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1.
Bone ; 130: 115126, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678497

RESUMO

One possibility for the disproportionate increase in fracture risk with aging relative to the decrease in bone mass is an accumulation of changes to the bone matrix which deleteriously affect fracture resistance. In order to effectively develop new targets for osteoporosis, a preclinical model of the age-related loss in fracture resistance needs to be established beyond known age-related decreases in bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. To that end, we examined long bones of male and female BALB/c mice at 6-mo. and 20-mo. of age and assessed whether material and matrix properties of cortical bone significantly differed between the age groups. The second moment of area of the diaphysis (minimum and maximum principals for femur and radius, respectively) as measured by ex vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) was higher at 20-mo. than at 6-mo. for both males and females, but ultimate moment as measured by three-point bending tests did not decrease with age. Cortical thickness was lower with age for males, but higher for old females. Partially accounting for differences in structure, material estimates of yield, ultimate stress, and toughness (left femur) were 12.6%, 11.1%, and 40.9% lower, respectively, with age for both sexes. The ability of the cortical bone to resist crack growth (right femur) was also 18.1% less for the old than for the young adult mice. These decreases in material properties were not due to changes in intracortical porosity as pore number decreased with age. Rather, age-related alterations in the matrix were observed for both sexes: enzymatic and non-enzymatic crosslinks by high performance liquid chromatography increased (femur), volume fraction of bound water by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry decreased (femur), cortical tissue mineral density by µCT increased (femur and radius), and an Amide I sub-peak ratio I1670/I1640 by Raman spectroscopy increased (tibia). Overall, there are multiple matrix changes to potentially target that could prevent the age-related decrease in fracture resistance observed in BALB/c mouse.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Matriz Extracelular , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
JBMR Plus ; 3(6): e10135, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346566

RESUMO

Being predictors of the mechanical properties of human cortical bone, bound and pore water measurements by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are being developed for the clinical assessment of fracture risk. While pore water is a surrogate of cortical bone porosity, the determinants of bound water are unknown. Manipulation of organic matrix properties by oxidative deproteinization, thermal denaturation, or nonenzymatic glycation lowers bone toughness. Because bound water contributes to bone toughness, we hypothesized that each of these matrix manipulations affect bound water fraction (Vbw/Vbone). Immersing cadaveric bone samples in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 96 hours did not affect tissue mineral density or cortical porosity, but rather decreased Vbw/Vbone and increased short-T2 pore water signals as determined by 1H nuclear MR relaxometry (1H NMR). Moreover, the post treatment Vbw/Vbone linearly correlated with the remaining weight fraction of the organic matrix. Heating bone samples at 110°C, 120°C, 130°C, and then 140°C (∼24 hours per temperature and rehydration for ∼24 hours before 1H NMR analysis) did not affect Vbw/Vbone. After subsequently heating them at 200°C, Vbw/Vbone increased. Boiling bone samples followed by heating at 110°C, 120°C, and then 130°C in water under pressure (8 hours per temperature) had a similar effect on Vbw/Vbone. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the increase in Vbw/Vbone coincided with an increase in an Amide I subpeak ratio that is sensitive to changes in the helical structure of collagen I. Glycation of bone by ribose for 4 weeks, but not in glucose for 16 weeks, decreased Vbw/Vbone, although the effect was less pronounced than that of oxidative deproteinization or thermal denaturation. We propose that MR measurements of bound water reflect the amount of bone organic matrix and can be modulated by collagen I helicity and by sugar-derived post translational modifications of the matrix. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

