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2.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255402

RESUMO

Demographic changes have placed age-related mental health disorders at the forefront of public health challenges over the next three decades worldwide. Within the context of cognitive impairment and neurocognitive disorders among elderly people, the fragmentation of the self is associated with existential suffering, loss of meaning and dignity for the patient, as well as with a significant burden for the caregiver. Psychosocial interventions are part of a person-centered approach to cognitive impairment (including early stage dementia and dementia). Dignity therapy (DT) is a therapeutic intervention that has been shown to be effective in reducing existential distress, mood, and anxiety symptoms and improving dignity in persons with cancer and other terminal conditions in palliative care settings. The aims of this paper were: (i) To briefly summarize key issues and challenges related to care in gerontology considering specifically frail elderly/elderly with cognitive decline and their caregivers; and (ii) to provide a narrative review of the recent knowledge and evidence on DT in the elderly population with cognitive impairment. We searched the electronic data base (CINAHL, SCOPUS, PSycInfo, and PubMed studies) for studies regarding the application of DT in the elderly. Additionally, given the caregiver's role as a custodian of diachronic unity of the cared-for and the need to help caregivers to cope with their own existential distress and anticipatory grief, we also propose a DT-dyadic approach addressing the needs of the family as a whole.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264815

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the incidence of with first-episode psychosis (FEP) in the Integrated Department of Mental Health and Pathological Addictions in Ferrara, Italy, and to examine the association between the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) and the clinical course. METHODS: Participants recruited in 2013-2019 were assessed with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) every 6 months for 24 months. Hierarchical growth models analysed changes of global severity (HoNOS total scores) and symptom dimensions. Regression modelled factors associated with remission (HoNOS < 8) and clinical improvement (<12). RESULTS: The incidence of FEP was 21.5 (95%CI: 21.2-21.9) cases per 100 000 person year. Among participants (n = 86, mean age 23, 76% males), baseline HoNOS scores were higher for those with a longer DUP. More than half subjects reached clinical remission (61.6%) or improvement (82.6%), while very few (2.3%) were re-hospitalized. HoNOS total scores decayed with a mixed linear/quadratic trend, with a slower decay among migrants. A longer DUP was associated with reduced improvements of positive symptoms and lower likelihood of clinical improvement (OR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Patients from the FEP program of Ferrara reached good clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, individuals with a longer DUP may need additional clinical attention. Systematic monitoring of clinical outcomes may be an optimal strategy to improve the outcomes of FEP in the real world.

4.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(6): 337-341, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349726

RESUMO

Insomnia symptoms might affect about 60% of the Italian population. Insomnia is a "24 hours syndrome" and a risk factor for medical and mental disorders. It should always be assessed and treated in the clinical practice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia is the first line treatment but its availability in Italy is scarce. Pharmacological options in Italy are: melatonin 2 mg prolonged release that should be the first choice in subjects ≥55 years old and used until 13 weeks; and for a short term use (≤4 weeks) Z-drugs or short-acting benzodiazepines (in subjects <65 years old) or a sedating antidepressant.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Consenso , Epidemias , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Agonistas GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Melatonina/agonistas , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Sociedades Científicas
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18996, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149219

RESUMO

The need for new safe and efficacious therapies has led to an increased focus on biologics produced in mammalian cells. The human cell line HEK293 has bio-synthetic potential for human-like production attributes and is currently used for manufacturing of several therapeutic proteins and viral vectors. Despite the increased popularity of this strain we still have limited knowledge on the genetic composition of its derivatives. Here we present a genomic, transcriptomic and metabolic gene analysis of six of the most widely used HEK293 cell lines. Changes in gene copy and expression between industrial progeny cell lines and the original HEK293 were associated with cellular component organization, cell motility and cell adhesion. Changes in gene expression between adherent and suspension derivatives highlighted switching in cholesterol biosynthesis and expression of five key genes (RARG, ID1, ZIC1, LOX and DHRS3), a pattern validated in 63 human adherent or suspension cell lines of other origin.

