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1.
Heliyon ; 5(7): 1-8, Jul 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1006879

RESUMO

Objectives: Our aims were to evaluate HRV in pulmonary hypertension (WHO Group 1 and 4) compared to control subjects, and to assess whether the presence of sleep apnea in those with pulmonary hypertension would be deleterious and cause greater impairment in HRV. Methods: This retrospective case-control study analyzed electrocardiogram segments obtained from diagnostic polysomnography. Results: Forty-one pulmonary hypertension patients were compared to 41 age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index matched healthy controls. The pulmonary hypertension group had decreased high frequency, very low frequency, low frequency, and percentage of normal R-R intervals that differ by > 50 ms compared to control subjects. Moderate to severe right ventricle dysfunction on echocardiography was a predictor of lower high frequency in pulmonary hypertension patients. Conclusions: There were no differences in any HRV measures in pulmonary hypertension patients with or without sleep apnea. Impaired HRV was demonstrated in pulmonary hypertension patients however, the presence of sleep apnea did not appear to further reduce vagal modulation.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão Pulmonar
2.
Heart ; 105(19): 1471-1478, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the prevalence, predictors, prognostic relevance and evolution of pulmonary hypertension (PH) (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg) in adult patients with a subaortic right ventricle (RV) in a biventricular circulation (2V-RV). METHODS: We analysed retrospective data from patients with 2V-RV undergoing cardiac catheterisation in our centre between 2000 and 2018. Echocardiographic assessment of subpulmonary ventricular pressures (left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP)), age and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were assessed as PH screening tools. Kaplan-Meier curves examined time to a composite outcome of death, transplant or ventricular assist device (VAD). Data from repeat catheterisations were analysed to evaluate PH changes over time, including the effects of therapy. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients (median age 39 (IQR 33-45) years, 68% men) underwent 191 cardiac catheterisations. At baseline, 55% had PH (isolated postcapillary 24%, combined precapillary and postcapillary 26% and precapillary 5%). BNP (area under the curve 0.80; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88; p<0.0001), but not age at catheterisation or echocardiographic estimates of LVSP were associated with the presence of PH. The absence of PH and BNP <100 pg/mL discriminated a subgroup at very low risk during short-term (2.5 (1.3-3.9) years) follow-up (p<0.0001). Diuretics, milrinone and VAD improved haemodynamics over time. CONCLUSION: PH is prevalent in patients with 2V-RV even when asymptomatic. It is difficult to identify by echocardiography and most importantly, is strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PH affects prognosis and transplant options for this patient group and yet is often amenable to treatment. Awareness of these results ought to lower the threshold for invasive haemodynamic assessment and may change the management of failing patients with 2V-RV.

3.
Respirology ; 24(11): 1104-1110, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMC). OPN is upregulated in the lungs of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that the lung is a source of OPN. We hypothesized that OPN lung expression is elevated in Group I pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is correlated to haemodynamics. METHODS: Microarray analysis (Affymetrix) was performed after RNA was extracted from explanted lungs in 15 patients with Group I PAH who underwent lung transplantation (LTx) and 11 normal controls. PA pressure levels were recorded intraoperatively, immediately before starting LTx. Serum OPN levels were measured in subjects with PAH, Group II PH and normal controls on the day of right heart catheterization. RESULTS: OPN was among the top five upregulated genes in PAH compared to normal controls, which was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OPN expression was similar and equally elevated in different subtypes of PAH. A strong significant correlation was observed between mean pulmonary arterial pressure and OPN gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed the involvement of OPN in functions and networks relevant to angiogenesis, cell death and proliferation of PA-SMC. OPN serum levels did not differ in subjects with Group I PAH and Group II PH. CONCLUSION: In the lungs of patients with severe PAH, OPN is highly expressed and the level of expression is significantly correlated to disease severity. OPN may play an important role in the vascular remodelling process of PAH.