3.
Bone ; 120: 187-193, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394355

RESUMO

Greater understanding of the determinants of skeletal fragility is highly sought due to the great burden that bone affecting diseases and fractures have on economies, societies and health care systems. Being a complex, hierarchical composite of collagen type-I and non-stoichiometric substituted hydroxyapatite, bone derives toughness from its organic phase. In this study, we tested whether early observations that a strong correlation between bone collagen integrity measured by thermomechanical methods and work to fracture exist in a more general and heterogeneous sampling of the population. Neighboring uniform specimens from an established, highly characterized and previously published collection of human cortical bone samples (femur mid-shaft) were decalcified in EDTA. Fifty-four of the original 62 donors were included (26 male and 28 females; ages 21-101 years; aging, osteoporosis, diabetes and cancer). Following decalcification, bone collagen was tested using hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) testing in order to measure the collagen's thermal stability (denaturation temperature, Td) and network connectivity (maximum rate of isometric tension generation; Max.Slope). We used linear regression and general linear models (GLMs) with several explanatory variables to determine whether relationships between HIT parameters and generally accepted bone quality factors (e.g., cortical porosity, pentosidine content [pen], pyridinoline content [pyd]), age, and measures of fracture toughness (crack initiation fracture toughness, Kinit, and total energy release/dissipation rate evaluated at the point of unstable fast fracture, J-int) were significant. Bone collagen connectivity (Max.Slope) correlated well with the measures of fracture toughness (R2 = 24-35%), and to a lesser degree with bound water fraction (BW; R2 = 7.9%) and pore water fraction (PW; R2 = 9.1%). Significant correlations with age, apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and mature enzymatic [pyd] and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks [pen] were not detected. GLMs found that Max.Slope and vBMD (or BW), with or without age as additional covariate, all significantly explained the variance in Kinit (adjusted-R2 = 36.7-49.0%). Also, the best-fit model for J-int (adjusted-R2 = 35.7%) included only age and Max.Slope as explanatory variables with Max.Slope contributing twice as much as age. Max.Slope and BW without age were also significant predictors of J-int (adjusted-R2 = 35.5%). In conclusion, bone collagen integrity as measured by thermomechanical methods is a key factor in cortical bone fracture toughness. This study further demonstrates that greater attention should be paid to degradation of the overall organic phase, rather than a specific biomarker (e.g. [pen]), when seeking to understand elevated fracture rates in aging and disease.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Osso Cortical/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Biophotonics ; 11(8): e201700352, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575566

RESUMO

Establishing a non-destructive method for spatially assessing advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) is a potentially useful step toward investigating the mechanistic role of AGEs in bone quality. To test the hypothesis that the shape of the amide I in the Raman spectroscopy (RS) analysis of bone matrix changes upon AGE accumulation, we incubated paired cadaveric cortical bone in ribose or glucose solutions and in control solutions for 4 and 16 weeks, respectively, at 37°C. Acquiring 10 spectra per bone with a 20X objective and a 830 nm laser, RS was sensitive to AGE accumulation (confirmed by biochemical measurements of pentosidine and fluorescent AGEs). Hyp/Pro ratio increased upon glycation using either 0.1 M ribose, 0.5 M ribose or 0.5 M glucose. Glycation also decreased the amide I sub-peak ratios (cm-1 ) 1668/1638 and 1668/1610 when directly calculated using either second derivative spectrum or local maxima of difference spectrum, though the processing method (eg, averaged spectrum vs individual spectra) to minimize noise influenced detection of differences for the ribose-incubated bones. Glycation however did not affect these sub-peak ratios including the matrix maturity ratio (1668/1690) when calculated using indirect sub-band fitting. The amide I sub-peak ratios likely reflected changes in the collagen I structure.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Amidas/química , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Cinética , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/química , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Appl Spectrosc ; 71(10): 2385-2394, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708001

RESUMO

A decline in the inherent quality of bone tissue is a † Equal contributors contributor to the age-related increase in fracture risk. Although this is well-known, the important biochemical factors of bone quality have yet to be identified using Raman spectroscopy (RS), a nondestructive, inelastic light-scattering technique. To identify potential RS predictors of fracture risk, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to 558 Raman spectra (370-1720 cm-1) of human cortical bone acquired from 62 female and male donors (nine spectra each) spanning adulthood (age range = 21-101 years). Spectra were analyzed prior to R-curve, nonlinear fracture mechanics that delineate crack initiation (Kinit) from crack growth toughness (Kgrow). The traditional ν1phosphate peak per amide I peak (mineral-to-matrix ratio) weakly correlated with Kinit (r = 0.341, p = 0.0067) and overall crack growth toughness (J-int: r = 0.331, p = 0.0086). Sub-peak ratios of the amide I band that are related to the secondary structure of type 1 collagen did not correlate with the fracture toughness properties. In the full spectrum analysis, one principal component (PC5) correlated with all of the mechanical properties (Kinit: r = - 0.467, Kgrow: r = - 0.375, and J-int: r = - 0.428; p < 0.0067). More importantly, when known predictors of fracture toughness, namely age and/or volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), were included in general linear models as covariates, several PCs helped explain 45.0% (PC5) to 48.5% (PC7), 31.4% (PC6), and 25.8% (PC7) of the variance in Kinit, Kgrow, and J-int, respectively. Deriving spectral features from full spectrum analysis may improve the ability of RS, a clinically viable technology, to assess fracture risk.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/química , Osso Cortical/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Colágeno/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Orthop Res ; 35(7): 1442-1452, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513922

