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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009021, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease globally, with a 30-fold increase in global incidence over the last 50 years. In Bhutan, dengue incidence has been on the rise since 2004, with numerous outbreaks reported across the country. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are vulnerable to dengue in Bhutan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) using a weighted linear combination (WLC) to obtain a vulnerability map of dengue. Risk factors (criteria) were identified and assigned with membership values for vulnerability according to the available literature. Sensitivity analysis and validation of the model was conducted to improve the robustness and predictive ability of the map. Our study revealed marked differences in geographical vulnerability to dengue by location and season. Low-lying areas and those located along the southern border were consistently found to be at higher risk of dengue. The vulnerability extended to higher elevation areas including some areas in the Capital city Thimphu during the summer season. The higher risk was mostly associated with relatively high population density, agricultural and built-up landscapes and relatively good road connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Using MCDA, our study identified vulnerable areas in Bhutan during specific seasons when and where the transmission of dengue is most likely to occur. This study provides evidence for the National Vector-borne Disease Control programme to optimize the use of limited public health resources for surveillance and vector control, to mitigate the public health threat of dengue.

2.
Adv Parasitol ; 111: 119-201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482974

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus-1) are important infections that are endemic in many countries around the world with an estimated 370 million infected with Strongyloides stercoralis alone, and 5-10 million with HTVL-I. Co-infections with these pathogens are associated with significant morbidity and can be fatal. HTLV-I infects T-cells thus causing dysregulation of the immune system which has been linked to dissemination and hyperinfection of S. stercoralis leading to bacterial sepsis which can result in death. Both of these pathogens are endemic in Australia primarily in remote communities in Queensland, the Northern Territory, and Western Australia. Other cases in Australia have occurred in immigrants and refugees, returned travellers, and Australian Defence Force personnel. HTLV-I infection is lifelong with no known cure. Strongyloidiasis is a long-term chronic disease that can remain latent for decades, as shown by infections diagnosed in prisoners of war from World War II and the Vietnam War testing positive decades after they returned from these conflicts. This review aims to shed light on concomitant infections of HTLV-I with S. stercoralis primarily in Australia but in the global context as well.

3.
Malar J ; 20(1): 20, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407471

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns. Against the backdrop of this global COVID-19 pandemic response, there was a sudden surge of locally-transmitted malaria cases between June to August 2020. There were 20 indigenous cases (zero Plasmodium falciparum and 20 Plasmodium vivax) from a total of 49 cases (seven P. falciparum and 42 P. vivax) in 2020 compared to just two from a total of 42 in 2019. Over 80% of the cases were clustered in malaria endemic district of Sarpang. This spike of malaria cases was attributed to the delay in the delivery of routine malaria preventive interventions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, Bhutan is unlikely to achieve the national goal of malaria elimination by 2020.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Butão/epidemiologia , Objetivos , Humanos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , /isolamento & purificação
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466497

RESUMO

Bhutan experienced its largest and first nation-wide dengue epidemic in 2019. The cases in 2019 were greater than the total number of cases in all the previous years. This study aimed to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns and effective reproduction number of this explosive epidemic. Weekly notified dengue cases were extracted from the National Early Warning, Alert, Response and Surveillance (NEWARS) database to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of the epidemic. The time-varying, temperature-adjusted cohort effective reproduction number was estimated over the course of the epidemic. The dengue epidemic occurred between 29 April and 8 December 2019 over 32 weeks, and included 5935 cases. During the epidemic, dengue expanded from six to 44 subdistricts. The effective reproduction number was <3 for most of the epidemic period, except for a ≈1 month period of explosive growth, coinciding with the monsoon season and school vacations, when the effective reproduction number peaked >30 and after which the effective reproduction number declined steadily. Interventions were only initiated 6 weeks after the end of the period of explosive growth. This finding highlights the need to reinforce the national preparedness plan for outbreak response, and to enable the early detection of cases and timely response.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410916