4.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 2(4): 670-677, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349885

RESUMO

Introduction: Risk factors for exercise limitation after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are unknown. As a planned sub-study of the prospective, multicenter ELOPE (Evaluation of Long-term Outcomes after PE) Study, we aimed to describe the results of serial imaging by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and perfusion scan during 1 year after a first episode of acute pulmonary embolism, and to assess the association between imaging parameters and exercise limitation at 1 year. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 100 patients were recruited between June 2010 and February 2013 at five Canadian university-affiliated hospitals. CT pulmonary angiography was performed at baseline and 12 months, perfusion scan at 6 and 12 months, and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing at 1 and 12 months. Imaging parameters included: on CT pulmonary angiography, CT obstruction index (CTO) (% clot burden in the pulmonary vasculature), and on perfusion scan, pulmonary vascular obstruction (PVO) (% perfusion defect). Abnormal cardio-pulmonary exercise test (primary outcome) was defined as percent of predicted peak oxygen uptake (VO2) <80%. Results: Mean (median; SD) CT obstruction index was 28.1% (27.5%; 18.3%) at baseline, 1.2% (0%; 4.3%) at 12 months. Mean (median; SD) pulmonary vascular obstruction was 6.0% (0%; 9.6%) at 6 months, 5.6% (0%; 9.8%) at 12 months. Eighty-six patients had exercise testing at 12 months, and 46.5% had VO2 < 80% predicted. Mean (median; SD) CT obstruction index at 1 year was similar in patients with percent-predicted VO2 peak <80% vs >80% on 1-year cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (1.4% [0%; 5.7%] vs 1.0% [0%; 2.4%]; P = .70). Mean (SD) pulmonary vascular obstruction at 6 and at 12 months was similar in patients with percent-predicted VO2 peak <80% vs >80% (6 months: 5.9% [0%; 10.4%] vs 6.2% [4.5%; 9.0%]; P = .91; 12 months: 5.1% [0%; 10.2%] vs 6.0% [0%; 9.7%]; P = .71). Conclusions: Imaging findings after pulmonary embolism did not predict exercise limitation. Residual thrombus does not appear to explain long-term functional limitation after pulmonary embolism.

5.
Lancet ; 391(10140): 2631-2640, 2018 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional capacity is an important component of risk assessment for major surgery. Doctors' clinical subjective assessment of patients' functional capacity has uncertain accuracy. We did a study to compare preoperative subjective assessment with alternative markers of fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing [CPET], scores on the Duke Activity Status Index [DASI] questionnaire, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT pro-BNP] concentrations) for predicting death or complications after major elective non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We did a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study at 25 hospitals: five in Canada, seven in the UK, ten in Australia, and three in New Zealand. We recruited adults aged at least 40 years who were scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery and deemed to have one or more risk factors for cardiac complications (eg, a history of heart failure, stroke, or diabetes) or coronary artery disease. Functional capacity was subjectively assessed in units of metabolic equivalents of tasks by the responsible anaesthesiologists in the preoperative assessment clinic, graded as poor (<4), moderate (4-10), or good (>10). All participants also completed the DASI questionnaire, underwent CPET to measure peak oxygen consumption, and had blood tests for measurement of NT pro-BNP concentrations. After surgery, patients had daily electrocardiograms and blood tests to measure troponin and creatinine concentrations until the third postoperative day or hospital discharge. The primary outcome was death or myocardial infarction within 30 days after surgery, assessed in all participants who underwent both CPET and surgery. Prognostic accuracy was assessed using logistic regression, receiver-operating-characteristic curves, and net risk reclassification. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2013, and March 25, 2016, we included 1401 patients in the study. 28 (2%) of 1401 patients died or had a myocardial infarction within 30 days of surgery. Subjective assessment had 19·2% sensitivity (95% CI 14·2-25) and 94·7% specificity (93·2-95·9) for identifying the inability to attain four metabolic equivalents during CPET. Only DASI scores were associated with predicting the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·83-0·99; p=0·03). INTERPRETATION: Subjectively assessed functional capacity should not be used for preoperative risk evaluation. Clinicians could instead consider a measure such as DASI for cardiac risk assessment. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science, UK National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia, UK Clinical Research Collaboration, Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, and Monash University.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878071

