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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1041, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the risk factors associated with hospital burden of COVID-19 is crucial for healthcare planning for any future waves of infection. METHODS: An observational cohort study is performed, using data on all PCR-confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Regione Lombardia, Italy, during the first wave of infection from February-June 2020. A multi-state modelling approach is used to simultaneously estimate risks of progression through hospital to final outcomes of either death or discharge, by pathway (via critical care or not) and the times to final events (lengths of stay). Logistic and time-to-event regressions are used to quantify the association of patient and population characteristics with the risks of hospital outcomes and lengths of stay respectively. RESULTS: Risks of severe outcomes such as ICU admission and mortality have decreased with month of admission (for example, the odds ratio of ICU admission in June vs March is 0.247 [0.120-0.508]) and increased with age (odds ratio of ICU admission in 45-65 vs 65 + age group is 0.286 [0.201-0.406]). Care home residents aged 65 + are associated with increased risk of hospital mortality and decreased risk of ICU admission. Being a healthcare worker appears to have a protective association with mortality risk (odds ratio of ICU mortality is 0.254 [0.143-0.453] relative to non-healthcare workers) and length of stay. Lengths of stay decrease with month of admission for survivors, but do not appear to vary with month for non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in clinical knowledge, treatment, patient and hospital management and public health surveillance, together with the waning of the first wave after the first lockdown, are hypothesised to have contributed to the reduced risks and lengths of stay over time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Hospitais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
2.
3.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(9): 995-1008, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the daily values and trends over time of relevant clinical, ventilatory and laboratory parameters during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and their association with outcome in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective-prospective multicentric study, we enrolled COVID-19 patients admitted to Italian ICUs from February 22 to May 31, 2020. Clinical data were daily recorded. The time course of 18 clinical parameters was evaluated by a polynomial maximum likelihood multilevel linear regression model, while a full joint modeling was fit to study the association with ICU outcome. RESULTS: 1260 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in 24 ICUs were enrolled. 78% were male with a median age of 63 [55-69] years. At ICU admission, the median ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was 122 [89-175] mmHg. 79% of patients underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 34%. Both the daily values and trends of respiratory system compliance, PaO2/FiO2, driving pressure, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, creatinine, C-reactive protein, ferritin, neutrophil, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelets were associated with survival, while for lactate, pH, bilirubin, lymphocyte, and urea only the daily values were associated with survival. The trends of PaO2/FiO2, respiratory system compliance, driving pressure, creatinine, ferritin, and C-reactive protein showed a higher association with survival compared to the daily values. CONCLUSION: Daily values or trends over time of parameters associated with acute organ dysfunction, acid-base derangement, coagulation impairment, or systemic inflammation were associated with patient survival.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Idoso , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 317, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461962

RESUMO

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2021. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2021 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from https://link.springer.com/bookseries/8901 .


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Micoses/etiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357197

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a shortage of mechanical ventilators was reported and ventilator sharing between patients was proposed as an ultimate solution. Two lung simulators were ventilated by one anesthesia machine connected through two respiratory circuits and T-pieces. Five different combinations of compliances (30-50 mL × cmH2O-1) and resistances (5-20 cmH2O × L-1 × s-1) were tested. The ventilation setting was: pressure-controlled ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure 15 cmH2O, inspiratory pressure 10 cmH2O, respiratory rate 20 bpm. Pressures and flows from all the circuit sections have been recorded and analyzed. Simulated patients with equal compliance and resistance received similar ventilation. Compliance reduction from 50 to 30 mL × cmH2O-1 decreased the tidal volume (VT) by 32% (418 ± 49 vs. 285 ± 17 mL). The resistance increase from 5 to 20 cmH2O × L-1 × s-1 decreased VT by 22% (425 ± 69 vs. 331 ± 51 mL). The maximal alveolar pressure was lower at higher compliance and resistance values and decreased linearly with the time constant (r² = 0.80, p < 0.001). The minimum alveolar pressure ranged from 15.5 ± 0.04 to 16.57 ± 0.04 cmH2O. Cross-flows between the simulated patients have been recorded in all the tested combinations, during both the inspiratory and expiratory phases. The simultaneous ventilation of two patients with one ventilator may be unable to match individual patient's needs and has a high risk of cross-interference.