RESUMO

Dengue poses a significant health and economic burden in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Approaches for control need to be aligned with current knowledge on the epidemiology of dengue in the region. Such knowledge will ensure improved targeting of interventions to reduce dengue incidence and its socioeconomic impact. This review was undertaken to describe the contemporary epidemiology of dengue and critically analyse the existing surveillance strategies in the region. Over recent decades, dengue incidence has continued to increase with geographical expansion. The region has now become hyper-endemic for multiple dengue virus serotypes/genotypes. Every epidemic cycle was associated with a change of predominant serotype/genotype and this was often associated with severe disease with intense transmission. Classical larval indices are widely used in vector surveillance and adult mosquito samplings are not implemented as a part of routine surveillance. Further, there is a lack of integration of entomological and disease surveillance systems, often leading to inaction or delays in dengue prevention and control. Disease surveillance does not capture all cases, resulting in under-reporting, and has thus failed to adequately represent the true burden of disease in the region. Possible solutions include incorporating adult mosquito sampling into routine vector surveillance, the establishment of laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, integrated vector and dengue disease surveillance and climate-based early warning systems using available technologies like mobile apps.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008907, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370267

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Indonesia. However, prevalence data for many parts of the country are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine human STH prevalence and knowledge and practices relating to STH risk behaviour, to provide a current view of the status of STH infection in rural communities in Central Java. A cross-sectional survey of 16 villages was conducted in Semarang, Central Java in 2015. Demographic and household data together with information about knowledge and practices relating to STH and hygiene were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Stool samples were collected and examined using the flotation method. Children (aged 2-12 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6,466 individuals with a mean age of 33.5 years (range: 2-93) from 2,195 households were interviewed. The overall prevalence of STH was 33.8% with Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) the predominant nematode identified (prevalence = 26.0%). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were found in 7.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. Females were at increased odds of infection with A. lumbricoides (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.02-1.29], p = 0.02). Adults in age groups 51-60 and over 60 years had the highest odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI [1.84-4.91], p<0.001 and adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI [2.30-6.26], p<0.001, respectively) compared to 6-12 year olds. Farmers also had higher odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI [1.17-4.76], p = 0.02) compared to other occupation categories. Poverty (OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.77-2.58], p<0.001), overcrowding (OR 1.35, 95% CI [1.27-1.44], p<0.001), goat ownership (OR 1.61, 95% CI [1.10-2.41], p = 0.02) and the presence of dry floor space in the home (OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58-0.91], p = 0.01) were all household factors significantly associated with an increased odds of infection. Infection with STH was not significantly associated with the gastrointestinal illness (p>0.05), BMI or Hb levels; however, one third of all 2-12 year olds surveyed were found to be anaemic (i.e. Hb concentrations below 110g/l or 115g/l for children under 5 and 5 years or older, respectively), with a greater proportion of school-age children at risk. Knowledge and behaviour related to hygiene and gastrointestinal diseases varied widely and were generally not associated with STH infection. The study revealed that STH infection remains endemic in Central Java despite ongoing deworming programs. Current control efforts would benefit from being re-evaluated to determine a more effective way forward.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saneamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 574136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162989

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis japonica is an ancient parasitic disease that has severely impacted human health causing a substantial disease burden not only to the Chinese people but also residents of other countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia and, before the 1970s, Japan. Since the founding of the new People's Republic of China (P. R. China), effective control strategies have been implemented with the result that the prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica has decreased markedly in the past 70 years. Historically, the Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is recognised as one of the most highly endemic for schistosomiasis in the P.R. China. The area is characterized by vast marshlands outside the lake embankments and, until recently, the presence of large numbers of domestic animals such as bovines, goats and sheep that can act as reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum. Considerable social, economic and environmental changes have expanded the Oncomelania hupensis hupensis intermediate snail host areas in the Dongting lake region increasing the potential for both the emergence of new hot spots for schistosomiasis transmission, and for its re-emergence in areas where infection is currently under control. In this paper, we review the history, the current endemic status of schistosomiasis and the control strategies in operation in the Dongting Lake region. We also explore epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission and highlight key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis mainly in Hunan but also other endemic Chinese provinces over the past 10 years. We also consider the implications of these research findings on current and future approaches that can lead to the sustainable integrated control and final elimination of schistosomiasis from the P. R. China and other countries in the region where this unyielding disease persists.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16855, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033306