RESUMO

Unlike the known relationships between traditional mechanical properties and microstructural features of bone, the factors that influence the mechanical resistance of bone to cyclic reference point microindention (cRPI) and impact microindention (IMI) have yet to be identified. To determine whether cRPI and IMI properties depend on microstructure, we indented the tibia mid-shaft, the distal radius, and the proximal humerus from 10 elderly donors using the BioDent and OsteoProbe (neighboring sites). As the only output measure of IMI, bone material strength index (BMSi) was significantly different across all three anatomical sites being highest for the tibia mid-shaft and lowest for the proximal humerus. Total indentation distance (inverse of BMSi) was higher for the proximal humerus than for the tibia mid-shaft but was not different between other anatomical comparisons. As a possible explanation for the differences in BMSi, pore water, as determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, was lowest for the tibia and highest for the humerus. Moreover, the local intra-cortical porosity, as determined by micro-computed tomography, was negatively correlated with BMSi for both arm bones. BMSi was also positively correlated with peak bending stress of cortical bone extracted from the tibia mid-shaft. Microstructural correlations with cRPI properties were not significant for any of the bones. The one exception was that average energy dissipated during cRPI was negatively correlated with local tissue mineral density in the tibia mid-shaft. With higher indentation force and larger tip diameter than cRPI, only IMI appears to be sensitive to the underlying porosity of cortical bone. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1442-1452, 2017.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/fisiologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso Cortical/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 14(4): 138-50, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27263108

RESUMO

Tissue-level mechanical properties characterize mechanical behavior independently of microscopic porosity. Specifically, quasi-static nanoindentation provides measurements of modulus (stiffness) and hardness (resistance to yielding) of tissue at the length scale of the lamella, while dynamic nanoindentation assesses time-dependent behavior in the form of storage modulus (stiffness), loss modulus (dampening), and loss factor (ratio of the two). While these properties are useful in establishing how a gene, signaling pathway, or disease of interest affects bone tissue, they generally do not vary with aging after skeletal maturation or with osteoporosis. Heterogeneity in tissue-level mechanical properties or in compositional properties may contribute to fracture risk, but a consensus on whether the contribution is negative or positive has not emerged. In vivo indentation of bone tissue is now possible, and the mechanical resistance to microindentation has the potential for improving fracture risk assessment, though determinants are currently unknown.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Módulo de Elasticidade , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Dureza , Humanos , Risco , Microscopia de Geração do Segundo Harmônico , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral , Análise Espectral Raman
8.
J Biomech ; 49(13): 2748-2755, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27344202

RESUMO

Changes in the distribution of bone mineralization occurring with aging, disease, or treatment have prompted concerns that alterations in mineralization heterogeneity may affect the fracture resistance of bone. Yet, so far, studies assessing bone from hip fracture cases and fracture-free women have not reached a consensus on how heterogeneity in tissue mineralization relates to skeletal fragility. Owing to the multifactorial nature of toughening mechanisms occurring in bone, we assessed the relative contribution of heterogeneity in mineralization to fracture resistance with respect to age, porosity, and area fraction of osteonal tissue. The latter parameters were extracted from quantitative backscattered electron imaging of human cortical bone sections following R-curve tests of single-edge notched beam specimens to determine fracture toughness properties. Microstructural heterogeneity was determined as the width of the mineral distribution (bulk) and as the sill of the variogram (local). In univariate analyses of measures from 62 human donors (21 to 101 years), local but not bulk heterogeneity as well as pore clustering negatively correlated with fracture toughness properties. With age as covariate, heterogeneity was a significant predictor of crack initiation, though local had a stronger negative contribution than bulk. When considering all potential covariates, age, cortical porosity and area fraction of osteons explained up to 50% of the variance in bone׳s crack initiation toughness. However, including heterogeneity in mineralization did not improve upon this prediction. The findings of the present work stress the necessity to account for porosity and microstructure when evaluating the potential of matrix-related features to affect skeletal fragility.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Osteon/lesões , Osteon/fisiologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Osteon/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porosidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 99(3): 289-301, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27209312