RESUMO

Aims: The assumption of equivalence between right ventricular and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is fundamental to several assessments of right ventricular or pulmonary vascular hemodynamic function. Our aims were to 1) determine whether systolic pressure gradients develop across the right ventricular outflow tract in healthy adults during exercise, 2) examine the potential correlates of such gradients, and 3) consider the effect of such gradients on calculated indices of right ventricular function. Methods and Results: Healthy untrained and endurance-trained adult volunteers were studied using right-heart catheterization at rest and during submaximal cycle ergometry. Right ventricular and pulmonary artery pressures were simultaneously transduced, and cardiac output was determined by thermodilution. Systolic pressures, peak and mean gradients, and indices of chamber, vascular, and valve function were analyzed offline. Summary data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median [interquartile range]. No significant right ventricular outflow tract gradients were observed at rest (mean gradient = 4 [3-5] mmHg), and calculated effective orifice area was 3.6±1.0 cm2. Right ventricular systolic pressure increases during exercise were greater than that of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Accordingly, mean gradients developed during light exercise (8 [7-9] mmHg) and increased during moderate exercise (12 [9-14] mmHg, p < 0.001). The magnitude of the mean gradient was linearly related to cardiac output (r2 = 0.70, p < 0.001). Conclusions: In healthy adults without pulmonic stenosis, systolic pressure gradients develop during exercise, and the magnitude is related to blood flow rate.

7.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 44(2): 203-213, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622292

RESUMO

A challenge to the use of observational data to study treatment effects is the issue of confounding. Noncomparability of exposed and nonexposed subjects can lead to biased estimation of the treatment effect. The propensity score is a balancing score that can be used to form matched groups, or pairs, that are not systematically different and enable nonbiased comparisons between groups. This article reviews propensity score methods with an illustrative example of the application of propensity score matching in an observational study of an uncommon disease (systemic sclerosis).

8.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 44(2): 361-370, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622302

RESUMO

The use of applied Bayesian methods is increasing in rheumatology. Using the Bayes theorem, past evidence is updated with new data. Preexisting data are expressed as a prior probability distribution or prior. New observations are expressed as a likelihood. Through explicit incorporation of preexisting data and new data, this process informs how this new information should change the way we think. In this article, the authors highlight the use of applied Bayesian methods in the study of rheumatic diseases.

9.
Chest ; 154(3): 678-690, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253554

RESUMO

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with clinically significant morbidity and mortality. Patients who are critically ill are commonly thrombocytopenic and exposed to heparin. Although HIT should be considered, it is not usually the cause of thrombocytopenia in the medical-surgical ICU population. A systematic approach to the patient who is critically ill who has thrombocytopenia according to clinical features, complemented by appropriate laboratory confirmation, should lead to a reduction in inappropriate laboratory testing and reduce the use of more expensive and less reliable anticoagulants. If the patient is deemed as being at intermediate or high risk for HIT or if HIT is confirmed by means of the serotonin-release assay, heparin should be stopped, heparin-bonded catheters should be removed, and a direct antithrombin or fondaparinux should be initiated to reduce the risk of thrombosis. Warfarin is absolutely contraindicated in the acute phase of HIT; if administered, its effects must be reversed by using vitamin K.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201389

RESUMO

Background: Dysphagia following prolonged intubation after cardiovascular (CV) surgery is common occurring in 67% of patients; however, this population's swallowing physiology has never been prospectively evaluated using standardized methods. Hence, prior to conducting a larger study, our primary objective was to determine the feasibility of assessing swallowing physiology using instrumentation and validated interpretation methods in cardiovascular surgical patients following prolonged intubation. Method: From July to October 2011, we approached adults undergoing CV surgery at our institution who were intubated > 48 h. Those with a tracheostomy were excluded. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFS) and nasendoscopy were completed within 48 h after extubation. Feasibility measurements included recruitment rate, patient participation, task completion durations, and the inter-rater reliability of VFS measures using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). VFSs were interpreted using perceptual rating tools (Modified Barium Swallow Measurement Tool for Swallow Impairment™© and Penetration Aspiration Scale) and objective displacement measurements (hyoid displacement and pharyngeal constriction ratio). Results: Of the 39 patients intubated > 48 h, 16 met inclusion criteria with three enrolled and completing the VFS. All refused nasendoscopy. Across all VFSs, rating completion time ranged from 14.6 to 51.7 min per patient with ICCs for VFS scales ranging from 0.25 (95% CI - 0.10 to 0.59) to 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99). Conclusions: This study design was not feasible as recruitment was slow, few patients participated, and no patient agreed to all procedures. We discuss necessary methodological changes and lessons learned that would generalize to future research.

