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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109109, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids (POs) is associated with a number of risks, in the context of the opioid-overdose crisis, it may have the secondary benefit of decreasing the risk of exposure to more potent opioids from unregulated sources. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of using diverted POs on fentanyl exposure. METHODS: Using data from two prospective community-recruited cohorts of people who use drugs (PWUD) in Vancouver, Canada, we estimated the independent relationship between using diverted POs and fentanyl exposure (assessed through urine drug test [UDT]) between 2016 and 2018. We also explored if participant characteristics modified this relationship. RESULTS: Over the study period, among 1150 participants, 241 (21.0%) reported using diverted POs in 292 (12.8%) occasions. In adjusted analyses, PWUD using diverted POs had decreased odds of fentanyl exposure (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94). The reduced odds of fentanyl exposure persisted among participants with morphine positive UDT (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.82), but not among those with negative morphine UDT (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.54-1.55). CONCLUSION: PWUD using diverted POs in our sample were 30% less likely to be exposed to fentanyl. This reduced likelihood was primarily observed among PWUD with morphine positive UDT, which could partially be explained by longer duration of action and lower street cost of slow-release oral morphine relative to other POs and fentanyl. Findings suggest that access to a regulated supply of pharmaceutical-grade opioids may serve to reduce fentanyl-related harms.

2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500777

RESUMO

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Biocatálise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato/imunologia
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109006, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and fentanyl use, specifically. This study aimed to estimate the association between current use of different forms of OAT, including methadone, buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX), slow release oral morphine (SROM), or injectable opioid agonist treatment (iOAT), and the likelihood of a fentanyl-positive urine drug test (UDT) as compared to no OAT. METHODS: Data were obtained from three community-recruited prospective cohort studies of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada from December 2016 through November 2018. Using multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), we examined the association between current use of each form of OAT, as compared to no OAT, and fentanyl-positive UDT among participants who use opioids. RESULTS: The 915 participants contributed 2112 UDTs over a median of two follow-up visits. The majority of UDTs (74.9 %) were positive for fentanyl. After adjustment for a priori defined confounding factors, compared to no OAT, current use of BUP/NX was associated with lower odds of fentanyl-positive UDT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.58) while current use of methadone (OR = 0.84, 95 % CI: 0.65-1.07), iOAT (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI: 0.75-2.28), and SROM (OR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 0.74-2.43) were not. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of people who use opioids in Vancouver, only use of BUP/NX was associated with lower odds of fentanyl-positive UDT. Our findings highlight high rates of ongoing fentanyl use despite the use of OAT and support the expansion of BUP/NX for the treatment of people who use fentanyl.

5.
N Z Med J ; 134(1542): 92-95, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531587
7.
Subst Abus ; : 1-7, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283705

RESUMO

Background: Despite increasing prevalence of illicit fentanyl use in the US and Canada, preference for fentanyl over other illicit opioids has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we sought to describe changes in illicit opioid preferences over time among people who inject drugs (PWID). Methods: Data were obtained from two prospective cohort studies between 2017 and 2018. Trends in opioid preference over time were examined using bivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. Multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with fentanyl preference. Results: Among 732 eligible participants, including 425 (58%) males, the prevalence of preference for fentanyl increased from 4.4% in 2017 to 6.6% in 2018 (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.27, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.05-1.52). In a multivariable analysis, younger age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.96) and daily crystal methamphetamine injection (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01-2.78) were independently associated with preference for fentanyl. The most common reasons for preferring fentanyl included "better high than other opioids" (45%), and "lasts longer than heroin" (27%). Conclusions: The current study has demonstrated that preference for fentanyl has been increasing over time among our sample of PWID who use opioids. Further work is needed to clarify risk factors surrounding transitions to illicit fentanyl.

