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1.
Clin Imaging ; 80: 304-314, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482241

RESUMO

Due to the growing use of CT, there has been an increase in the frequency of detecting focal liver lesions. Intrinsically hyperattenuating hepatic lesions or pseudolesions are not uncommon at unenhanced CT. Hyperattenuating hepatic lesions can be divided into non-calcified and calcified. Causes of intrinsic hyperattenuation include hemorrhage, thrombosis, and calcifications. Focal liver lesions can show hyperattenuation on unenhanced CT in case of severe liver steatosis. Recognition of etiologies associated with hyperattenuation on unenhanced CT can help the radiologist in characterizing focal liver lesions and pseudolesions. In this paper, we describe the spectrum of intrinsically hyperattenuating focal liver lesions and pseudolesions at unenhanced CT.


Assuntos
Calcinose , Fígado Gorduroso , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073062

RESUMO

Imaging of lymphoma is based on the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and/or contrast-enhanced CT, but concerns have been raised regarding radiation exposure related to imaging scans in patients with cancer, and its association with increased risk of secondary tumors in patients with lymphoma has been established. To date, lymphoproliferative disorders are among the most common indications to perform whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-body MRI is superior to contrast-enhanced CT for staging the disease, also being less dependent on histology if compared to 18F-FDG-PET/CT. As well, it does not require exposure to ionizing radiation and could be used for the surveillance of lymphoma. The current role of whole-body MRI in the diagnostic workup in lymphoma is examined in the present review along with the diagnostic performance in staging, response assessment and surveillance of different lymphoma subtypes.

3.
Pol J Radiol ; 86: e246-e254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093922

RESUMO

Ascending thoracic aorta disease is often a life-threatening condition. Aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection are the most frequent ascending aorta diseases requiring surgical intervention. Surgical repair techniques of the ascending aorta are various; they include reconstruction of the ascending aorta by using a graft with or without a prosthetic valve, reconstruction with a composite artificial graft or using a biological graft, and reconstruction of the ascending aorta with a composite graft preserving the native valve and arch repair. The radiologist plays a key role in the identification of post-operative complications; differentiation from normal postoperative findings is fundamental. Our aim is to discuss the main diseases affecting the ascending aorta requiring surgery and the different techniques used to treat them. We also discuss the normal computed tomography (CT) imaging findings and after-surgery complications.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794596

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents the first medical catastrophe of the new millennium. Although imaging is not a screening test for COVID-19, it plays a crucial role in evaluation and follow-up of COVID-19 patients. In this paper, we will review typical and atypical imaging findings of COVID-19.

5.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 10(6): 1979-1991, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381438

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death globally; early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Over the past 2 decades there have been several improvements in the methods for the assessment of diagnosis and prognosis in patients with suspected CAD; most of these methods are imaging methods and they operate with high-end technologies. Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) as we know it today was introduced in 1998 and has ever progressed with constant pace. The first decade was the technical validation phase of the method while the second decade was the clinical validation phase. CCT has developed an excellent diagnostic and prognostic value; technological development together with radiation dose reduction, contributed to the widening of its clinical indications. The diagnostic value of CCT is particularly important as a first line in symptomatic patients with suspected obstructive CAD and low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk. It is a test that should come, whenever possible, in front of functional evaluation because of its very high sensitivity and negative predictive value. The prognostic value of CCt is still investigational, even though it is becoming quite evident that the atherosclerotic phenotype plays a major role in the determination of prognosis, and as consequence, in the individualization of optimal pharmacological therapy, especially in the cohort without significant obstructive CAD. Recently, scientific and practical guidelines have been updated taking into account the role of CCT, which is able to provide a reliable and fast diagnosis with an additional resources optimization. Multiple registries and trials have been developed and will be summarized in this review. Recent guidelines highlighted the role of CCT in diagnosing suspected CAD.