RESUMO

Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a higher fracture risk compared to non-diabetics, even though their areal bone mineral density is normal to high. Identifying the mechanisms whereby diabetes lowers fracture resistance requires well-characterized rodent models of diabetic bone disease. Toward that end, we hypothesized that bone toughness, more so than bone strength, decreases with the duration of diabetes in ZDSD rats. Bones were harvested from male CD(SD) control rats and male ZDSD rats at 16 weeks (before the onset of hyperglycemia), at 22 weeks (5-6 weeks of hyperglycemia), and at 29 weeks (12-13 weeks of hyperglycemia). There were at least 12 rats per strain per age group. At 16 weeks, there was no difference in either body weight or glucose levels between the two rat groups. Within 2 weeks of switching all rats to a diet with 48 % of kcal from fat, only the ZDSD rats developed hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL). They also began to lose body weight at 21 weeks. CD(SD) rats remained normoglycemic (<110 mg/dL) on the high-fat diet and became obese (>600 g). From micro-computed tomography (µCT) analysis of a lumbar vertebra and distal femur, trabecular bone volume did not vary with age among the non-diabetic rats but was lower at 29 weeks than at 16 weeks or at 22 weeks for the diabetic rats. Consistent with that finding, µCT-derived intra-cortical porosity (femur diaphysis) was higher for ZDSD following ~12 weeks of hyperglycemia than for age-matched CD(SD) rats. Despite an age-related increase in mineralization in both rat strains (µCT and Raman spectroscopy), material strength of cortical bone (from three-point bending tests) increased with age only in the non-diabetic CD(SD) rats. Moreover, two other material properties, toughness (radius) and fracture toughness (femur), significantly decreased with the duration of T2D in ZDSD rats. This was accompanied by the increase in the levels of the pentosidine (femur). However, pentosidine was not significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic bone at any time point. The ZDSD rat, which has normal leptin signaling and becomes diabetic after skeletal maturity, provides a pre-clinical model of diabetic bone disease, but a decrease in body weight during prolonged diabetes and certain strain-related differences before the onset of hyperglycemia should be taken into consideration when interpreting diabetes-related differences.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/biossíntese , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Ratos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
10.
Bone ; 87: 1-10, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26993059

RESUMO

Accurately predicting fracture risk in the clinic is challenging because the determinants are multi-factorial. A common approach to fracture risk assessment is to combine X-ray-based imaging methods such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with an online Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) that includes additional risk factors such as age, family history, and prior fracture incidents. This approach still does not adequately diagnose many individuals at risk, especially those with certain diseases like type 2 diabetes. As such, this study investigated bound water and pore water concentrations (Cbw and Cpw) from ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as new predictors of fracture risk. Ex vivo cadaveric arms were imaged with UTE MRI as well as with DXA and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT), and imaging measures were compared to both whole-bone structural and material properties as determined by three-point bending tests of the distal-third radius. While DXA-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and µCT-derived volumetric BMD correlated well with structural strength, they moderately correlated with the estimate material strength with gender being a significant covariate for aBMD. MRI-derived measures of Cbw and Cpw had a similar predictive ability of material strength as aBMD but did so independently of gender. In addition, Cbw was the only imaging parameter to significantly correlate with toughness, the energy dissipated during fracture. Notably, the strength of the correlations with the material properties of bone tended to be higher when a larger endosteal region was used to determine Cbw and Cpw. These results indicate that MRI measures of Cbw and Cpw have the ability to probe bone material properties independent of bone structure or subject gender. In particular, toughness is a property of fracture resistance that is not explained by X-ray based methods. Thus, these MRI-derived measures of Cbw and Cpw in cortical bone have the potential to be useful in clinical populations for evaluating fracture risk, especially involving diseases that affect material properties of the bone beyond its strength.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Água/química , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porosidade , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Kidney Int ; 89(1): 95-104, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489025