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious health challenge with low survival prognosis. The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, plays a role in the aetiology of CCA, through hepatobiliary abnormalities: liver mass (LM), bile duct dilation, and periductal fibrosis (PDF). A population-based CCA screening program, the Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program, operates in Northeast Thailand. Hepatobiliary abnormalities were identified through ultrasonography. A multivariate zero-inflated, Poisson regression model measured associations between hepatobiliary abnormalities and covariates including age, sex, distance to water resource, and history of O. viverrini infection. Geographic distribution was described using Bayesian spatial analysis methods. Hepatobiliary abnormality prevalence was 38.7%; highest in males aged > 60 years (39.8%). PDF was most prevalent (20.1% of males). The Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) for hepatobiliary abnormalities was highest in the lower and upper parts of the Northeast region. Hepatobiliary abnormalities specifically associated with CCA were also more common in males and those aged over 60 years and distributed along the Chi, Mun, and Songkram Rivers. Our findings demonstrated a high risk of hepatobiliary disorders in Northeast Thailand, likely associated with infection caused by O. viverrini. Screening for CCA and improvement of healthcare facilities to provide better treatment for CCA patients should be prioritized in these high-risk areas.

10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 81, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently considerable international debate around school closures/openings and the role of children in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whilst evidence suggests that children are not impacted by COVID-19 as severely as adults, little is still known about their transmission potential, and with a lot of asymptomatic cases they may be silent transmitters (i.e. infectious without showing clinical signs of disease), albeit at a lower level than adults. In relation to this, it is somewhat concerning that in many countries children are cared for, or are often in close contact with, older individuals such as grandparents ─ the age group most at risk of acquiring serious respiratory complications resulting in death. MAIN TEXT: We emphasise that in the absence of a vaccine or an effective therapeutic drug, preventive measures such as good hygiene practices ─ hand washing, cough etiquette, disinfection of surfaces and social distancing represent the major (in fact only) weapons that we have against COVID-19. Accordingly, we stress that there is a pressing need to develop specific COVID-19 prevention messages for schoolchildren. CONCLUSION: An entertainment education intervention for schoolchildren systematically implemented in schools would be highly effective and fill this need. With such measures in place there would be greater confidence around the opening of schools.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudantes
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1360-1371, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538299

RESUMO

Dengue is an important emerging vector-borne disease in Bhutan. This study aimed to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue and their relationship to environmental factors in dengue-affected areas at the sub-district level. A multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed using a Bayesian framework with spatial and spatiotemporal random effects modelled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure. The posterior parameters were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation with Gibbs sampling. A total of 708 dengue cases were notified through national surveillance between January 2016 and June 2019. Individuals aged ≤14 years were found to be 53% (95% CrI: 42%, 62%) less likely to have dengue infection than those aged >14 years. Dengue cases increased by 63% (95% CrI: 49%, 77%) for a 1°C increase in maximum temperature, and decreased by 48% (95% CrI: 25%, 64%) for a one-unit increase in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). There was significant residual spatial clustering after accounting for climate and environmental variables. The temporal trend was significantly higher than the national average in eastern sub-districts. The findings highlight the impact of climate and environmental variables on dengue transmission and suggests prioritizing high-risk areas for control strategies.

12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(6): e18419, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) of antihelminthics to at-risk populations is still the main strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. However, MDA, as a stand-alone intervention, does not prevent reinfection. Accordingly, complementary measures to prevent STH reinfection, such as health education and improved sanitation, as part of an integrated control approach, are required to augment the effectiveness of MDA for optimal efficiency and sustainability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the impact and generalizability of a school-based health education package entitled The Magic Glasses for STH prevention in the Philippines. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial, involving 2020 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years, in 40 schools in Laguna Province, Philippines, to evaluate the impact of the school-based health education package for the prevention of STHs. The trial was conducted over the course of 1 year (June 2016 to July 2017). A total of 20 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm, in which The Magic Glasses Philippines health education package was delivered with the standard health education activities endorsed by the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) and the Department of Education (DepEd). The other 20 schools comprised the control arm of the study, where the DOH/DepEd's standard health education activities were done. At baseline, parasitological assessments and a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey were carried out in all schools. In addition, height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were obtained from each child (after parental consent), and their school attendance and academic performance in English and mathematics were accessed from the school records. The baseline and 2 follow-up surveys were completed using the same study measurements and quality-control assessments. RESULTS: Key results from this cluster randomized intervention trial will shed light on the impact that The Magic Glasses health education package will have against STH infections in schoolchildren in the province of Laguna, located on the Island of Luzon, in the Calabarzon Region of the Philippines. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the trial will be used to assess the generalizability of the impact of The Magic Glasses health education package in different epidemiological and cultural settings, providing evidence for translation of this health education package into public health policy and practice in the Asian region and beyond. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN12616000508471; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368849. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18419.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7060, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341415