6.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients developing the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6). The use of humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) may represent a potential treatment strategy. We analyzed the effects of compassionate use of Tocilizumab and Sarilumab on clinical outcome of patients affected by ARDS due COVID-19. METHODS: This single-center, observational, exploratory study was performed during the acute phase of COVID-19 outbreak, between March 7th and April 21st, 2020 in a University Hospital in Rome, Italy. All consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and fulfilling ARDS criteria were enrolled. Patients who were treated with anti-IL-6R therapy were compared to those who were not, as per clinical decision. Inverse probability weights were applied to weight individual's contribution to survival curves and in the multivariate regression model. RESULTS: Among 105 ARDS patients, 65 received compassionate treatment with anti-IL-6R therapy [43 (66%) Tocilizumab and 22 (34%) Sarilumab, respectively], with oxygenation improvement. In the multivariable Cox proportional regression hazards model with propensity score inverse probability weighting, patients who received anti-IL-6R treatment had lower risk of death compared to those who did not, with a hazard ration of 0.34 [95% confidence interval 0.17-0.74], p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that immune modulator therapy based on anti-human IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies might lead to improved outcome in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. These data support the need for confirmatory randomized trials to assess the effect of immune modulator therapies on mortality.

7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 268, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) has been diffusely employed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) to face the high request of ventilatory support due to the massive influx of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). We sought to summarize the evidence on clinically relevant outcomes in COVID-19 patients supported by NIV outside the ICU. METHODS: We searched PUBMED®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register, along with medRxiv and bioRxiv repositories for pre-prints, for observational studies and randomized controlled trials, from inception to the end of February 2021. Two authors independently selected the investigations according to the following criteria: (1) observational study or randomized clinical trials enrolling ≥ 50 hospitalized patients undergoing NIRS outside the ICU, (2) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and (3) at least the intra-hospital mortality reported. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines were followed. Data extraction was independently performed by two authors to assess: investigation features, demographics and clinical characteristics, treatments employed, NIRS regulations, and clinical outcomes. Methodological index for nonrandomized studies tool was applied to determine the quality of the enrolled studies. The primary outcome was to assess the overall intra-hospital mortality of patients under NIRS outside the ICU. The secondary outcomes included the proportions intra-hospital mortalities of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation following NIRS failure and of those with 'do-not-intubate' (DNI) orders. RESULTS: Seventeen investigations (14 peer-reviewed and 3 pre-prints) were included with a low risk of bias and a high heterogeneity, for a total of 3377 patients. The overall intra-hospital mortality of patients receiving NIRS outside the ICU was 36% [30-41%]. 26% [21-30%] of the patients failed NIRS and required intubation, with an intra-hospital mortality rising to 45% [36-54%]. 23% [15-32%] of the patients received DNI orders with an intra-hospital mortality of 72% [65-78%]. Oxygenation on admission was the main source of between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 outbreak, delivering NIRS outside the ICU revealed as a feasible strategy to cope with the massive demand of ventilatory assistance. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , CRD42020224788, December 11, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia
8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 191, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078445

RESUMO

Since the lockdown because of the pandemic, family members have been prohibited from visiting their loved ones in hospital. While it is clearly complicated to implement protocols for the admission of family members, we believe precise strategic goals are essential and operational guidance is needed on how to achieve them. Even during the pandemic, we consider it a priority to share strategies adapted to every local setting to allow family members to enter intensive care units and all the other hospital wards.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Visitas a Pacientes , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 192, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), non-ventilated perfused regions coexist with non-perfused ventilated regions within lungs. The number of unmatched regions might reflect ARDS severity and affect the risk of ventilation-induced lung injury. Despite pathophysiological relevance, unmatched ventilation and perfusion are not routinely assessed at the bedside. The aims of this study were to quantify unmatched ventilation and perfusion at the bedside by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) investigating their association with mortality in patients with ARDS and to explore the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on unmatched ventilation and perfusion in subgroups of patients with different ARDS severity based on PaO2/FiO2 and compliance. METHODS: Prospective observational study in 50 patients with mild (36%), moderate (46%), and severe (18%) ARDS under clinical ventilation settings. EIT was applied to measure the regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion using central venous bolus of saline 5% during end-inspiratory pause. We defined unmatched units as the percentage of only ventilated units plus the percentage of only perfused units. RESULTS: Percentage of unmatched units was significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (32[27-47]% vs. 21[17-27]%, p < 0.001). Percentage of unmatched units was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39, p = 0.004) with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.97, p < 0.001). The percentage of ventilation to the ventral region of the lung was higher than the percentage of ventilation to the dorsal region (32 [27-38]% vs. 18 [13-21]%, p < 0.001), while the opposite was true for perfusion (28 [22-38]% vs. 36 [32-44]%, p < 0.001). Higher percentage of only perfused units was correlated with lower dorsal ventilation (r = - 0.486, p < 0.001) and with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = - 0.293, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: EIT allows bedside assessment of unmatched ventilation and perfusion in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. Measurement of unmatched units could identify patients at higher risk of death and could guide personalized treatment.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica/uso terapêutico , Perfusão/normas , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial/normas , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfusão/métodos , Perfusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Escala Psicológica Aguda Simplificada
11.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(2): 464-473, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138647