12.
Am J Med ; 130(8): 990.e9-990.e21, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life (QOL), dyspnea, and functional exercise capacity during the year following the diagnosis of a first episode of pulmonary embolism. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter cohort study of 100 patients with acute pulmonary embolism recruited at 5 Canadian hospitals from 2010-2013. We measured the outcomes QOL (by Short-Form Health Survey-36 [SF-36] and Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life [PEmb-QoL] measures), dyspnea (by the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire [SOBQ]) and 6-minute walk distance at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after acute pulmonary embolism. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed at baseline, echocardiogram was performed within 10 days, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed at 1 and 12 months. Predictors of change in QOL, dyspnea, and 6-minute walk distance were assessed by repeated-measures mixed-effects models analysis. RESULTS: Mean age was 50.0 years; 57% were male and 80% were treated as outpatients. Mean scores for all outcomes improved during 1-year follow-up: from baseline to 12 months, mean SF-36 physical component score improved by 8.8 points, SF-36 mental component score by 5.3 points, PEmb-QoL by -32.1 points, and SOBQ by -16.3 points, and 6-minute walk distance improved by 40 m. Independent predictors of reduced improvement over time were female sex, higher body mass index, and percent-predicted VO2 peak <80% on 1 month cardiopulmonary exercise test for all outcomes; prior lung disease and higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure on 10-day echocardiogram for the outcomes SF-36 physical component score and dyspnea score; and higher main pulmonary artery diameter on baseline computed tomography pulmonary angiography for the outcome PEmb-QoL score. CONCLUSIONS: On average, QOL, dyspnea, and walking distance improve during the year after pulmonary embolism. However, a number of clinical and physiological predictors of reduced improvement over time were identified, most notably female sex, higher body mass index, and exercise limitation on 1-month cardiopulmonary exercise test. Our results provide new information on patient-relevant prognosis after pulmonary embolism.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Dispneia/etiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Caminhada , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Distribuição por Sexo
14.
Can Respir J ; 2017: 6736239, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293128

RESUMO

Background. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a potential biomarker to distinguish systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). We evaluated the discriminative validity, feasibility, methods of eNO measurement, and magnitude of differences across lung diseases, disease-subsets (SSc, systemic lupus erythematosus), and healthy-controls. Methods. Consecutive subjects in the UHN Pulmonary Hypertension Programme were recruited. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured at 50 mL/s intervals using chemiluminescent detection. Alveolar and conducting airway NO were partitioned using a two-compartment model of axial diffusion (CMAD) and the trumpet model of axial diffusion (TMAD). Results. Sixty subjects were evaluated. Using the CMAD model, control subjects had lower median (IQR) alveolar NO than all PAH subjects (2.0 (1.5, 2.5) versus 3.14 ppb (2.3, 4.0), p = 0.008). SSc-ILD had significantly lower median conducting airway NO compared to controls (1009.5 versus 1342.1 ml⁎ppb/s, p = 0.04). SSc-PAH had increased median (IQR) alveolar NO compared to controls (3.3 (3.0, 5.7) versus 2.0 ppb (1.5, 2.5), p = 0.01). SSc-PAH conducting airway NO inversely correlated with DLCO (r -0.88 (95% CI -0.99, -0.26)). Conclusion. We have demonstrated feasibility, identified that CMAD modeling is preferred in SSc, and reported the magnitude of differences across cases and controls. Our data supports discriminative validity of eNO in SSc lung disease.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo
15.
Chest ; 151(5): 1058-1068, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27932051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the frequency and predictors of exercise limitation after pulmonary embolism (PE) and to assess its association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and dyspnea. METHODS: One hundred patients with acute PE were recruited at five Canadian hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed at 1 and 12 months. Quality of life (QoL), dyspnea, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), residual clot burden (perfusion scan, CT pulmonary angiography), cardiac function (echocardiography), and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were measured during follow-up. The prespecified primary outcome was percent predicted peak oxygen uptake (Vo2 peak) < 80% at 1-year CPET. RESULTS: At 1 year, 40 of 86 patients (46.5%) had percent predicted Vo2 peak < 80% on CPET, which was associated with significantly worse generic health-related QoL (HRQoL), PE-specific HRQoL and dyspnea scores, and significantly reduced 6MWD at 1 year. Predictors of the primary outcome included male sex (relative risk [RR], 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-8.1), age (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99 per 1-year age increase), BMI (RR 1.1; 95% CI, 1.01-1.2 per 1 kg/m2 BMI increase), and smoking history (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), as well as percent predicted Vo2 peak < 80% on CPET at 1 month (RR, 3.8; 95% CI,1.9-7.2), and 6MWD at 1 month (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9 per 30-m increased walking distance). Baseline or residual clot burden was not associated with the primary outcome. Mean PFT and echocardiographic results (pulmonary artery pressure, right and left ventricular systolic function) at 1 year were similarly within normal limits in both patients with exercise limitations and those without such limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of patients with PE have exercise limitation at 1 year that adversely influences HRQoL, dyspnea, and walking distance. CPET or 6MWD testing at 1 month may help to identify patients with a higher risk of exercise limitation at 1 year after PE. Based on our results, we believe that the deconditioning that occurs after acute PE could underlie this exercise limitation, but we cannot exclude the fact that this may have been present before PE. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01174628; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Nível de Saúde , Consumo de Oxigênio , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Dispneia/etiologia , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão , Estudos Prospectivos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Caminhada
16.
Can Respir J ; 2016: 6279250, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27445555