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of fracture. Raloxifene is a mild antiresorptive agent that reduces fracture risk in the general population. Here we assessed the impact of raloxifene on the skeletal properties of animals with progressive CKD. Male Cy/+ rats that develop autosomal dominant cystic kidney disease were treated with either vehicle or raloxifene for five weeks. They were assessed for changes in mineral metabolism and skeletal parameters (microCT, histology, whole-bone mechanics, and material properties). Their normal littermates served as controls. Animals with CKD had significantly higher parathyroid hormone levels compared with normal controls, as well as inferior structural and mechanical skeletal properties. Raloxifene treatment resulted in lower bone remodeling rates and higher cancellous bone volume in the rats with CKD. Although it had little effect on cortical bone geometry, it resulted in higher energy to fracture and modulus of toughness values than vehicle-treated rats with CKD, achieving levels equivalent to normal controls. Animals treated with raloxifene had superior tissue-level mechanical properties as assessed by nanoindentation, and higher collagen D-periodic spacing as assessed by atomic force microscopy. Thus, raloxifene can positively impact whole-bone mechanical properties in CKD through its impact on skeletal material properties.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fêmur/química , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Mecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/complicações , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Coluna Vertebral/química , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
12.
Bone ; 83: 220-232, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26610688

RESUMO

In addition to the loss in bone volume that occurs with age, there is a decline in material properties. To test new therapies or diagnostic tools that target such properties as material strength and toughness, a pre-clinical model of aging would be useful in which changes in bone are similar to those that occur with aging in humans. Toward that end, we hypothesized that similar to human bone, the estimated toughness and material strength of cortical bone at the apparent-level decreases with age in the male Fischer F344 rat. In addition, we tested whether the known decline in trabecular architecture in rats translated to an age-related decrease in vertebra (VB) strength and whether non-X-ray techniques could quantify tissue changes at micron and sub-micron length scales. Bones were harvested from 6-, 12-, and 24-month (mo.) old rats (n=12 per age). Despite a loss in trabecular bone with age, VB compressive strength was similar among the age groups. Similarly, whole-bone strength (peak force) in bending was maintained (femur) or increased (radius) with aging. There was though an age-related decrease in post-yield toughness (radius) and bending strength (femur). The ability to resist crack initiation was actually higher for the 12-mo. and 24-mo. than for 6-mo. rats (notch femur), but the estimated work to propagate the crack was less for the aged bone. For the femur diaphysis region, porosity increased while bound water decreased with age. For the radius diaphysis, there was an age-related increase in non-enzymatic and mature enzymatic collagen crosslinks. Raman spectroscopy analysis of embedded cross-sections of the tibia mid-shaft detected an increase in carbonate subsitution with advanced aging for both inner and outer tissue.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/patologia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Porosidade , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/patologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/fisiopatologia , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Análise Espectral Raman , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 51: 345-55, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26282077

RESUMO

Bone grafts used to repair weight-bearing tibial plateau fractures often experience cyclic loading, and there is a need for bone graft substitutes that prevent failure of fixation and subsequent morbidity. However, the specific mechanical properties required for resorbable grafts to optimize structural compatibility with native bone have yet to be established. While quasi-static tests are utilized to assess weight-bearing ability, compressive strength alone is a poor indicator of in vivo performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of interfacial bonding on material properties under conditions that re-capitulate the cyclic loading associated with weight-bearing fractures. Dynamic compressive fatigue properties of polyurethane (PUR) composites made with either unmodified (U-) or polycaprolactone surface-modified (PCL-) 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) particles were compared to a commercially available calcium sulfate and phosphate-based (CaS/P) bone cement at physiologically relevant stresses (5-30 MPa). Fatigue resistance of PCL-BG/polymer composite was superior to that of the U-BG/polymer composite and the CaS/P cement at higher stress levels for each of the fatigue failure criteria, related to modulus, creep, and maximum displacement, and was comparable to human trabecular bone. Steady state creep and damage accumulation occurred during the fatigue life of the PCL-BG/polymer and CaS/P cement, whereas creep of U-BG/polymer primarily occurred at a low number of loading cycles. From crack propagation testing, fracture toughness or resistance to crack growth was significantly higher for the PCL-BG composite than for the other materials. Finally, the fatigue and fracture toughness properties were intermediate between those of trabecular and cortical bone. These findings highlight the potential of PCL-BG/polyurethane composites as weight-bearing bone grafts.