RESUMO

At a time when Bhutan is on the verge of malaria elimination, the aim of this study was to identify malaria clusters at high geographical resolution and to determine its association with local environmental characteristics. Malaria cases from 2006-2014 were obtained from the Vector-borne Disease Control Program under the Ministry of Health, Bhutan. A Zero-Inflated Poisson multivariable regression model with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure was developed. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with Gibbs sampling was used to estimate posterior parameters. A total of 2,062 Plasmodium falciparum and 2,284 Plasmodium vivax cases were reported during the study period. Both species of malaria showed seasonal peaks with decreasing trend. Gender and age were not associated with the transmission of either species of malaria. P. falciparum increased by 0.7% (95% CrI: 0.3%, 0.9%) for a one mm increase in rainfall, while climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) were not associated with P. vivax. Insecticide treated bed net use and residual indoor insecticide coverage were unaccounted for in this study. Hot spots and clusters of both species were isolated in the central southern part of Bhutan bordering India. There was significant residual spatial clustering after accounting for climate and demographic variables.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes among patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are often sub-optimal. Therefore, the early prediction of poor treatment outcomes may be useful in patient care, especially for clinicians when they have the ability to make treatment decisions or offer counselling or additional support to patients. The aim of this study was to develop a simple clinical risk score to predict poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB, using routinely collected data from two large countries in geographically distinct regions. METHODS: We used MDR-TB data collected from Hunan Chest Hospital, China and Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. The data were divided into derivation (n = 343; 60%) and validation groups (n = 227; 40%). A poor treatment outcome was defined as treatment failure, lost to follow up or death. A risk score for poor treatment outcomes was derived using a Cox proportional hazard model in the derivation group. The model was then validated in the validation group. RESULTS: The overall rate of poor treatment outcome was 39.5% (n = 225); 37.9% (n = 86) in the derivation group and 40.5% (n = 139) in the validation group. Three variables were identified as predictors of poor treatment outcomes, and each was assigned a number of points proportional to its regression coefficient. These predictors and their points were: 1) history of taking second-line TB treatment (2 points), 2) resistance to any fluoroquinolones (3 points), and 3) smear did not convert from positive to negative at two months (4 points). We summed these points to calculate the risk score for each patient; three risk groups were defined: low risk (0 to 2 points), medium risk (3 to 5 points), and high risk (6 to 9 points). In the derivation group, poor treatment outcomes were reported for these three groups as 14%, 27%, and 71%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the point system in the derivation group was 0.69 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.77) and was similar to that in the validation group (0.67; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; p = 0.82). CONCLUSION: History of second-line TB treatment, resistance to any fluoroquinolones, and smear non-conversion at two months can be used to estimate the risk of poor treatment outcome in patients with MDR-TB with a moderate degree of accuracy (AUROC = 0.69).


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
15.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 4(4)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817651

RESUMO

Many latrine campaigns in developing countries fail to be sustained because the introduced latrine is not appropriate to local socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions, and there is an inadequate community health education component. We tested a low-cost, locally designed and constructed all-weather latrine (the "BALatrine"), together with community education promoting appropriate hygiene-related behaviour, to determine whether this integrated intervention effectively controlled soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We undertook a pilot intervention study in two villages in Central Java, Indonesia. The villages were randomly allocated to either control or intervention with the intervention village receiving the BALatrine program and the control village receiving no program. STH-infection status was measured using the faecal flotation diagnostic method, before and eight months after the intervention. Over 8 months, the cumulative incidence of STH infection was significantly lower in the intervention village than in the control village: 13.4% vs. 27.5% (67/244 vs. 38/283, p < 0.001). The intervention was particularly effective among children: cumulative incidence 3.8% (2/53) for the intervention vs. 24.1% (13/54) for the control village (p < 0.001). The integrated BALatrine intervention was associated with a reduced incidence of STH infection. Following on from this pilot study, a large cluster-randomised controlled trial was commenced (ACTRN12613000523707).