RESUMO

Background. There are no Canadian prevalence studies on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to date. We described the characteristics of treated PAH patients and the healthcare utilization and costs associated with PAH in a population of public drug plan beneficiaries in Ontario, Canada. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted between April 2010 and March 2011 to identify treated PAH patients using population-based health administrative databases. We investigated demographic and clinical characteristics of treated PAH patients and conducted a cohort study to determine treatment patterns, healthcare utilization, and associated costs, over a one-year follow-up period (March 2012). Results. We identified 326 treated PAH cases in Ontario's publicly funded drug plan. Overall mean age was 59.4 years (±20.3 years) and over 77% of cases were women (n = 251). Combination therapy was used to treat 22.9% (n = 69) of cases, costing an average of $4,569 (SD $1,544) per month. Median monthly healthcare costs were $264 (IQR $96-$747) for those who survived and $2,021 (IQR $993-$6,399) for those who died over a one-year period, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions. PAH care in Ontario is complex and has high healthcare costs. This data may help guide towards improved patient management.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/economia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 6(3): e010359, 2016 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969643

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative functional capacity is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular and other complications of major non-cardiac surgery. Nonetheless, the usual approach for estimating preoperative functional capacity, namely doctors' subjective assessment, may not accurately predict postoperative morbidity or mortality. 3 possible alternatives are cardiopulmonary exercise testing; the Duke Activity Status Index, a standardised questionnaire for estimating functional capacity; and the serum concentration of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP), a biomarker for heart failure and cardiac ischaemia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) Study is a multicentre prospective cohort study of patients undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery at 25 participating study sites in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK. We aim to recruit 1723 participants. Prior to surgery, participants undergo symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer, complete the Duke Activity Status Index questionnaire, undergo blood sampling to measure serum NT pro-BNP concentration and have their functional capacity subjectively assessed by their responsible doctors. Participants are followed for 1 year after surgery to assess vital status, postoperative complications and general health utilities. The primary outcome is all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction within 30 days after surgery, and the secondary outcome is all-cause death within 1 year after surgery. Both receiver-operating-characteristic curve methods and risk reclassification table methods will be used to compare the prognostic accuracy of preoperative subjective assessment, peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, Duke Activity Status Index scores and serum NT pro-BNP concentration. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The METS Study has received research ethics board approval at all sites. Participant recruitment began in March 2013, and 1-year follow-up is expected to finish in 2016. Publication of the results of the METS Study is anticipated to occur in 2017.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Projetos de Pesquisa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Biomarcadores/sangue , Canadá , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
19.
J Physiol ; 594(12): 3307-15, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880530