8.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212833

RESUMO

Using data from a nationally generalisable birth cohort, we aimed to: (i) describe the cohort's adherence to national evidence-based dietary guidelines using an Infant Feeding Index (IFI) and (ii) assess the IFI's convergent construct validity, by exploring associations with antenatal maternal socio-demographic and health behaviours and with child overweight/obesity and central adiposity at age 54 months. Data were from the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort (n 6343). The IFI scores ranged from zero to twelve points, with twelve representing full adherence to the guidelines. Overweight/obesity was defined by BMI-for-age (based on the WHO Growth Standards). Central adiposity was defined as waist-to-height ratio > 90th percentile. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression and Poisson regression with robust variance (risk ratios, 95 % CI). Mean IFI score was 8·2 (sd 2·1). Maternal characteristics explained 29·1 % of variation in the IFI score. Maternal age, education and smoking had the strongest independent relationships with IFI scores. Compared with children in the highest IFI tertile, girls in the lowest and middle tertiles were more likely to be overweight/obese (1·46, 1·03, 2·06 and 1·56, 1·09, 2·23, respectively) and boys in the lowest tertile were more likely to have central adiposity (1·53, 1·02, 2·30) at age 54 months. Most infants fell short of meeting national Infant Feeding Guidelines. The associations between IFI score and maternal characteristics, and children's overweight/obesity/central adiposity, were in the expected directions and confirm the IFI's convergent construct validity.

9.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4383-4390, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) transmission can help describe seasonal epidemics and assess the impact of potential vaccines and immunoprophylaxis with monoclonal antibodies (mAb). METHODS: We developed a deterministic, compartmental model for RSV transmission, which was fitted to population-based RSV hospital surveillance data from Auckland, New Zealand. The model simulated the introduction of either a maternal vaccine or a seasonal mAb among infants aged less than 6 months and estimated the reduction in RSV hospitalizations for a range of effectiveness and coverage values. RESULTS: The model accurately reproduced the annual seasonality of RSV epidemics in Auckland. We found that a maternal vaccine with effectiveness of 30-40% in the first 90 days and 15-20% for the next 90 days could reduce RSV hospitalizations by 18-24% in children younger than 3 months, by 11-14% in children aged 3-5 months, and by 2-3% in children aged 6-23 months. A seasonal infant mAb with 40-60% effectiveness for 150 days could reduce RSV hospitalizations by 30-43%, 34-48% and by 14-21% in children aged 0-2 months, 3-5 months and 6-23 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that either a maternal RSV vaccine or mAb would effectively reduce RSV hospitalization disease burden in New Zealand. Overall, a seasonal mAb resulted in a larger disease prevention impact than a maternal vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunização , Lactente , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle
11.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(10): 1594-1599, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969914

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the variability by ethnicity, socio-economic status and location in coverage and testability of the universal B4 School Check vision screening in children aged 4-5 years in New Zealand. METHODS: Aggregated data from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2015 were sourced from the Statistics New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure. Sourced data were attendance at vision screening and record of visual acuity measurement stratified by ethnicity, socio-economic status and region. Children who attended screening were compared with the eligible population (n = 252 279) to calculate coverage. Testability was determined by comparing the children with a recorded visual acuity measurement in each eye with those who attended screening. RESULTS: Overall vision screening coverage was 89.5% and testability was 97.8%. Ethnic differences were evident for coverage (85.7% in Pacific children, 92.5% in European children) and testability (96.4% in Maori children, 98.4% in European children). Socio-economic differences were also observed for coverage (86.4% in most deprived areas, 92.4% in least deprived), testability (most deprived 96.3%, least deprived 98.7%) and by region (coverage range of 80.4-96.4% and testability range of 93.2-99.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Significant disparities exist in vision screening coverage and testability for New Zealand pre-school children. Equity-focused initiatives are required to improve outcomes for children from Maori and Pacific families, and those from households in lower socio-economic areas. Understanding region-specific challenges and successes could support more equitable access to vision screening between regions. Further research is required to determine sources of inequities and to investigate interactions between ethnicity, socio-economic status and location.

12.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043516, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Child and adolescent obesity continues to be a major health issue internationally. This study aims to understand the views and experiences of caregivers and participants in a child and adolescent multidisciplinary programme for healthy lifestyle change. DESIGN: Qualitative focus group study. SETTING: Community-based healthy lifestyle intervention programme in a mixed urban-rural region of Aotearoa/New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Parents/caregivers (n=6) and children/adolescents (n=8) who participated in at least 6 months of an assessment and weekly session, family-based community intervention programme for children and adolescents affected by obesity. RESULTS: Findings covered participant experiences, healthy lifestyle changes due to participating in the programme, the delivery team, barriers to engagement and improvements. Across these domains, four key themes emerged from the focus groups for participants and their caregivers relating to their experience: knowledge-sharing, enabling a family to become self-determining in their process to achieve healthy lifestyle change; the importance of connectedness and a family-based programme; the sense of a collective journey and the importance of a nonjudgemental, respectful welcoming environment. Logistical challenges and recommendations for improvement were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers need to consider the experiences of participants alongside quantitative outcomes when informing multidisciplinary intervention programmes for children and adolescents affected by obesity.Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR):12611000862943; Post-results.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977304