16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 491, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is a common diarrhoeal disease caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. It is prevalent in low-income countries in the context of inadequate access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and is frequently co-endemic with neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Large-scale periodic deworming programmes are often implemented in these settings; however, there is limited evidence for the impact of regular anthelminthic treatment on G. duodenalis infection. Additionally, few studies have examined the impact of WASH interventions on G. duodenalis. METHODS: The WASH for WORMS cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in remote communities in Manufahi municipality, Timor-Leste, between 2012 and 2016. All study communities received four rounds of deworming with albendazole at six-monthly intervals. Half were randomised to additionally receive a community-level WASH intervention following study baseline. We measured G. duodenalis infection in study participants every six months for two years, immediately prior to deworming, as a pre-specified secondary outcome of the trial. WASH access and behaviours were measured using questionnaires. RESULTS: There was no significant change in G. duodenalis prevalence in either study arm between baseline and the final study follow-up. We found no additional benefit of the community-level WASH intervention on G. duodenalis infection (relative risk: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.72-1.54). Risk factors for G. duodenalis infection included living in a household with a child under five years of age (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.75), living in a household with more than six people (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02-1.72), and sampling during the rainy season (aOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04-1.45). Individuals infected with the hookworm Necator americanus were less likely to have G. duodenalis infection (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.57-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of G. duodenalis was not affected by a community WASH intervention or by two years of regular deworming with albendazole. Direct household contacts appear to play a dominant role in driving transmission. We found evidence of antagonistic effects between G. duodenalis and hookworm infection, which warrants further investigation in the context of global deworming efforts. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12614000680662. Registered 27 June 2014, retrospectively registered. https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366540 .


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Características da Família , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14263, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582774

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant neoplasm of the biliary tract. Thailand reports the highest incidence of CCA in the world. The aim of this study was to map the distribution of CCA and identify spatial disease clusters in Northeast Thailand. Individual-level data of patients with histopathologically confirmed CCA, aggregated at the sub-district level, were obtained from the Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program (CASCAP) between February 2013 and December 2017. For analysis a multivariate Zero-inflated, Poisson (ZIP) regression model was developed. This model incorporated a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, with posterior parameters estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with Gibbs sampling. Covariates included in the models were age, sex, normalized vegetation index (NDVI), and distance to water body. There was a total of 1,299 cases out of 358,981 participants. CCA incidence increased 2.94 fold (95% credible interval [CrI] 2.62-3.31) in patients >60 years as compared to ≤60 years. Males were 2.53 fold (95% CrI: 2.24-2.85) more likely to have CCA when compared to females. CCA decreased with a 1 unit increase of NDVI (Relative Risk =0.06; 95% CrI: 0.01-0.63). When posterior means were mapped spatial clustering was evident after accounting for the model covariates. Age, sex and environmental variables were associated with an increase in the incidence of CCA. When these covariates were included in models the maps of the posterior means of the spatially structured random effects demonstrated evidence of spatial clustering.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tailândia/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 822, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines and targets for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on school-based deworming for school-age children, given the high risk of associated morbidity in this age group. However, expanding deworming to all age groups may achieve improved STH control among both the community in general and school-age children, by reducing their risk of reinfection. This trial aims to compare school-based targeted deworming with community-wide mass deworming in terms of impact on STH infections among school-age children. METHODS: The CoDe-STH (Community Deworming against STH) trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 64 primary schools in Dak Lak province, Vietnam. The control arm will receive one round of school-based targeted deworming with albendazole, while in the intervention arm, community-wide mass deworming with albendazole will be implemented alongside school-based deworming. Prevalence of STH infections will be measured in school-age children at baseline and 12 months following deworming. The primary outcome is hookworm prevalence in school-age children at 12 months, by quantitative PCR. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with outcomes compared between study arms using generalised linear and non-linear mixed models. Additionally, cost-effectiveness of mass and targeted deworming will be calculated and compared, and focus group discussions and interviews will be used to assess acceptability and feasibility of deworming approaches. Individual based stochastic models will be used to predict the impact of mass and targeted deworming strategies beyond the RCT timeframe to assess the likelihood of parasite population 'bounce-back' if deworming is ceased due to low STH prevalence. DISCUSSION: The first large-scale trial comparing mass and targeted deworming for STH control in South East Asia will provide key information for policy makers regarding the optimal design of STH control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12619000309189 .