6.
Psychooncology ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to assess hostility and to examine its association with formal psychiatric diagnosis, coping, cancer worries, and quality of life in cancer patients. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to make an ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) psychiatric diagnosis was applied to 516 cancer outpatients. The patients also completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-53 to assess hostility (BSI-HOS), and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to cancer scale (Mini-MAC). A subset of patients completed the Cancer Worries Inventory (CWI), the Openness Scale, and the Quality of Life Index. RESULTS: By analyzing the distribution of the responses 25% of the patients had moderate and 11% high levels of hostility, with about 20% being BSI-HOS "cases." Hostility was higher in patients with a formal ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis (mainly major depression, other depressive disorders, anxiety disorders) than patients without ICD-10 diagnosis. However, about 25% of ICD-10-non cases also had moderate-to-high hostility levels. Hostility was associated with Mini-MAC hopelessness and anxious preoccupation, poorer quality of life, worries (mainly problems sin interpersonal relationships), and inability to openly discuss these problems within the family. CONCLUSIONS: Hostility and its components should be considered as dimensions to be more carefully explored in screening for distress in cancer clinical settings for its implications in negatively impacting on quality of life, coping and relationships with the family, and possibly the health care system.

7.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238420

RESUMO

This study focuses on the dimensions of dignity, linking Chochinov's Dignity Therapy to Schwartz's Theory of Values. The use of family photo albums has enriched the application of dignity therapy. Seven terminal patients in home-based palliative care participated in the therapeutic intervention. To measure the effects of the intervention, we administered the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale and the Patient Dignity Inventory, then, at the end of the meetings, collected the opinions of participants, available nurses, and relatives who attended the sessions. The resulting generativity documents were then analyzed through thematic analysis, which revealed three main themes linked to both fundamental values and the dimensions of dignity: The relationship between continuity of self and myriad values in the context of family relationships; personal dignity as characterized by the values of personal success, hope, and wisdom; and hope and generativity. The fourth theme reflected the participants' final judgements on the intervention, which were highly positive and greatly encouraged further use of photographs in similar therapeutic interventions. The assessment protocol highlighted a significant decrease in tiredness amongst the participants and a trend towards a significant decrease in drowsiness after the intervention.

8.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 20: 100661, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089003

RESUMO

Patients with advanced cancer suffer from psychosocial distress that may impair quality of life and that may be ameliorated by psychotherapeutic treatment. We describe here the methodology of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness of a novel, brief, semi-structured psychotherapeutic intervention to reduce distress and increase well-being in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. The intervention, called Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully (CALM), was originally developed in Canada and we are now testing its Italian adaptation (CALM-IT). The study is a single-blinded phase III RCT with assessment at baseline, 3 and 6 months with two conditions: CALM-IT versus a nonspecific supportive intervention (SPI). Eligibility criteria include: ≥ 18 years of age; fluency in the Italian language; no cognitive deficit, and diagnosis of advanced or metastatic cancer with an expected survival of 12-18 months. CALM-IT includes up to 12 sessions, delivered over 6 months and covers 4 domains: i) Symptom Management and Communication with Health Care Providers; ii) Changes in Self and Relations with Close Others; iii) Sense of Meaning and Purpose; and iv) the Future and Mortality. The primary outcome is difference in severity of depressive symptoms between treatment arm and the primary endpoint is 6 months. The secondary endpoint is 3 months and secondary outcomes are: generalized anxiety, distress about dying and death, demoralization, spiritual well-being, attachment security, posttraumatic growth, communication with partners, quality of life, and satisfaction with clinical care. If shown to be effective, CALM-IT can be implemented nationally to relieve distress and to promote psychological well-being in patients with advanced cancer.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876469