RESUMO

Patients with sepsis have typically reduced concentrations of hemoglobin and albumin, the major components of noncarbonic buffer power (ß). This could expose patients to high pH variations during acid-base disorders. The objective of this study is to compare, in vitro, noncarbonic ß of patients with sepsis with that of healthy volunteers, and evaluate its distinct components. Whole blood and isolated plasma of 18 patients with sepsis and 18 controls were equilibrated with different CO2 mixtures. Blood gases, pH, and electrolytes were measured. Noncarbonic ß and noncarbonic ß due to variations in strong ion difference (ßSID) were calculated for whole blood. Noncarbonic ß and noncarbonic ß normalized for albumin concentrations (ßNORM) were calculated for isolated plasma. Representative values at pH = 7.40 were compared. Albumin proteoforms were evaluated via two-dimensional electrophoresis. Hemoglobin and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with sepsis. Patients with sepsis had lower noncarbonic ß both of whole blood (22.0 ± 1.9 vs. 31.6 ± 2.1 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and plasma (0.5 ± 1.0 vs. 3.7 ± 0.8 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Noncarbonic ßSID was lower in patients (16.8 ± 1.9 vs. 24.4 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and strongly correlated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Noncarbonic ßNORM was lower in patients [0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04) vs. 0.08 (0.06-0.09) mmol/g, P < 0.01]. Patients with sepsis and controls showed different amounts of albumin proteoforms. Patients with sepsis are exposed to higher pH variations for any given change in CO2 due to lower concentrations of noncarbonic buffers and, possibly, an altered buffering function of albumin. In both patients with sepsis and healthy controls, electrolyte shifts are the major buffering mechanism during respiratory acid-base disorders.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patients with sepsis are poorly protected against acute respiratory acid-base derangements due to a lower noncarbonic buffer power, which is caused both by a reduction in the major noncarbonic buffers, i.e. hemoglobin and albumin, and by a reduced buffering capacity of albumin. Electrolyte shifts from and to the red blood cells determining acute variations in strong ion difference are the major buffering mechanism during acute respiratory acid-base disorders.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Sepse , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Ácidos , Gasometria , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
12.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lombardy was the epicenter in Italy of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. To face the contagion growth, from March 8 to May 8 2020, a regional law re-designed the hub-and-spoke system for time-dependent diseases to better allocate resources for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We report the reorganization of the major hospital in Lombardy during COVID-19 pandemic, including the rearrangement of its ICU beds to face COVID-19 pandemic and fulfill its role as extended hub for time-dependent diseases while preserving transplant activity. To highlight the impact of the emergently planned hub-and-spoke system, all patients admitted to a COVID-19-free ICU hub for trauma, neurosurgical emergencies and stroke during the two-month period were retrospectively collected and compared to 2019 cohort. Regional data on organ procurement was retrieved. Observed-to-expected (OE) in-ICU mortality ratios were computed to test the impact of the pandemic on patients affected by time-dependent diseases. RESULTS: Dynamic changes in ICU resource allocation occurred according to local COVID-19 epidemiology/trends of patients referred for time-dependent diseases. The absolute increase of admissions for trauma, neurosurgical emergencies and stroke was roughly two-fold. Patients referred to the hub were older and characterized by more severe conditions. An increase in crude mortality was observed, though OE ratios for in-ICU mortality were not statistically different when comparing 2020 vs. 2019. An increase in local organ procurement was observed, limiting the debacle of regional transplant activity. CONCLUSIONS: We described the effects of a regional emergently planned hub-and-spoke system for time-dependent diseases settled in the epicenter of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy.

