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1.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105319859048, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244342

RESUMO

This study examined the extent to which psychosocial impact of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy predicts postpartum depression using a retrospective design. Data from a cross-sectional survey investigating women's experiences of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy were used (N = 861). Hierarchical logistic regression models revealed that the psychosocial impact of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy appears to be predictive of postpartum depression, independent of depression status before and during pregnancy. Our findings indicate that assessing the psychosocial impact of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy during antenatal care may identify women at risk of postpartum depression.

2.
Behav Genet ; 49(4): 386-398, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877414

RESUMO

This study assessed the heritability of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in a large twin cohort and the shared effect of sun exposure and skin colour on 25(OH)D3 variance. Study participants included 1604 twin pairs and their siblings (n = 4020). Twin correlations for 25(OH)D3 concentration were rMZ=0.79 (584 pairs) and rDZ = 0.52 (1020 pairs) consistent with an average h2 = 0.50 throughout the year. Significant phenotypic and genetic seasonal fluctuation was observed in 25(OH)D3 concentrations with heritability decreasing during the winter (h2 = 0.37) compared to summer (h2 = 0.62). Skin colour (measured both ordinally and quantitatively) and self-reported sun exposure were found to significantly affect 25(OH)D3 concentration. Twins with olive/dark skin had significantly lower 25(OH)D3 concentrations than those with fair/pale skin and multivariate genetic analysis showed that approximately half of the total additive genetic variation in 25(OH)D3 results from genes whose primary influence is on skin colour and sun exposure. Additionally, 37% of the total variance was attributed to shared environmental effects on vitamin D, skin colour and sun exposure measures. These results support a moderate estimate of vitamin D heritability and suggest significant influence of season, skin colour and sun exposure on the genetic variance.

3.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.

4.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(6): 386-395, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372012

RESUMO

Background: Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling. Methods: This study presents, to our knowledge, the first exploration of well-being and volumes of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing using a region-of-interest, voxel-based approach in 263 healthy adult twins (60% monozygotic pairs, 61% females, mean age 39.69 yr). To examine patterns for resilience (i.e., positive adaptation following adversity), we evaluated associations between the same brain regions and well-being in a trauma-exposed subgroup. Results: We found a correlated effect between increased well-being and reduced grey-matter volume of the pontine nuclei. This association was strongest for individuals with higher resilience to trauma. Multivariate twin modelling suggested that the common variance between the pons volume and well-being scores was due to environmental factors. Limitations: We used a cross-sectional sample; results need to be replicated longitudinally and in a larger sample. Conclusion: Associations with altered grey matter of the pontine nuclei suggest that basic sensory processes, such as arousal, startle, memory consolidation and/or emotional conditioning, may have a role in well-being and resilience.

5.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(5): 170125, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling. METHODS: This study presents, to our knowledge, the first exploration of well-being and volumes of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing using a region-of-interest, voxel-based approach in 263 healthy adult twins (60% monozygotic pairs, 61% females, mean age 39.69 yr). To examine patterns for resilience (i.e., positive adaptation following adversity), we evaluated associations between the same brain regions and well-being in a trauma-exposed subgroup. RESULTS: We found a correlated effect between increased well-being and reduced grey-matter volume of the pontine nuclei. This association was strongest for individuals with higher resilience to trauma. Multivariate twin modelling suggested that the common variance between the pons volume and well-being scores was due to environmental factors. LIMITATIONS: We used a cross-sectional sample; results need to be replicated longitudinally and in a larger sample. CONCLUSION: Associations with altered grey matter of the pontine nuclei suggest that basic sensory processes, such as arousal, startle, memory consolidation and/or emotional conditioning, may have a role in well-being and resilience.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 912-919, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942086

RESUMO

Intelligence is highly heritable1 and a major determinant of human health and well-being2. Recent genome-wide meta-analyses have identified 24 genomic loci linked to variation in intelligence3-7, but much about its genetic underpinnings remains to be discovered. Here, we present a large-scale genetic association study of intelligence (n = 269,867), identifying 205 associated genomic loci (190 new) and 1,016 genes (939 new) via positional mapping, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, chromatin interaction mapping, and gene-based association analysis. We find enrichment of genetic effects in conserved and coding regions and associations with 146 nonsynonymous exonic variants. Associated genes are strongly expressed in the brain, specifically in striatal medium spiny neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Gene set analyses implicate pathways related to nervous system development and synaptic structure. We confirm previous strong genetic correlations with multiple health-related outcomes, and Mendelian randomization analysis results suggest protective effects of intelligence for Alzheimer's disease and ADHD and bidirectional causation with pleiotropic effects for schizophrenia. These results are a major step forward in understanding the neurobiology of cognitive function as well as genetically related neurological and psychiatric disorders.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1666: 171-194, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980246