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: A consistent inverse hyperbolic relationship has been observed between pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance, although changes in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) may modify this relationship. This relationship predicts that pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressure maintain a consistent relationship relative to the PAWP. We show that, in healthy exercising human adults, both pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance decrease in relation to exercise-associated increases in PAWP. Pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressures maintain a consistent relationship with one another, increasing linearly with increasing PAWP. Increases in PAWP in the setting of exercise are directly related to a decrease in pulmonary vascular compliance, despite small decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance, thereby increasing the pulsatile afterload to the right ventricle. ABSTRACT: The resistive and pulsatile components of right ventricular afterload (pulmonary vascular resistance, Rp; compliance, Cp) are related by an inverse hyperbolic function, expressed as their product known as RpCp-time. The RpCp-time exhibits a narrow range, although it may be altered by the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). Identifying the determinants of RpCp-time should improve our understanding of the physiological behaviour of pulmonary arterial systolic (PASP), diastolic (PADP) and mean (mPAP) pressures in response to perturbations. We examined the effect of exercise in 28 healthy non-athletic adults (55 ± 6 years) who underwent right heart catheterization to assess haemodynamics and calculate Rp and Cp. Measurements were made at rest and during two consecutive 8-10 min stages of cycle ergometry, at targeted heart-rates of 100 beats min(-1) (Light) and 120 beats min(-1) (Moderate). Cardiac output increased progressively during exercise. PASP, PADP, mPAP and PAWP increased for Light exercise, without any further rise for Moderate exercise. RpCp-time decreased for Light exercise (0.39 ± 0.08 to 0.25 ± 0.08, P < 0.001) without any further change for Moderate exercise, and the decrease in RpCp-time was related to changes in PAWP (r(2)  = 0.26, P < 0.001). Changes in PASP (r(2)  = 0.43, P < 0.001), PADP (r(2)  = 0.47, P < 0.001) and mPAP (r(2)  = 0.50, P < 0.001) were linearly correlated with changes in PAWP, although they were not significantly related to changes in cardiac output. In healthy adults, exercise is associated with decreases in Cp and a resultant decline in RpCp-time, indicating increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload. Changes in RpCp-time, PASP, PADP and mPAP were systematically related to increases in PAWP.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complacência Pulmonar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 18: 30, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26819137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of male sex as a determinant of health outcomes in systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is controversial. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex on survival in patients with SSc-PAH. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effect of sex on age of PAH diagnosis, time from SSc diagnosis to PAH diagnosis, and SSc disease manifestations. METHODS: Sex-based disparities were evaluated in a cohort of SSc-PAH patients with a primary outcome of time from PAH diagnosis to all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were differences in age of diagnosis, disease duration, and SSc manifestations. Survival differences were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 378 SSc-PAH (58 males, 320 females) patients, with a female:male ratio of 5.5:1. Males had a shorter mean ± standard deviation time from SSc diagnosis to PAH diagnosis (1.7 ± 14 versus 5.5 ± 14.2 years); shorter PAH duration (3.5 ± 3.1 versus 4.7 ± 4.2 years), increased frequency of renal crisis (19 % versus 8 %, relative risk (RR) 2.33, 95 %CI 1.22, 4.46), interstitial lung disease (67 % versus 48 %, RR 1.41, 95 %CI 1.14, 1.74), and diffuse subtype (40 % versus 22 %, RR 1.84, 95 %CI 1.26, 2.69). Males appeared to have decreased 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival (83.2 %, 68.7 %, 53.2 %, 45.6 %) compared to females (85.7 %, 75.7 %, 66.4 %, 57.4 %). However, there was no difference in mortality between sexes (HR 1.43 (95 %CI 0.97, 2.13). CONCLUSIONS: Sex disparities appear to exist in the frequency of PAH, time to PAH diagnosis, PAH disease duration and SSc disease burden. However, male sex does not independently impact SSc-PAH survival.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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