6.
Radiol Med ; 125(11): 1148-1166, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948928

RESUMO

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a common valvular heart disease. Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has changed the treatment of severe AS in elderly patients with contraindications to traditional surgical replacement. Echocardiography is conventionally used as the first imaging modality to assess the presence and severity of AS and to provide anatomical and functional information. Nowadays, imaging techniques play a crucial role in the planning of TAVI to define suitable candidates. Computed tomography (CT) is essential to display the anatomy of the aortic valve complex (including aortic annulus, Valsalva sinuses, coronary arteries ostia, sinotubular junction), thoracoabdominal aorta, and vascular access. Cardiac CT may also provide the evaluation of coronary arteries in alternative to conventional coronary angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging may be alternative or supplementary in selected cases, providing detailed information of cardiac function and myocardial wall characteristics. More recently, advanced computer modeling image-based techniques can be used to support the evaluation of the feasibility and safety of TAVI procedures.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/tendências
7.
Clin Imaging ; 68: 169-174, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the outcome of LR-3 and LR-4 without arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE), and identify which features could predict LR-5 progression on serial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI follow-up. METHODS: Forty-nine cirrhotic patients with 55 LR-3 and 19 LR-4 without APHE were evaluated. Observations were classified as decreased, stable or increased in category at follow-up. Observation size and LI-RADS major and ancillary features were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventeen/fifty-five (31%) LR-3 and 8/19 (42%) LR-4 progressed to LR-5 at follow-up. Baseline LI-RADS major and ancillary features were not significantly different among LR-3 and LR-4. A diameter ≥ 10 mm significantly increased LR-5 progression risk of LR-3 (OR = 6.07; 95% CI: 0.12; 60.28]; P < .001). LR-4 with a diameter ≥ 10 mm more likely become LR-5 at follow-up (OR = 8.95; 95% CI: 0.73; 111.8; P = .083]). CONCLUSION: LR-3 and LR-4 without APHE were often downgraded or remained stable in category on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI follow-up.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Meios de Contraste , Seguimentos , Gadolínio DTPA , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Clin Mol Allergy ; 18: 13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765190

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) to contrast media (CM) can be distinguished in immune-mediated (including allergic reactions) and non-immune-mediated reactions, even if clinical manifestations could be similar. Such manifestations range from mild skin eruptions to severe anaphylaxis, making it important for radiologists to know how to identify and manage them. A panel of experts from the Società Italiana di Radiologia Medica e Interventistica (SIRM) and the Società Italiana di Allergologia, Asma e Immunologia Clinica (SIAAIC) provided a consensus document on the management of patients who must undergo radiological investigations with CM. Consensus topics included: the risk stratification of patients, the identification of the culprit CM and of a safe alternative by an allergy workup, as well as the use of premedication and the correct procedure to safely perform an elective (i.e., scheduled) or urgent examination. The most important recommendations are: (1) in all patients, a thorough medical history must be taken by the prescribing physician and/or the radiologist to identify at-risk patients; (2) in patients with hypersensitivity reactions to CM, the radiologist must consider an alternative, non-contrast imaging study with a comparable diagnostic value, or prescribe a different investigation with another class of CM; (3) if such options are not feasible, the radiologist must address at-risk patients to a reference centre for an allergy evaluation; (4) if timely referral to an allergist is not viable, it is recommended to use a CM other than the responsible one, taking into account cross-reactivity patterns; in the case of patients with histories of severe reactions, the presence of an anesthesiologist is also recommended and a premedication is suggested.

9.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(2): 115-122, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate histogram-based quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) indexes in the assessment of lung cancer (LC) development in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From IPF databases of 2 national respiratory centers, we retrospectively studied patients with and without LC development-respectively, divided into Group A (n=16) and Group B (n=33). The extent of fibrotic disease was quantified on baseline and follow-up HRCT examinations using kurtosis, skewness, percentage of high attenuation area (HAA%), and percentage of fibrotic area (FA%). These indexes were compared between the 2 groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. In the prediction of LC development, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess threshold values of HRCT indexes. RESULTS: At baseline, no difference was reported among groups for kurtosis, skewness, HAA%, and FA%, with P-values of 0.0881, 0.0606, 0.0578, and 0.0606, respectively. On follow-up, significant differences were reported, with P-values of 0.0174 for kurtosis, 0.0313 for skewness, 0.0297 for HAA%, and 0.0407 for FA%.On baseline HRCT, in the prediction of LC development, receiver operating characteristic analysis reported sensibility and specificity of 87.5% and 45.45% for kurtosis, 68.75% and 63.64% for skewness, 81.25% and 54.55% for FA%, and 75% and 60.61% for HAA%. CONCLUSIONS: LC development is associated with progression of fibrosis; at baseline, FA% and HAA% reported more convenient sensitivity/specificity ratios in the prediction of LC development.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 47(1): 77-91, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated, subtle neurological abnormalities (ISNA) are commonly seen in aging and have been related to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and subcortical atrophy in neurologically and cognitively healthy aging subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of ISNA in different mild cognitive impairment (MCI) types and to evaluate for each MCI type, the cross-sectional relation between ISNA and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, caudate atrophy, and ventricular enlargement. METHODS: One thousand two hundred fifty subjects with different MCI types were included in the analysis and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. WMHs were assessed through two visual rating scales. Lacunes were also rated. Atrophy of the caudate nuclei and ventricular enlargement were assessed through the bicaudate ratio (BCr) and the lateral ventricles to brain ratio (LVBr), respectively. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were also assessed. The routine neurological examination was used to evaluate ISNAs that were clustered as central-based signs, cerebellar-based signs, and primitive reflexes. The items of Part-III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale were used to evaluate ISNAs that were clustered as mild parkinsonian signs. Associations of ISNAs with imaging findings were determined through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The ISNAs increase with the age and are present in all MCI types, particularly in those multiple domains, and carrying the APOE ϵ4 allele, and are associated with WMH, lacunes, BCr, and LVBr. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that cortical and subcortical vascular and atrophic processes contribute to ISNAs. Long prospective population-based studies are needed to disentangle the role of ISNAs in the conversion from MCI to dementia.