RESUMO

Rationale: Obesity is characterized by elevated pleural pressure (PPL) and worsening atelectasis during mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objectives: To determine the effects of lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) in the presence of elevated PPL on hemodynamics, left and right ventricular pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. We hypothesized that elevated PPL protects the cardiovascular system against high airway pressures and prevents lung overdistension. Methods: First, an interventional crossover trial in adult subjects with ARDS and BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (n=21) was performed to explore the hemodynamic consequences of LRM. Second, cardiovascular function was studied during low/high PEEPs in a model of swine with ARDS and high PPL (n=9) versus healthy swine with normal PPL (n=6). Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with ARDS and obesity (BMI=57±12 kg/m2), following LRM, required an increase in PEEP of 8[7, 10] cmH2O above traditional ARDSnet settings to improve lung function, oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching, without impairment of hemodynamics or right heart function. ARDS swine with high PPL demonstrated unchanged transmural left ventricle pressure and systemic blood pressure after LRM protocol. Pulmonary artery hypertension decreased 8[13, 4] mmHg, as did vascular resistance 1.5[2.2, 0.9] WU, and transmural right ventricle pressure 10[15, 6] mmHg during exhalation. LRM and PEEP decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and normalized ventilation/perfusion ratio. Conclusions: High airway pressure is required to recruit lung atelectasis in patients with ARDS and class III obesity but causes minimal overdistension. Additionally, patients with ARDS and class III obesity tolerate hemodynamically LRM with high airway pressure.

10.
Psychooncology ; 29(10): 1445-1451, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the reported increased rates of physical morbidity and higher mortality rates among people with severe mental illness (SMI) (schizophrenia and severe mood disorders), with a life expectancy shorter of 15-20 years with respect to the general population, the aim of this paper was to call attention to the problem of cancer in SMI. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of the most significant papers published in the areas of cancer screening, incidence, mortality and palliative care in SMI. RESULTS: Data from the literature confirm disparities in screening (eg, mammography; pap-smear test; colorectal cancer screening) and prevention (eg, clinical breast examination; smoking cessation). The incidence of cancer was found to be variable with a portion of the studies reporting a higher prevalence while others a similar or a lower prevalence of cancer compared to the general population. A lower percentage of patients with SMI received proper cancer treatment resulting in survival after cancer diagnosis significantly worse than people without SMI. Likewise, end-of-life care has been shown to be lacking with poorer levels of physical, psychological and spiritual care. CONCLUSIONS: The problems of stigma and discrimination, poorer dignity, poorer health behavior, lack of integration in health-care services for people with SMI needs to be addressed and solved in cancer care. Psycho-oncology has a very specific and mandatory role in integrating the recommendation of the World Health Organization to improve the links between oncology and mental health settings for more specific psycho-oncology programs addressed for this vulnerable segment of the population.

11.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1394-1411, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955943

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe follow-up care for breast and colorectal cancer survivors in countries with varying levels of resources and highlight challenges regarding posttreatment survivorship care. METHODS: We surveyed one key stakeholder from each of 27 countries with expertise in survivorship care on questions including the components/structure of follow-up care, delivery of treatment summaries and survivorship care plans, and involvement of primary care in survivorship. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize results across countries and variations between the WHO income categories (low, middle, high). We also performed a qualitative content analysis of narratives related to survivorship care challenges to identify major themes. RESULTS: Seven low- or /lower-middle-income countries (LIC/LMIC), seven upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), and 13 high-income countries (HICs) were included in this study. Results indicate that 44.4% of countries with a National Cancer Control Plan currently address survivorship care. Additional findings indicate that HICs use guidelines more often than those in LICs/LMICs and UMICs. There was great variation among countries regardless of income level. Common challenges include issues with workforce, communication and care coordination, distance/transportation issues, psychosocial support, and lack of focus on follow-up care. CONCLUSION: This information can guide researchers, providers, and policy makers in efforts to improve the quality of survivorship care on a national and global basis. As the number of cancer survivors increases globally, countries will need to prioritize their long-term needs. Future efforts should focus on efforts to bridge oncology and primary care, building international partnerships, and implementation of guidelines.