Assuntos
Cimentos Ósseos , Força Compressiva , Teste de Materiais , Elasticidade , Injeções , Estresse Mecânico
14.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 97(3): 292-307, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783011

RESUMO

Comprising ~20% of the volume, water is a key determinant of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone. It essentially exists in two general compartments: within pores and bound to the matrix. The amount of pore water-residing in the vascular-lacunar-canalicular space-primarily reflects intracortical porosity (i.e., open spaces within the matrix largely due to Haversian canals and resorption sites) and as such is inversely proportional to most mechanical properties of bone. Movement of water according to pressure gradients generated during dynamic loading likely confers hydraulic stiffening to the bone as well. Nonetheless, bound water is a primary contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone in that it is responsible for giving collagen the ability to confer ductility or plasticity to bone (i.e., allows deformation to continue once permanent damage begins to form in the matrix) and decreases with age along with fracture resistance. Thus, dehydration by air-drying or by solvents with less hydrogen bonding capacity causes bone to become brittle, but interestingly, it also increases stiffness and strength across the hierarchical levels of organization. Despite the importance of matrix hydration to fracture resistance, little is known about why bound water decreases with age in hydrated human bone. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), both bound and pore water concentrations in bone can be measured ex vivo because the proton relaxation times differ between the two water compartments, giving rise to two distinct signals. There are also emerging techniques to measure bound and pore water in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NMR/MRI-derived bound water concentration is positively correlated with both the strength and toughness of hydrated bone and may become a useful clinical marker of fracture risk.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Osteon/metabolismo , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Porosidade
15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 30(7): 1290-300, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25639628

RESUMO

Fracture risk does not solely depend on strength but also on fracture toughness; ie, the ability of bone material to resist crack initiation and propagation. Because resistance to crack growth largely depends on bone properties at the tissue level, including collagen characteristics, current X-ray based assessment tools may not be suitable to identify age-related, disease-related, or treatment-related changes in fracture toughness. To identify useful clinical surrogates that could improve the assessment of fracture resistance, we investigated the potential of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and reference point indentation (RPI) to explain age-related variance in fracture toughness. Harvested from cadaveric femurs (62 human donors), single-edge notched beam (SENB) specimens of cortical bone underwent fracture toughness testing (R-curve method). NMR-derived bound water showed the strongest correlation with fracture toughness properties (r = 0.63 for crack initiation, r = 0.35 for crack growth, and r = 0.45 for overall fracture toughness; p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses indicated that the age-related decrease in different fracture toughness properties were best explained by a combination of NMR properties including pore water and RPI-derived tissue stiffness with age as a significant covariate (adjusted R(2) = 53.3%, 23.9%, and 35.2% for crack initiation, crack growth, and overall toughness, respectively; p < 0.001). These findings reflect the existence of many contributors to fracture toughness and emphasize the utility of a multimodal assessment of fracture resistance. Exploring the mechanistic origin of fracture toughness, glycation-mediated nonenzymatic collagen crosslinks and intracortical porosity are possible determinants of bone fracture toughness and could explain the sensitivity of NMR to changes in fracture toughness. Assuming fracture toughness is clinically important to the ability of bone to resist fracture, our results suggest that improvements in fracture risk assessment could potentially be achieved by accounting for water distribution (quantitative ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging) and by a local measure of tissue resistance to indentation, RPI.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Adulto Jovem
16.
Acta Biomater ; 12: 207-215, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462527

RESUMO

An evidence gap exists in fully understanding and reliably modeling the variations in elastic anisotropy that are observed at the millimeter scale in human cortical bone. The porosity (pore volume fraction) is known to account for a large part, but not all, of the elasticity variations. This effect may be modeled by a two-phase micromechanical model consisting of a homogeneous matrix pervaded by cylindrical pores. Although this model has been widely used, it lacks experimental validation. The aim of the present work is to revisit experimental data (elastic coefficients, porosity) previously obtained from 21 cortical bone specimens from the femoral mid-diaphysis of 10 donors and test the validity of the model by proposing a detailed discussion of its hypotheses. This includes investigating to what extent the experimental uncertainties, pore network modeling, and matrix elastic properties influence the model's predictions. The results support the validity of the two-phase model of cortical bone which assumes that the essential source of variations of elastic properties at the millimeter-scale is the volume fraction of vascular porosity. We propose that the bulk of the remaining discrepancies between predicted stiffness coefficients and experimental data (RMSE between 6% and 9%) is in part due to experimental errors and part due to small variations of the extravascular matrix properties. More significantly, although most of the models that have been proposed for cortical bone were based on several homogenization steps and a large number of variable parameters, we show that a model with a single parameter, namely the volume fraction of vascular porosity, is a suitable representation for cortical bone. The results could provide a guide to build specimen-specific cortical bone models. This will be of interest to analyze the structure-function relationship in bone and to design bone-mimicking materials.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Elasticidade , Modelos Teóricos , Porosidade
17.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 37: 174-85, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24929851