11.
Curr Radiopharm ; 13(1): 42-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies on 18F-FDG-PET/CT have investigated the prognostic role of this imaging modality in different tumors after treatment. Nevertheless, its role in restaging patients with recurrent CM still needs to be defined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT on the restaging process of cutaneous melanoma (CM) after surgery in patients with suspected distant recurrent disease or suspected metastatic progression disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 74 patients surgically treated for CM underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT for suspected distant recurrent disease or suspected metastatic progression disease. The diagnostic accuracy of visually interpreted 18F-FDG-PET/CT was obtained by considering histology (n=21 patients), other diagnostic imaging modalities performed within 2 months of PET/CT (CT in 52/74 patients and Whole-Body MRI in 18/74 patients) and clinical follow-up (n=74 patients) for at least 24 months containing all the clinical and diagnostic information useful for the PET performance assessment and outcome. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by using the Kaplan- Meier method. The risk of progression (Hazard Ratio-HR) was computed by the Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Suspicion of recurrent CM was confirmed in 24/27 patients with a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT were 82%, 93%, 88%, 89%, and 89%, respectively, with area under the curve being 0.87 (95%IC 0.78-0.97; p<0.05). 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings significantly influenced the therapeutic management in 18 patients (modifying therapy in 10 patients; guiding surgery in 8 patients). After 2 years of follow-up, PFS was significantly longer in patients with a negative vs. a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan (90% vs 46%, p<0.05; Fig. 1). Moreover, a negative scan was associated with a significantly longer OS than a positive one (76% vs 39% after 2 years, p<0.05; Fig. 2). In addition, a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (HR=8.2; p<0,05). CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed a valuable diagnostic performance in patients with suspicion of recurrent CM. This imaging modality might have an important prognostic value in predicting the survival outcomes, assessing the risk of disease progression, and guiding treatment decision making.


Assuntos
Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
12.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(10): 1060-1065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical relevance of incidentally detected lesions (IDLs) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with 18F-FDG PET/CT and to assess the potential benefit of using semiquantitative PET measures to discern malignant from benign lesions. METHODS: Forty-one patients who underwent F-FDG PET/CT scans during the oncologic follow-up, revealing abnormal incidental 18F-FDG accumulations in the GIT were included in this retrospective analysis. Incidental PET/CT findings were correlated with endoscopic and histological findings. Semiquantitative PET values (SUVmax, SUVmean, SULpeak, and TLG) were evaluated by using a new graph-based method. Two sample t-test analysis has been performed to evaluate the differences of PET parameters between precancerous or cancerous lesions and inflammatory disease. RESULTS: Nine of the 41 patients had an IDL of the GIT on F-FDG PET/CT (detection rate 22%). Endoscopic examination and biopsy have confirmed the presence of precancerous or cancerous lesions as follow: colonic adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (N = 2), colonic adenoma with low-grade dysplasia (N =3), colonic metastatic lesion from primary breast cancer (N =1), gastric carcinoma (N=3). Precancerous or cancerous lesions showed a higher SUVmax, SUVmean, SULpeak, and TLG with a mean value of 10.6 (range, 5.3- 16.7), 6.2 (range, 2.1-10.6), 5.2 (2.7-11), and 66.6 (range, 7.4-164), than patients with inflammatory and endoscopically negative lesions. Two sample t-test analysis showed that SUVmean (P = 0.03), SULpeak (P = 0.05) were statistically different between the two subgroups. CONCLUSION: The use of new semiquantitative PET parameters may increase the diagnostic yield of FDG PET in the case of abnormal incidental F-FDG accumulations.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Achados Incidentais , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Adulto , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Glicólise , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
13.
Gland Surg ; 8(2): 123-132, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183322