12.
Trials ; 21(1): 695, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly, with a vast impact on quality of life, life expectancy, and medical outcomes. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed agents in this condition and, although generally safe, tolerability issues cannot be overlooked. Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with a novel mechanism of action. Based on studies to date, it may have a promising tolerability profile in the elderly, as it does not adversely affect psychomotor or cognitive performance and does not alter cardiovascular and endocrine parameters. The present study aims to assess the tolerability profile of vortioxetine in comparison with the SSRIs considered as a single group in elderly participants with depression. The rate of participants withdrawing from treatment due to adverse events after 6 months of follow up will be the primary outcome. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a pragmatic, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, superiority, randomized trial funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA - Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco). Thirteen Italian Community Psychiatric Services will consecutively enrol elderly participants suffering from an episode of major depression over a period of 12 months. Participants will be assessed at baseline and after 1, 3 and 6 months of follow up. At each time point, the following validated rating scales will be administered: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist (ASEC), EuroQual 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), Short Blessed Test (SBT), and Charlson Age-Comorbidity Index (CACI). Outcome assessors and the statistician will be masked to treatment allocation. A total of 358 participants (179 in each group) will be enrolled. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will fully adhere to the ICH E6 Guideline for Good Clinical Practice. Participants' data will be managed and safeguarded according to the European Data Protection Regulation 2016/679. An external Ethical Advisory Board will help guarantee high ethical standards. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03779789 , Registered on 19 December 2018. Submitted on 19 December. EudraCT number: 2018-001444-66. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.5; 09/06/2018. Recruitment started In February 2019 and it is ongoing. It is expected to end approximately on 30 September 2021.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751902

RESUMO

Major depression is associated with premature mortality, largely explained by heightened cardiovascular burden. This narrative review summarizes secondary literature (i.e., reviews and meta-analyses) on this topic, considering physical exercise as a potential tool to counteract this alarming phenomenon. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with depression consistently present heightened cardiovascular risk, including "classical" risk factors and dysregulation of pertinent homeostatic systems (immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system). Ultimately, both genetic background and behavioral abnormalities contribute to explain the link between depression and cardiovascular mortality. Physical inactivity is particularly common in depressed populations and may represent an elective therapeutic target to address premature mortality. Exercise-based interventions, in fact, have proven effective reducing cardiovascular risk and mortality through different mechanisms, although evidence still needs to be replicated in depressed populations. Notably, exercise also directly improves depressive symptoms. Despite its potential, however, exercise remains under-prescribed to depressed individuals. Public health may be the ideal setting to develop and disseminate initiatives that promote the prescription and delivery of exercise-based interventions, with a particular focus on their cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Depressão , Exercício Físico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sistema Cardiovascular , Depressão/complicações , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
14.
Blood ; 136(17): 1956-1967, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693407

RESUMO

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare recessive disorder caused by biallelic variants in NBEAL2 and characterized by bleeding symptoms, the absence of platelet α-granules, splenomegaly, and bone marrow (BM) fibrosis. Due to the rarity of GPS, it has been difficult to fully understand the pathogenic processes that lead to these clinical sequelae. To discern the spectrum of pathologic features, we performed a detailed clinical genotypic and phenotypic study of 47 patients with GPS and identified 32 new etiologic variants in NBEAL2. The GPS patient cohort exhibited known phenotypes, including macrothrombocytopenia, BM fibrosis, megakaryocyte emperipolesis of neutrophils, splenomegaly, and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels. Novel clinical phenotypes were also observed, including reduced leukocyte counts and increased presence of autoimmune disease and positive autoantibodies. There were widespread differences in the transcriptome and proteome of GPS platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD4 lymphocytes. Proteins less abundant in these cells were enriched for constituents of granules, supporting a role for Nbeal2 in the function of these organelles across a wide range of blood cells. Proteomic analysis of GPS plasma showed increased levels of proteins associated with inflammation and immune response. One-quarter of plasma proteins increased in GPS are known to be synthesized outside of hematopoietic cells, predominantly in the liver. In summary, our data show that, in addition to the well-described platelet defects in GPS, there are immune defects. The abnormal immune cells may be the drivers of systemic abnormalities such as autoimmune disease.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 568-575, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demoralization, as assessed through the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research-Demoralization (DCPR/D) interview or the Demoralization Scale (DS), has been found to affect about 30% of patients with medical disorders, while few studies have been done in patients with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: A convenience sample of 377 patients with ICD-10 diagnoses of mood, anxiety, stress-related disorders or other non-psychotic disorders was recruited from two Italian university psychiatry centers. The DCPR/D interview and the Italian version of the DS (DS-IT) were used to assess demoralization and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depression. RESULTS: Demoralization was diagnosable in more than 50% of the patients. Factor analysis of the DS-IT indicated four main factors, Meaninglessness/Helplessness, Disheartenment, Dysphoria and Sense of Failure, explaining 62% of the variance of the scale. Patients with bipolar or unipolar major depression and personality disorders had the highest prevalence of demoralization (DCPR/D) and the highest scores on all the DS-IT factors in comparison with patients with adjustment or anxiety disorders. About 50% of patients with moderate demoralization (DS-IT) were not clinically depressed (PHQ-9 <10), while almost all with severe demoralization were depressed. LIMITATIONS: Prospective studies on larger samples with other psychiatric disorders, also taking into account subjective incompetence, are needed. Since the DCPR/D assesses demoralization as a categorical construct, a dimensional framework should be necessary. CONCLUSIONS: The findings enrich the research on demoralization, showing for the first time the importance of this construct, as measured by the DCPR/D and the DS-IT, in patients with psychiatric disorders.