RESUMO

North America has been contending with an unregulated street drug supply in which opioids are often adulterated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. The unpredictability of composition may result in an increased risk of overdose due to unexpected elevated concentrations of the high-potency drug. Using data from a community-based drug checking project, we evaluated trends in fentanyl concentration of illicit opioids in the context of an overdose epidemic. Using a quantification model for fentanyl hydrochloride, historical Fourier-transform infrared spectra from opioid drug checking samples were analyzed to determine fentanyl concentrations. Median monthly fentanyl concentrations were plotted and polynomial and autoregressive time-series analyses were conducted to examine trends over time. A total of 3,621 fentanyl positive samples were included in the study, spanning November 2017 to December 2019. Monthly median fentanyl concentrations ranged from 4.5% to 10.4%. Time-series analyses indicated that a third-degree polynomial model fit the data well (R2 = 0.639), suggesting a cyclical pattern in median concentration over time. Notably, absolute variance in fentanyl concentration decreased by an average 0.1% per month (p<0.001). Future research should explore the relationship between fentanyl concentration and overdose to identify potential targeted harm reduction interventions that can respond to changes in observed fentanyl concentration.

14.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(5): 540-548, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital admission for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) during early childhood is a global public health concern. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent during pregnancy and infancy. Evidence indicates that vitamin D supplementation prevents ARIs. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vitamin D deficiency at birth is associated with ARI hospitalisations during infancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study in children aged 0-12 months. Cases had ≥1 ARI hospitalisation and 4 controls were individually matched to each case. Newborn 25(OH)D concentration was measured on dried blood spots using two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hospital admissions were measured using health care records. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration in cases and controls was compared, and covariates of ARI hospitalisation during infancy were assessed using conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Six per cent of the cohort (n = 384) had an ARI hospitalisation during infancy, and 1536 controls were matched to cases. Median DBS [25(OH)D] was lower among ARI cases than controls (46 nmol/l vs. 61 nmol/L). Median 25(OH)D levels were lower for those hospitalised ≥2 times (47, IQR 36, 58) vs. those hospitalised once (52, IQR 42, 62) vs. the controls and also lower for those who stayed in the hospital for ≥3 days (45, IQR 36, 54) vs 1-2 days (48, IQR 38, 59) compared to the controls. After adjustment for season of birth and covariates describing demographic, antenatal, perinatal, and infant characteristics, DBS 25(OH)D concentration (<50 nmol/L) at birth was associated with increased odds of ARI hospitalisation during infancy (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.48, 2.91). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency at birth is associated with increased odds of ARI hospitalisations in infants. The findings have implications for a developed country like New Zealand where vitamin D supplementation is not routinely recommended and the burden of ARI hospitalisation in young children is high.