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) represents a pancreas inflammation of sudden onset that can present different degrees of severity. AP is a frequent cause of acute abdomen and its complications are still a cause of death. Biliary calculosis and alcohol abuse are the most frequent cause of AP. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not necessary for the diagnosis of AP but they are fundamental tools for the identification of the cause, degree severity and AP complications. AP severity assessment is in fact one of the most important issue in disease management. Contrast-enhanced CT is preferred in the emergency setting and is considered the gold standard in patients with AP. MRI is comparable to CT for the diagnosis of AP but requires much more time so it is not usually chosen in the emergency scenario. Complications of AP can be distinguished in localized and generalized. Among the localized complications, we can identify: acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC), pseudocysts, acute necrotic collections (ANC), walled off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), venous thrombosis, pseudoaneurysms and haemorrhage. Multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) and sepsis are possible generalized complications of AP. In this review, we focus on CT and MRI findings in local complications of AP and when and how to perform CT and MRI. We paid also attention to recent developments in diagnostic classification of AP complications.

14.
Insights Imaging ; 10(1): 26, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796645

RESUMO

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain, determined by a benign self-limiting inflammation of the epiploic appendages. It may manifest with heterogeneous clinical presentations, mimicking other more severe entities responsible of acute abdominal pain, such as acute diverticulitis or appendicitis. Given its importance as clinical mimicker, imaging plays a crucial role to avoid inaccurate diagnosis that may lead to unnecessary hospitalization, antibiotic therapy, and surgery. CT represents the gold standard technique for the evaluation of patients with indeterminate acute abdominal pain. Imaging findings include the presence of an oval lesion with fat-attenuation surrounded by a thin hyperdense rim on CT ("hyperattenuating ring sign") abutting anteriorly the large bowel, usually associated with inflammation of the adjacent mesentery. A central high-attenuation focus within the fatty lesion ("central dot sign") can sometimes be observed and is indicative of a central thrombosed vein within the inflamed epiploic appendage. Rarely, epiploic appendagitis may be located within a hernia sac or attached to the vermiform appendix. Chronically infarcted epiploic appendage may detach, appearing as an intraperitoneal loose calcified body in the abdominal cavity. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the clinical presentation and key imaging features that may help the radiologist to make an accurate diagnosis and guide the clinical management of those patients.

16.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(4): 1083-1088, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943089

RESUMO

Self-inflicted fractures simulating traffic accident represent a new social fraud opportunity for criminality. Recognising scams through an increase of awareness of existence of self-inflicted arm fractures for insurance fraud could help community health workers to report these injuries to the competent authorities. In this article, authors have recognised an unusual but consistent pattern of upper and lower limb fractures whose incidence does not coincide in numerical terms with what is reported in literature. The aim of the present study is to describe fracture patterns observed over the past 2 years. Further, authors describe clinical presentations of these fractures and attempt to define a possible mechanism of these types of injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraude/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro de Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , Humanos
17.
Eur Radiol ; 29(5): 2246-2252, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the transferability of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multislice multiecho T2* technique for pancreatic iron overload assessment. METHODS: Multiecho T2* sequences were installed on ten 1.5-T MRI scanners of the three main vendors. Five healthy subjects (n = 50) were scanned at each site. Five patients with thalassemia (n = 45) were scanned locally at each site and were rescanned at the reference site within 1 month. T2* images were analyzed using a previously validated software and the global pancreatic T2* value was calculated as the mean of T2* values over the head, body, and tail. RESULTS: T2* values of healthy subjects were above 26 ms and showed inter-site homogeneity. The T2* values measured in the MRI sites were comparable to the correspondent values observed in the reference site (12.02 ± 10.20 ms vs 11.98 ± 10.47 ms; p = 0.808), and the correlation coefficient was 0.978 (p < 0.0001). Coefficients of variation (CoVs) ranged from 4.22 to 9.77%, and the CoV for all the T2* values independently from the sites was 8.55%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each MRI site was always excellent and the global ICC was 0.995, independently from the sites. The mean absolute difference in patients with pancreatic iron (n = 39) was -0.15 ± 1.38 ms. CONCLUSION: The gradient-echo T2* MRI technique is an accurate and reproducible means for the quantification of pancreatic iron and may be transferred among MRI scanners by different vendors in several centers. KEY POINTS: • The gradient-echo T2* MRI technique is an accurate and reproducible means for the quantification of pancreatic iron. • The gradient-echo T2* MRI technique for the quantification of pancreatic iron may be transferred among MRI scanners by different vendors in several centers. • Pancreatic iron might serve as an early predictor of cardiac siderosis and is the strongest overall predictor of glucose dysregulation.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pâncreas/patologia , Siderose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Siderose/metabolismo
18.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 13: 43, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519466