13.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 39(2): 265-284, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024430

RESUMO

Italy was the first western country facing an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The first Italian patient diagnosed with COVID-19 was admitted, on Feb. 20, 2020, to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Codogno (Lodi, Lombardy, Italy), and the number of reported positive cases increased to 36 in the next 24 hours, and then exponentially for 18 days. This triggered a response that resulted in a massive surge in ICU bed capacity. The COVID19 Lombardy Network organized a structured logistic response and provided scientific evidence to highlight information on COVID-19 associated respiratory failure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Pandemias , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália
15.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional support management in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore the association between early caloric deficit and mortality, taking possible confounders (i.e. obesity) into consideration. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out during the first pandemic wave in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two referral University Hospitals in Lombardy, Italy. Two hundred twenty-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were evaluated during the ICU stay. In addition to major demographic and clinical data, we recorded information on the route and amount of nutritional support provided on a daily basis. RESULTS: Among patients still in the ICUs and alive on day 4 (N = 198), 129 (65.2%) and 72 (36.4%) reached a satisfactory caloric and protein intake, respectively, mainly by enteral route. In multivariable analysis, a satisfactory caloric intake on day 4 was associated with lower mortality (HR = 0.46 [95%CI, 0.42-0.50], P < 0.001). Mild obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and < 35 kg/m2) was associated with higher mortality (HR = 1.99 [95%CI, 1.07-3.68], P = 0.029), while patients with moderate-severe obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) were less likely to be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.62-0.82], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the negative prognostic and clinical role of obesity in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and suggested that early caloric deficit may independently contribute to worsen survival in this patients' population. Therefore, any effort should be made to implement an adequate timely nutritional support in all COVID-19 patients during the ICU stay.