15.
N Z Med J ; 134(1533): 80-95, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927426

RESUMO

AIM: To document trends in number and cost of asthma hospital admissions and asthma prescriptions in children (0-14 years) from 2010-2019 in New Zealand. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of public hospital admission and pharmaceutical prescription data. RESULTS: The dataset included 39,731 hospitalisations with asthma as a discharge diagnosis and 5,512,856 prescriptions for asthma medication in children ≤14 years old. From 2010 to 2019, there was a 45% reduction in the number of asthma hospitalisations and an 18% reduction in prescriptions attributable to asthma. Declines were evident for both Maori and non-Maori children. However, Maori children were hospitalised with asthma at twice the rate of non-Maori children (7.2/1,000 versus 3.5/1,000, p<0.001), and a larger proportion of Maori children had an asthma readmission within 90 days of their first admission (18% versus 14%, p <0.001). Asthma admission rates for children from families living in the highest deprivation areas were, on average, 2.8 times higher than in the least deprived areas. We estimate that the combined cost of asthma hospitalisations and prescriptions was $165m. Of this, $103m was for hospital admissions and $62m was for prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Although hospitalisations and prescriptions attributable to asthma have declined, there are clear inequities in the health outcomes of New Zealand children with asthma. Our analysis indicates that many New Zealand children, particularly Maori children and those living in areas of high deprivation, are not receiving levels of primary care for asthma that are consistent with prevention.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Pobreza/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Adolescente , Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
16.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(3): 541-552, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preschool children in New Zealand undergo vision screening to detect amblyopia at 4-5 years of age. The current test, the Parr vision test, does not meet international visual acuity chart guidelines and has not been validated against other commonly used paediatric vision tests. New Zealand vision screening protocols are also not targeted for detecting other eye conditions such as uncorrected refractive error, which may affect school performance. We compared the Parr vision test with the single crowded Lea symbols and the Spot vision screener for detecting ocular pathology, refractive error and amblyopic risk factors in preschool children. METHODS: A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study recruited children aged 4-5 years via convenience sampling from the University of Auckland Optometry Clinic and through primary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants received vision screening with the three different instruments administered by a lay screener. Comprehensive eye examinations were completed by a paediatric optometrist to determine the presence of vision disorders. RESULTS: Of 197 children who received a comprehensive eye examination, 14 (7.1%) had amblyopic risk factors and 43 (21.8%) had significant refractive error (15.7% with astigmatism, 9.1% with hyperopia). The sensitivity for detecting any ocular condition did not differ significantly between the tests (50.0% for Parr, 43.5% for Lea, 42.5% for Spot). Specificity was significantly lower for the Parr vision test (80.8%) than for the Lea symbols (93.4%) and Spot vision screener (98.0%). Adding the Spot vision screener to measurements of visual acuity significantly improved sensitivity in detecting any ocular condition with the Parr vision test (67.5% for Parr/Spot vs 50% for Parr alone), but not with the Lea symbols (52.5% for Lea/Spot vs 43.5% for Lea alone). CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of the Parr vision test for detecting ocular conditions in preschool children does not vary significantly from that achieved by the Lea symbols or the Spot vision screener. However, current New Zealand vision screening protocols could be improved by expanding the target conditions to include significant refractive error and incorporating the use of the Spot vision screener to increase the accuracy with which children with refractive error are identified. Future research should include longitudinal studies to determine the effect of preschool vision screening on later ocular and academic outcomes.

17.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 26, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While patient-reported treatment dissatisfaction is considered an important factor in determining the success of substance use disorder treatment, the levels of dissatisfaction with opioid agonist therapies (OAT) and its relationship with the risk of fentanyl exposure have not been characterized in the context of the ongoing opioid overdose crisis in the US and Canada. Our primary hypothesis was that OAT dissatisfaction was associated with an increased odds of fentanyl exposure. METHODS: Our objective was to examine self-reported treatment satisfaction among OAT patients in Vancouver, Canada and the association with fentanyl exposure. Longitudinal data were derived from 804 participants on OAT enrolled in two community-recruited harmonized prospective cohort studies of people who use drugs in Vancouver between 2016 and 2018 via semi-annual interviews and urine drug screens (UDS). We employed multivariable generalized estimating equations to examine the relationship between OAT dissatisfaction and fentanyl exposure. RESULTS: Out of 804 participants (57.0% male), 222 (27.6%) reported being dissatisfied with OAT at baseline and 1070 out of 1930 observations (55.4%) had fentanyl exposure. The distribution of OAT reported in the sample was methadone (n = 692, 77.7%), buprenorphine-naloxone (n = 82, 9.2%), injectable OAT (i.e., diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone; (n = 65, 7.3%), slow-release oral morphine (n = 44, 4.9%) and other/study medication (n = 8, 1.0%). In the multivariable analysis, OAT dissatisfaction was positively associated with fentanyl exposure (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of OAT patients in our sample reported dissatisfaction with their OAT, and more than half were exposed to fentanyl. We also found that those who were dissatisfied with their OAT were more likely to be exposed to fentanyl. These findings demonstrate the importance of optimizing OAT satisfaction in the context of the ongoing opioid overdose crisis.