RESUMO

Background: The assessment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) using HRCT requires great experience and is limited by a significant inter-observer variability, even between trained radiologists. The evaluation of HRCT through automated quantitative analysis may hopefully solve this problem. The accuracy of CT-histogram derived indexes in the assessment of survival in IPF patients has been poorly studied. Methods: Forty-two patients with a diagnosis of IPF and a follow up time of 3 years were retrospectively collected; HRCT and Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) performed at diagnosis time were analysed; the extent of fibrotic disease was quantified on HRCT using kurtosis, skewness, Mean Lung Density (MLD), High attenuation areas (HAA%) and Fibrotic Areas (FA%). Univariate Cox regression was performed to assess hazard ratios for the explored variables and a multivariate model considering skewness, FVC, DLCO and age was created to test their prognostic value in assessing survival. Through ROC analysis, threshold values demonstrating the best sensitivity and specificity in predicting mortality were identified. They were used as cut-off points to graph Kaplan-Meier curves specific for the CT-indexes. Results: Kurtosis, skewness, MLD, HAA% and FA% were good predictors of mortality (HR 0.44, 0.74, 1.01, 1.12, 1.06; p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.02 and p = 0.017 respectively). Skewness demonstrated the lowest Akaike's information criterion value (55.52), proving to be the best CT variable for prediction of mortality. Significant survival differences considering proposed cut-off points were also demonstrated according to kurtosis (p = 0.02), skewness (p = 0.005), MLD (p = 0.003), HAA% (p = 0.009) and FA% (p = 0.02) - obtained from quantitative HRCT analysis at diagnosis time. Conclusions: CT-histogram derived indexes may provide an accurate estimation of survival in IPF patients. They demonstrate a correlation with PFTs, highlighting their possible use in clinical practice.

19.
Neuroradiol J ; 30(3): 197-204, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627987

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common head and neck cancer. This review describes the state-of-the-art computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging protocols of the neck and the normal larynx anatomy, and provides a practical approach for the diagnosis and staging of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Radiol Med ; 122(1): 16-21, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the atherosclerotic disease in the coronary and carotid arteries in patients who underwent non-invasive imaging for suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 107 patients (64 men, age 59 ± 12) with atypical chest pain underwent cardiac CT (CCT) and carotid ultrasound (US) on the same day. Severity (obstructive or not-obstructive disease), location, shape, and composition of atherosclerotic plaques in the two districts were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients presented normal coronary arteries in 36 % (n = 38), not-obstructive CAD in 36 % (n = 39), and obstructive CAD in 28 % (n = 30), while had normal carotid arteries in 53 % (n = 57), not-obstructive disease in 44 % (n = 47), and obstructive disease in 3 % (n = 3) (p < 0.05). The coronary plaques were located in 7 % at ostial sites, in 29 % at non-ostial sites, and in 64 % at both locations. The carotid plaques were located at the origin of the internal and external carotid arteries in 56 %, at the bifurcation in 20 %, and at both locations in 24 % (p < 0.05). Coronary plaques were calcified in 25 %, non-calcified in 19 %, and mixed in 56 %; carotid plaques were calcified in 8 %, non-calcified in 8 %, and mixed in 84 % of patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Atherosclerotic disease presents different imaging findings in the coronary tree and in the carotid district with respect to lesion severity, position along the vessel course, and composition of plaque.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Cardíaca , Meios de Contraste , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Iopamidol/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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