RESUMO

This chapter describes how the heritability of a trait can be estimated using data collected from pairs of twins. The principles of the classical twin design are described, followed by the assumptions, and some possible extensions of the design. In the second part of this chapter, two example scripts are presented and the basic steps for estimating heritability using the statistical program OpenMx are explained. OpenMx and the scripts used for this chapter can be downloaded so that readers can adapt and use the scripts for their own purposes.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Fenótipo , Gêmeos , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Software
8.
Child Dev ; 2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832969

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to moderate the influence of genes and the environment on cognitive ability, such that genetic influence is greater when SES is higher, and the shared environment is greater when SES is lower, but not in all Western countries. The effects of both family and school SES on the heritability of literacy and numeracy in Australian twins aged 8, 10, 12, and 14 years with 1,307, 1,235, 1,076, and 930 pairs at each age, respectively, were tested. Shared environmental influences on Grade 3 literacy were greater with low family SES, and no other moderating effects of SES were significant. These findings are contrasted with results from the United States and the United Kingdom.

9.
Brain Sci ; 6(4)2016 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27999366

RESUMO

Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks, in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner. The opposite corner acted as an unpaired control location. The rats demonstrated recollection of location by avoiding the paired corner after the auditory cue was in turn paired with shock. Damage to either the dorsal hippocampus or the frontal cortex impaired this memory ability. However, we also found that hippocampal lesions enhanced attention directed towards the cue during the encoding phase, while frontal cortical lesions reduced cue-directed attention. These results suggest that the deficit in spatial sensory preconditioning caused by frontal cortical damage may be mediated by inattention to the location of cues during the latent encoding phase, while deficits following hippocampal damage must be related to other mechanisms such as generation of neural plasticity.

10.
Behav Genet ; 46(5): 649-664, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314402

RESUMO

We explored the genetic and environmental influence on both stability and growth in literacy and numeracy in 1927 Australian twin pairs from Grade 3 to Grade 9. Participants were tested on reading, spelling, grammar and punctuation, writing, and numeracy. In each domain, performance across time was highly correlated and this stability in performance was primary due to genes. Key findings on growth showed that reading followed a compensatory growth pattern that was largely due to genetic effects, while variation in growth in the other literacy domains was predominantly due to environmental influences. Genes and the shared environment influenced growth in numeracy for girls, while for boys it was influenced by the shared and unique environment. These results suggest that individual differences in growth of reading are primarily due to a genetically influenced developmental delay in the acquisition of necessary skills, while environmental influences, perhaps including different schools or teachers, are more important for the other domains.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Austrália , Biometria , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo
11.
Behav Genet ; 46(5): 627-648, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276978

RESUMO

We examined the extent to which genes and the environment contributed to variation in and covariation among reading, spelling, grammar and punctuation, writing, and numeracy in Australian school children in Grades 3, 5, 7, and 9. Heritability was generally high: reading .58-.71 (excepting Grade 5 girls), spelling .68-.78; grammar and punctuation .52-.66, writing .39-.52, and numeracy .39-.79. Boys' performance varied more than girls in spelling and numeracy, and the common environment was a greater influence in girls than boys in Grade 3 numeracy and Grade 5 reading. Independent pathway models showed similar genetic and environmental structures at each grade with approximately one third to one half of the variation in each domain due to genes that influenced all domains. The covariation among the domains was largely mediated by genes. Results suggest substantial uniformity in the environmental factors influencing these academic domains.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Alfabetização , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Leitura
12.
Aust J Educ ; 59(1): 5-21, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27721516

RESUMO

Each year, all Australian students in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 sit nationwide large-scale tests in literacy and numeracy, which have their validity frequently questioned. We compared the performance of Grade 3 twins on these large-scale reading tests with their performance on three individually administered literacy tests in comprehension, word reading and vocabulary within a genetically sensitive design. Comprehension, word reading, and vocabulary accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in school reading tests. Performance on large-scale reading tests and individually administered tests was moderately to substantially heritable and the same genes contributed to performance in both types of test. These results confirm that large-scale school reading tests measure, at least in part, the literacy skills tapped by individual tests that are frequently considered to be the "gold-standard" in testing.

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