18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 276-292, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry for studies listed from database inception to May 1, 2020. Double-blind RCTs of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation for any duration, with a placebo or low-dose vitamin D control, were eligible if they had been approved by a research ethics committee, and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Studies reporting results of long-term follow-up of primary RCTs were excluded. Aggregated study-level data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration and age, were obtained from study authors. Using the proportion of participants in each trial who had one or more ARIs, we did a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs (primary outcome) compared with placebo. Subgroup analyses were done to estimate whether the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25(OH)D concentration (<25 nmol/L vs 25·0-49·9 nmol/L vs 50·0-74·9 nmol/L vs >75·0 nmol/L), vitamin D dose (daily equivalent of <400 international units [IU] vs 400-1000 IU vs 1001-2000 IU vs >2000 IU), dosing frequency (daily vs weekly vs once per month to once every 3 months), trial duration (≤12 months vs >12 months), age at enrolment (<1·00 years vs 1·00-15·99 years vs 16·00-64·99 years vs ≥65·00 years), and presence versus absence of airway disease (ie, asthma only, COPD only, or unrestricted). Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. The study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190633. FINDINGS: We identified 1528 articles, of which 46 RCTs (75 541 participants) were eligible. Data for the primary outcome were obtained for 48 488 (98·1%) of 49 419 participants (aged 0-95 years) in 43 studies. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the vitamin D supplementation group had one or more ARIs (14 332 [61·3%] of 23 364 participants) than in the placebo group (14 217 [62·3%] of 22 802 participants), with an OR of 0·92 (95% CI 0·86-0·99; 37 studies; I2=35·6%, pheterogeneity=0·018). No significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs was observed for any of the subgroups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects of supplementation were observed in trials in which vitamin D was given in a daily dosing regimen (OR 0·78 [95% CI 0·65-0·94]; 19 studies; I2=53·5%, pheterogeneity=0·003), at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (0·70 [0·55-0·89]; ten studies; I2=31·2%, pheterogeneity=0·16), for a duration of 12 months or less (0·82 [0·72-0·93]; 29 studies; I2=38·1%, pheterogeneity=0·021), and to participants aged 1·00-15·99 years at enrolment (0·71 [0·57-0·90]; 15 studies; I2=46·0%, pheterogeneity=0·027). No significant interaction between allocation to the vitamin D supplementation group versus the placebo group and dose, dose frequency, study duration, or age was observed. In addition, no significant difference in the proportion of participants who had at least one serious adverse event in the vitamin supplementation group compared with the placebo group was observed (0·97 [0·86-1·07]; 36 studies; I2=0·0%, pheterogeneity=0·99). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. INTERPRETATION: Despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials, vitamin D supplementation was safe and overall reduced the risk of ARI compared with placebo, although the risk reduction was small. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU for up to 12 months, and age at enrolment of 1·00-15·99 years. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires further investigation. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/dietoterapia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 501, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715630

RESUMO

In a recent issue of the BMC Public Health journal, Littlewood et al. described the results of a systematic review of interventions to prevent or treat childhood obesity in Maori or Pacific Island peoples. They found that studies to date have had limited impact on improving health outcomes for Maori and Pacific Island peoples, and suggest this may be due to a lack of co-design principles in the conception of the various studies. Ensuring that interventions are appropriate for groups most affected by obesity is critical; however, some inaccuracies should be noted in the explanation of these findings. There is a risk with systematic reviews that the context of intervention trials is lost without acknowledging the associated body of literature for programmes that refer to the ongoing commitment to communities and groups most affected by obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Ilhas do Pacífico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(5): 969-972, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734849

RESUMO

Objectives. To characterize the prevalence and reasons for the use of cannabis as a strategy to reduce the harms arising from other substances.Methods. We drew data about recent cannabis use and intentions from 3 prospective cohort studies of marginalized people who use drugs based in Vancouver, Canada, from June 2016 to May 2018. The primary outcome was "use of cannabis for harm reduction," defined as using cannabis for substitution for licit or illicit substances such as heroin or other opioids, cocaine, methamphetamine, or alcohol; treating withdrawal; or coming down off other drugs.Results. Approximately 1 in 4 participants reported using cannabis for harm reduction at least once during the study period. The most frequent reasons included substituting for stimulants (50%) and substituting for illicit opioids (31%).Conclusions. The use of cannabis for harm reduction is a common strategy among people who use drugs in our setting. Further research into the factors associated with this strategy is needed. Better characterization of the risks and benefits of substitution strategies, including for opioids and stimulants, may prompt new treatment options for PWUD.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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