RESUMO

Reference point indentation (RPI) is a microindentation technique involving 20 cycles of loading in "force-control" that can directly assess a patient׳s bone tissue properties. Even though preliminary clinical studies indicate a capability for fracture discrimination, little is known about what mechanical behavior the various RPI properties characterize and how these properties relate to traditional mechanical properties of bone. To address this, the present study investigated the sensitivity of RPI properties to anatomical location and tissue organization as well as examined to what extent RPI measurements explain the intrinsic mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Multiple indents with a target force of 10N were done in 2 orthogonal directions (longitudinal and transverse) per quadrant (anterior, medial, posterior, and lateral) of the femoral mid-shaft acquired from 26 donors (25-101 years old). Additional RPI measurements were acquired for 3 orthogonal directions (medial only). Independent of age, most RPI properties did not vary among these locations, but they did exhibit transverse isotropy such that resistance to indentation is greater in the longitudinal (axial) direction than in the transverse direction (radial or circumferential). Next, beam specimens (~2mm×5mm×40mm) were extracted from the medial cortex of femoral mid-shafts, acquired from 34 donors (21-99 years old). After monotonically loading the specimens in three-point bending to failure, RPI properties were acquired from an adjacent region outside the span. Indent direction was orthogonal to the bending axis. A significant inverse relationship was found between resistance to indentation and the apparent-level mechanical properties. Indentation distance increase (IDI) and a linear combination of IDI and the loading slope, averaged over cycles 3 through 20, provided the best explanation of the variance in ultimate stress (r(2)=0.25, p=0.003) and toughness (r(2)=0.35, p=0.004), respectively. With a transverse isotropic behavior akin to tissue hardness and modulus as determined by micro- and nano-indentation and a significant association with toughness, RPI properties are likely influenced by both elastic and plastic behavior of bone tissue.


Assuntos
Fêmur , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microtecnologia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Bone ; 62: 1-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24509412

RESUMO

Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/deficiência , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Óssea/patologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Força Compressiva , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/patologia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Deleção de Genes , Modelos Lineares , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fatores de Tempo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e58043, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23472132

RESUMO

The elastic properties of bone tissue determine the biomechanical behavior of bone at the organ level. It is now widely accepted that the nanoscale structure of bone plays an important role to determine the elastic properties at the tissue level. Hence, in addition to the mineral density, the structure and organization of the mineral nanoparticles and of the collagen microfibrils appear as potential key factors governing the elasticity. Many studies exist on the role of the organization of collagen microfibril and mineral nanocrystals in strongly remodeled bone. However, there is no direct experimental proof to support the theoretical calculations. Here, we provide such evidence through a novel approach combining several high resolution imaging techniques: scanning acoustic microscopy, quantitative scanning small-Angle X-ray scattering imaging and synchrotron radiation computed microtomography. We find that the periodic modulations of elasticity across osteonal bone are essentially determined by the orientation of the mineral nanoparticles and to a lesser extent only by the particle size and density. Based on the strong correlation between the orientation of the mineral nanoparticles and the collagen molecules, we conclude that the microfibril orientation is the main determinant of the observed undulations of microelastic properties in regions of constant mineralization in osteonal lamellar bone. This multimodal approach could be applied to a much broader range of fibrous biological materials for the purpose of biomimetic technologies.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Microfibrilas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Biomimética , Densidade Óssea , Remodelação Óssea , Cadáver , Colágeno/química , Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microfibrilas/química , Modelos Estatísticos , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Síncrotrons , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 132(1): EL54-60, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22779573

RESUMO

Micro-Brillouin scattering (µ-BR) and a 200 MHz scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) with similar spatial resolutions were applied to evaluate tissue elastic properties in two directions in a trabecula. Acoustic impedance measured by SAM was in the range of 5-9 Mrayl. Wave velocities determined by µ-BR were in the range of (4.75-5.11) × 10(3) m/s. Both exhibited a similar trend of variation across the trabecula and were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.63-0.67, p < 0.01). µ-BR is useful for the evaluation of tissue stiffness within a trabecula. Combined with SAM or nanoindentation, it can provide additional information to assess elastic anisotropy at the micro-scale.


Assuntos
Fêmur/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Elasticidade , Microscopia Acústica/métodos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Espectrografia do Som
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