16.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635625

RESUMO

Demoralization is a commonly observed syndrome in medically ill patients. The risk of demoralization may increase in patients after a kidney transplant (KTRs) because of the stressful nature of renal transplantation, psychosocial challenges, and adjustment needs. No study is available on demoralization amongst KTRs. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the validity of the Italian version of the Demoralization Scale (DS-IT) and the prevalence of demoralization in KTRs. Also, we aimed at exploring the association of the DS-IT with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) psychiatric diagnoses, post-traumatic growth (PTG), psychological and physical symptoms, and daily-life problems. A total of 134 KTRs were administered the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0. and the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research-Demoralization (DCPR/D) Interview. The DS-IT, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), the Canadian Problem Checklist (CPC), were used to measure demoralization, physical and psychological symptoms, and daily-life problems; also, positive psychological experience of kidney transplantation was assessed with the PTG Inventory. Routine biochemistry and sociodemographic data were collected. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a four-dimensional factor structure of the DS-IT, explaining 55% of the variance (loss of meaning and purpose, disheartenment, dysphoria, and sense of failure). DS-IT Cronbach alpha coefficients indicated good or acceptable level of internal consistency. The area under the Receiving Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for DS-IT (against the DCPR/D interview as a gold standard) was 0.92. The DS-IT optimal cut-off points were ≥20 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.82). By examining the level of demoralization, 14.2%, 46.3%, 24.6%, and 14.6% of our sample were classified as having no, low, moderate, and high demoralization, respectively, with differences according to the ICD psychiatric diagnoses (p < 0.001). DS-IT Total and subscales scores were positively correlated with scores of ESAS symptoms and CPC score. A correlation between DS-IT loss of meaning and purpose subscale and PTGI appreciation of life subscale (p < 0.05) was found. This study shows, for the first time, a satisfactory level of reliability of the DS-IT and a high prevalence of severe demoralization in KTRs.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670104

RESUMO

Background: Insomnia is the most commonly reported sleep problem in industrialized countries worldwide being present in about 36.8% of the general population. In Italy, such a percentage seems to be even higher. Although insomnia can be an independent disorder, it is most frequently observed as a comorbid condition and may precipitate, exacerbate, or prolong a broad range of comorbid conditions including physical and mental illnesses. Evaluating and targeting insomnia in the Italian clinical practice should be a priority. Methods: The present expert options and recommendations development process was based on the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method for conceptualizing, designing, and carrying out the appropriateness of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment. Only available options in Italy were taken into considerations. Results: We evaluated 12 international guidelines and 12 most recent systematic reviews for insomnia evaluation and treatment produced in the last 10 years. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that symptoms of insomnia must always be assessed in the Italian clinical practice by evaluating nocturnal and daytime symptoms, comorbid conditions and lifestyle. In a patient with chronic insomnia with and without comorbidity, insomnia treatment should be always initiated. CBT-Insomnia therapy should be the first option accordingly to availability. The choice of the drug should be based on different factors such as type of insomnia, age, comorbidities, and potential side effects. Melatonin 2 mg prolonged release should be the first choice in subjects >55 years. If the choice would be a Z-drug or a short-acting benzodiazepine (in subjects <65 years old) or a sedating antidepressant, the use should be in the short term (≤4 weeks) and then proceeds to tapering under clinical monitoring.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 276: 137-146, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression and demoralization are highly prevalent among individuals with physical illnesses but their relationship is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between clinical features of depression and demoralization with the network approach to psychopathology. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the medical wards of a University Hospital in Italy. The Demoralization Scale (DS) was used to assess demoralization, while the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms. The structure of the depression-demoralization symptom network was examined and complemented by the analysis of topological overlap and Exploratory Graph Analysis (EGA) to identify the most relevant groupings (communities) of symptoms and their connections. The stability of network models was estimated with bootstrap procedures and results were compared with factor analysis. RESULTS: Life feeling pointless, low mood/discouragement, hopelessness and feeling trapped were among the most central features of the network. EGA identified four communities: (1) Neurovegetative Depression, (2) Loss of purpose, (3) Frustrated Isolation and (4) Low mood and morale. Loss of purpose and low mood/morale were largely connected with other communities through anhedonia, hopelessness and items related to isolation and lack of emotional control. Results from EGA displayed good stability and were comparable to those from factor analysis. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design; sample heterogeneity CONCLUSIONS: Among general hospital inpatients, features of depression and demoralization are independent, with the exception of low mood and self-reproach. The identification of symptom groupings around entrapment and helplessness may provide a basis for a dimensional characterization of depressed/demoralized patients, with possible implications for treatment.