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Helmintíase/economia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 577, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is caused by a multitude of diverse pathogens, with significant morbidity and mortality in the developing world. The objective of this review was to characterise the diversity and relative importance of common infectious aetiologies of AUFI in South and Southeast Asia. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify common aetiologies of AUFI in Asian countries. Four medical and life sciences databases including PubMed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from January 1998 to March 2019. RESULTS: Forty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Among AUFI cases, viral aetiologies at 18.5% (14888) were more common than bacterial aetiologies (12.9% [10384]). From 80,554 cases, dengue fever was the most common aetiology (11.8%, 9511), followed by leptospirosis (4.4%, 3549), typhoid (4.0%, 3258), scrub typhus (4.0%, 3243) and influenza other than H1N1 (3.1%, 2514). In both adults and children: dengue fever was the leading cause of AUFI with 16.6% (1928) and 18.7% (1281) of the total cases. In admitted patients, dengue fever was the main cause of AUFI at 16.4% (2377), however leptospirosis at 13.9% (2090) was the main cause of AUFI for outpatients. In South Asia, dengue fever was the main cause of AUFI, causing 12.0% (6821) of cases, whereas in Southeast Asia, leptospirosis was the main diagnosis, causing 12.1% (2861) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: In this study the most common causes of AUFI were viral, followed by bacterial and protozoal (malaria) infections. Dengue was the commonest virus that caused AUFI while leptospirosis and typhoid were important bacterial infectious causes. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain a sound epidemiological knowledge of AUFI so that evidence-based diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines can be developed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Febre/etiologia , Ásia , Ásia Sudeste , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 474, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease in Ethiopia, killing more than 30 thousand people every year. This study aimed to determine whether the rates of poor TB treatment outcome varied geographically across Ethiopia at district and zone levels and whether such variability was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural, health care access, or climatic conditions. METHODS: A geospatial analysis was conducted using national TB data reported to the health management information system (HMIS), for the period 2015-2017. The prevalence of poor TB treatment outcomes was calculated by dividing the sum of treatment failure, death and loss to follow-up by the total number of TB patients. Binomial logistic regression models were computed and a spatial analysis was performed using a Bayesian framework. Estimates of parameters were generated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. Geographic clustering was assessed using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, and global and local Moran's I statistics. RESULTS: A total of 223,244 TB patients were reported from 722 districts in Ethiopia during the study period. Of these, 63,556 (28.5%) were cured, 139,633 (62.4%) completed treatment, 6716 (3.0%) died, 1459 (0.7%) had treatment failure, and 12,200 (5.5%) were lost to follow-up. The overall prevalence of a poor TB treatment outcome was 9.0% (range, 1-58%). Hot-spots and clustering of poor TB treatment outcomes were detected in districts near the international borders in Afar, Gambelia, and Somali regions and cold spots were detected in Oromia and Amhara regions. Spatial clustering of poor TB treatment outcomes was positively associated with the proportion of the population with low wealth index (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.0, 1.01), the proportion of the population with poor knowledge about TB (OR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03), and higher annual mean temperature per degree Celsius (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.21). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed significant spatial variation in poor TB treatment outcomes in Ethiopia that was related to underlying socioeconomic status, knowledge about TB, and climatic conditions. Clinical and public health interventions should be targeted in hot spot areas to reduce poor TB treatment outcomes and to achieve the national End-TB Strategy targets.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Resultado do Tratamento
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