17.
Chest ; 160(2): 454-465, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few small studies have described hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) occurring in patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: What characteristics in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are associated with HAIs and how are HAIs associated with outcomes in these patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data including adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to eight Italian hub hospitals from February 20, 2020, through May 20, 2020. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate Weibull regression models were used to assess incidence, microbial cause, resistance patterns, risk factors (ie, demographics, comorbidities, exposure to medication), and impact on outcomes (ie, ICU discharge, length of ICU and hospital stays, and duration of mechanical ventilation) of microbiologically confirmed HAIs. RESULTS: Of the 774 included patients, 359 patients (46%) demonstrated 759 HAIs (44.7 infections/1,000 ICU patient-days; 35% multidrug-resistant [MDR] bacteria). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; n = 389 [50%]), bloodstream infections (BSIs; n = 183 [34%]), and catheter-related BSIs (n = 74 [10%]) were the most frequent HAIs, with 26.0 (95% CI, 23.6-28.8) VAPs per 1,000 intubation-days, 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.5) BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days, and 4.7 (95% CI, 3.8-5.9) catheter-related BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days. Gram-negative bacteria (especially Enterobacterales) and Staphylococcus aureus caused 64% and 28% of cases of VAP, respectively. Variables independently associated with infection were age, positive end expiratory pressure, and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics at admission. Two hundred thirty-four patients (30%) died in the ICU (15.3 deaths/1,000 ICU patient-days). Patients with HAIs complicated by septic shock showed an almost doubled mortality rate (52% vs 29%), whereas noncomplicated infections did not affect mortality. HAIs prolonged mechanical ventilation (median, 24 days [interquartile range (IQR), 14-39 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 5-13 days]; P < .001), ICU stay (24 days [IQR, 16-41 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 6-14 days]; P = .003), and hospital stay (42 days [IQR, 25-59 days] vs 23 days [IQR, 13-34 days]; P < .001). INTERPRETATION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk for HAIs, especially VAPs and BSIs resulting from MDR organisms. HAIs prolong mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, and HAIs complicated by septic shock almost double mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04388670; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia
18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 128, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the use of prone position in intubated, invasively ventilated patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Aim of this study is to investigate the use and effect of prone position in this population during the first 2020 pandemic wave. METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre, national cohort study conducted between February 24 and June 14, 2020, in 24 Italian Intensive Care Units (ICU) on adult patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission. Information regarding the use of prone position was collected daily. Follow-up for patient outcomes was performed on July 15, 2020. The respiratory effects of the first prone position were studied in a subset of 78 patients. Patients were classified as Oxygen Responders if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased ≥ 20 mmHg during prone position and as Carbon Dioxide Responders if the ventilatory ratio was reduced during prone position. RESULTS: Of 1057 included patients, mild, moderate and severe ARDS was present in 15, 50 and 35% of patients, respectively, and had a resulting mortality of 25, 33 and 41%. Prone position was applied in 61% of the patients. Patients placed prone had a more severe disease and died significantly more (45% vs. 33%, p < 0.001). Overall, prone position induced a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, while no change in respiratory system compliance or ventilatory ratio was observed. Seventy-eight % of the subset of 78 patients were Oxygen Responders. Non-Responders had a more severe respiratory failure and died more often in the ICU (65% vs. 38%, p = 0.047). Forty-seven % of patients were defined as Carbon Dioxide Responders. These patients were older and had more comorbidities; however, no difference in terms of ICU mortality was observed (51% vs. 37%, p = 0.189 for Carbon Dioxide Responders and Non-Responders, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, prone position has been widely adopted to treat mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure. The majority of patients improved their oxygenation during prone position, most likely due to a better ventilation perfusion matching. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT04388670.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Intubação/normas , Posicionamento do Paciente/normas , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial/normas , Decúbito Dorsal , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(1): 143-152, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral lung transplantation results in pulmonary vagal denervation, which potentially alters respiratory drive, volume-feedback, and ventilatory pattern. We hypothesised that Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) ventilation, which is driven by diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), would reveal whether vagally mediated pulmonary-volume feedback is preserved in the early phases after bilateral lung transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively studied bilateral lung transplant recipients within 48 h of surgery. Subjects were ventilated with NAVA and randomised to receive 3 ventilatory modes (baseline NAVA, 50%, and 150% of baseline NAVA values) and 2 PEEP levels (6 and 12 cm H2O). We recorded airway pressure, flow, and EAdi. RESULTS: We studied 30 subjects (37% female; age: 37 (27-56) yr), of whom 19 (63%) had stable EAdi. The baseline NAVA level was 0.6 (0.2-1.0) cm H2O µV-1. Tripling NAVA level increased the ventilatory peak pressure over PEEP by 6.3 (1.8), 7.6 (2.4), and 8.7 (3.2) cm H2O, at 50%, 100%, and 150% of baseline NAVA level, respectively (P<0.001). EAdi peak decreased by 10.1 (9.0), 9.5 (9.4) and 8.8 µV (8.7) (P<0.001), accompanied by small increases in tidal volume, 8.3 (3.0), 8.7 (3.6), and 8.9 (3.3) ml kg-1 donor's predicted body weight at 50%, 100%, and 150% of baseline NAVA levels, respectively (P<0.001). Doubling PEEP did not affect tidal volume. CONCLUSIONS: NAVA ventilation was feasible in the majority of patients during the early postoperative period after bilateral lung transplantation. Despite surgical vagotomy distal to the bronchial anastomoses, bilateral lung transplant recipients maintained an unmodified respiratory pattern in response to variations in ventilatory assistance and PEEP. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03367221.