence generation within clinical practice, investigators should anticipate issues inherent to claims data and working with multiple large sites. In IMPACT-AFib, we found that investing in collaboration and communication among all parties throughout all phases of the study helped ensure common understanding, early identification of challenges, and streamlined actual implementation.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(13): e016033, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552321

RESUMO

Background Despite restoration of epicardial flow following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), microvascular reperfusion as reflected by ST-elevation resolution (ST-ER) resolution remains variable and its pathophysiology remains unclear. Methods and Results Using principal component analyses, we explored associations between 91 serum biomarkers drawn before PPCI clustered into 14 pathobiologic processes (including NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide] as an independent cluster), and (1) ST-ER resolution ≥50% versus <50%; and (2) 90-day composite of death, shock, and heart failure. Network analyses were performed to understand interbiomarker relationships between the ST-ER groups. Among the 1160 patients studied, 861 (74%) had ST-ER ≥50% at a median 40 (interquartile range, 23-70) minutes following PPCI, yet both groups had comparable post-PPCI TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) grade 3 flow (86.6% versus 82.9%; P=0.25). ST-ER ≥50% was associated with significantly lower pre-PPCI concentrations of platelet activation cluster (particularly P-selectin, von Willebrand factor, and platelet-derived growth factor A) and NT-proBNP, including after risk adjustment. Across both ST-ER groups, strong interbiomarker relationships were noted between pathways indicative of myocardial stretch, platelet activation, and inflammation, whereas with ST-ER <50% correlations between iron homeostasis and inflammation were observed. Of all 14 biomarker clusters, only NT-proBNP was significantly associated with the 90-day clinical composite. Conclusions Suboptimal ST-ER is common despite achieving post-PPCI TIMI grade 3 flow. The cluster of platelet activation proteins and NT-proBNP were strongly correlated with suboptimal ST-ER and NT-proBNP was independently associated with 90-day outcomes. This analysis provides insights into the pathophysiology of microvascular reperfusion in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and suggests novel pre-PPCI risk targets potentially amenable to enhancing tissue-level reperfusion following PPCI.

20.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1298-1307, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553812

RESUMO

Antiplatelet therapy for patients with coronary artery disease has evolved dramatically over the last decade. P2Y12 inhibitors offering more potent and consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel are now widely available, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration can be tailored to individual ischemic and bleeding risks, and strategies to personalize antiplatelet therapy have been developed when concomitant oral anticoagulation (OAC) is indicated. Scientific societies from Canada, the United States, and Europe have all published updated recommendations addressing antiplatelet therapy in the recent years. The purpose of this review is to put the Canadian guidelines into perspective vis-à-vis international recommendations by highlighting similarities and critically analyzing differences. We focus on 3 major topics relevant for clinical practice: DAPT duration following drug-eluting stent implantation, DAPT following percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with concomitant indications for OAC, and DAPT management for noncardiac surgery following drug-eluting stent implantation. Although guidelines broadly agree on the majority of recommendations, the justifications for major differences were contrasted in the manuscript. Unanswered questions remain, including the place of aspirin in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in the contemporary era, aspirin-free strategies early after percutaneous coronary intervention, and the safe minimal duration of DAPT with newer generation stents.

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