19.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703790

RESUMO

Transcriptional profiling of hematopoietic cell subpopulations has helped characterize the developmental stages of the hematopoietic system and the molecular bases of malignant and non-malignant blood diseases for the past three decades. Previously, only the genes targeted by expression microarrays could be profiled genome wide. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), however, encompasses a broader repertoire of RNA molecules, without restriction to previously annotated genes. We analysed the BLUEPRINT consortium RNA- seq data for mature hematopoietic cell types. The data comprised 90 total RNA-seq samples, each composed of one of 27 cell types, and 32 small RNA-seq samples, each composed of one of 11 cell types. We estimated gene and isoform expression levels for each cell type using existing annotations from Ensembl. We then used guided transcriptome assembly to discover unannotated transcripts. We identified hundreds of novel non-coding RNA genes and showed that the majority have cell type dependent expression. We also characterized the expression of circular RNAs and found that these are also cell type specific. These analyses refine the active transcriptional landscape of mature hematopoietic cells, highlight abundant genes and transcriptional isoforms for each blood cell type, and provide a valuable resource for researchers of hematological development and diseases. Finally, we made the data accessible via a web-based interface: https://blueprint.haem.cam.ac.uk/bloodatlas/.

20.
medRxiv ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511450

RESUMO

Introduction: the current worldwide outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is seriously threatening the public health. The number of infected patients is continuously increasing and the need for Intensive Care Unit admission ranges from 5 to 26%. The mortality is reported to be around 3.4% with higher values for the elderly and in patients with comorbidities. Moreover, this condition is challenging the healthcare system where the outbreak reached its highest value. To date there is still no available treatment for SARS-CoV-2. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) has a beneficial effect on the coronavirus-mediated acute respiratory syndrome, and this can be related to its viricidal effect. The time from the symptoms' onset to the development of severe respiratory distress is relatively long. We hypothesize that high concentrations of inhaled NO administered during early phases of COVID-19 infection can prevent the progression of the disease. Methods and analysis: This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Spontaneous breathing patients admitted to the hospital for symptomatic COVID-19 infection will be eligible to enter the study. Patients in the treatment group will receive inhaled NO at high doses (140-180 parts per million) for 30 minutes, 2 sessions every day for 14 days in addition to the hospital care. Patient in the control group will receive only hospital care. The primary outcome is the percentage of patients requiring endotracheal intubation due to the progression of the disease in the first 28 days from enrollment in the study. Secondary outcomes include mortality at 28 days, proportion of negative test for SARS-CoV-2 at 7 days and time to clinical recovery. Ethics and dissemination: The trial protocol has been approved at the Investigation Review Boards of Xijing Hospital (Xi'an, China) and The Partners Human Research Committee of Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, USA) is pending. Recruitment is expected to start in March 2020. Results of this study will be published in scientific journals, presented at scientific meetings, and on related website or media in fighting this widespread contagious disease.

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