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Suporte Ventilatório Interativo/métodos , Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013881, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) blocking agents have been used for treating severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Their immunosuppressive effect might be valuable in patients with COVID-19 characterised by substantial immune system dysfunction by controlling inflammation and promoting disease tolerance. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of IL-6 blocking agents compared to standard care alone or with placebo on efficacy and safety outcomes in COVID-19. We will update this assessment regularly. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (up to 11 February 2021) and the L-OVE platform, and Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register to identify trials up to 26 February 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating IL-6 blocking agents compared with standard care alone or with placebo for people with COVID-19, regardless of disease severity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. The protocol was amended to reduce the number of outcomes considered. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool. We rated the certainty of evidence with the GRADE approach for the critical outcomes such as clinical improvement (defined as hospital discharge or improvement on the scale used by trialists to evaluate clinical progression or recovery) (day (D) 28 / ≥ D60); WHO Clinical Progression Score of level 7 or above (i.e. the proportion of participants with mechanical ventilation +/- additional organ support OR death) (D28 / ≥ D60); all-cause mortality (D28 / ≥ D60); incidence of any adverse events; and incidence of serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 10 RCTs with available data including one platform trial comparing tocilizumab and sarilumab with standard of care. These trials evaluated tocilizumab (nine RCTs including two platform trials; seven were reported as peer-reviewed articles, two as preprints; 6428 randomised participants); and two sarilumab (one platform trial reported as peer reviewed article, one reported as preprint, 880 randomised participants). All trials included were multicentre trials. They were conducted in Brazil, China, France, Italy, UK, USA, and four were multi-country trials. The mean age range of participants ranged from 56 to 65 years; 4572 (66.3%) of trial participants were male. Disease severity ranged from mild to critical disease. The reported proportion of participants on oxygen at baseline but not intubated varied from 56% to 100% where reported. Five trials reported the inclusion of intubated patients at baseline. We identified a further 20 registered RCTs of tocilizumab compared to placebo/standard care (five completed without available results, five terminated without available results, eight ongoing, two not recruiting); 11 RCTs of sarilumab (two completed without results, three terminated without available results, six ongoing); six RCTs of clazakisumab (five ongoing, one not recruiting); two RCTs of olokizumab (one completed, one not recruiting); one of siltuximab (ongoing) and one RCT of levilimab (completed without available results). Of note, three were cancelled (2 tocilizumab, 1 clazakisumab). One multiple-arm RCT evaluated both tocilizumab and sarilumab compared to standard of care, one three-arm RCT evaluated tocilizumab and siltuximab compared to standard of care and consequently they appear in each respective comparison. Tocilizumab versus standard care alone or with placebo a. Effectiveness of tocilizumab for patients with COVID-19 Tocilizumab probably results in little or no increase in the outcome of clinical improvement at D28 (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13; I2 = 40.9%; 7 RCTs, 5585 participants; absolute effect: 31 more with clinical improvement per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 67 more); moderate-certainty evidence). However, we cannot exclude that some subgroups of patients could benefit from the treatment. We did not obtain data for longer-term follow-up (≥ D60). The effect of tocilizumab on the proportion of participants with a WHO Clinical Progression Score of level of 7 or above is uncertain at D28 (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.74; I2 = 64.4%; 3 RCTs, 712 participants; low-certainty evidence). We did not obtain data for longer-term follow-up (≥ D60). Tocilizumab reduces all-cause mortality at D28 compared to standard care alone or placebo (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97; I2 = 0.0%; 8 RCTs, 6363 participants; absolute effect: 32 fewer deaths per 1000 (from 52 fewer to 9 fewer); high-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests uncertainty around the effect on mortality at ≥ D60 (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.40; I2 = 0.0%; 2 RCTs, 519 participants; low-certainty evidence). b. Safety of tocilizumab for patients with COVID-19 The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of tocilizumab on adverse events (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.72; I2 = 86.4%; 7 RCTs, 1534 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Nevertheless, tocilizumab probably results in slightly fewer serious adverse events than standard care alone or placebo (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.06; I2 = 0.0%; 8 RCTs, 2312 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Sarilumab versus standard care alone or with placebo The evidence is uncertain about the effect of sarilumab on all-cause mortality at D28 (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.36; 2 RCTs, 880 participants; low certainty), on all-cause mortality at ≥ D60 (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.50 to 2.0; 1 RCT, 420 participants; low certainty), and serious adverse events (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.77; 2 RCTs, 880 participants; low certainty). It is unlikely that sarilumab results in an important increase of adverse events (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.25; 1 RCT, 420 participants; moderate certainty). However, an increase cannot be excluded No data were available for other critical outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: On average, tocilizumab reduces all-cause mortality at D28 compared to standard care alone or placebo and probably results in slightly fewer serious adverse events than standard care alone or placebo. Nevertheless, tocilizumab probably results in little or no increase in the outcome clinical improvement (defined as hospital discharge or improvement measured by trialist-defined scales) at D28. The impact of tocilizumab on other outcomes is uncertain or very uncertain. With the data available, we were not able to explore heterogeneity. Individual patient data meta-analyses are needed to be able to identify which patients are more likely to benefit from this treatment. Evidence for an effect of sarilumab is uncertain and evidence for other anti-IL6 agents is unavailable. Thirty-nine RCTs of IL-6 blocking agents with no results are currently registered, of which nine are completed and seven trials were terminated with no results available. The findings of this review will be updated as new data are made available on the COVID-NMA platform (covid-nma.com).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Viés , COVID-19/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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