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1.
BMJ ; 368: m336, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bicycle commuting is associated with risk of injury. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 230 390 commuters (52.1% women; mean age 52.4 years) recruited from 22 sites across the UK compared by mode of transport used (walking, cycling, mixed mode versus non-active (car or public transport)) to commute to and from work on a typical day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: First incident admission to hospital for injury. RESULTS: 5704 (2.5%) participants reported cycling as their main form of commuter transport. Median follow-up was 8.9 years (interquartile range 8.2-9.5 years), and overall 10 241 (4.4%) participants experienced an injury. Injuries occurred in 397 (7.0%) of the commuters who cycled and 7698 (4.3%) of the commuters who used a non-active mode of transport. After adjustment for major confounding sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors, cycling to work was associated with a higher risk of injury compared with commuting by a non-active mode (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.61). Similar trends were observed for commuters who used mixed mode cycling. Walking to work was not associated with a higher risk of injury. Longer cycling distances during commuting were associated with a higher risk of injury, but commute distance was not associated with injury in non-active commuters. Cycle commuting was also associated with a higher number of injuries when the external cause was a transport related incident (incident rate ratio 3.42, 95% confidence interval 3.00 to 3.90). Commuters who cycled to work had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death than those who did not. If the associations are causal, an estimated 1000 participants changing their mode of commuting to include cycling for 10 years would result in 26 additional admissions to hospital for a first injury (of which three would require a hospital stay of a week or longer), 15 fewer first cancer diagnoses, four fewer cardiovascular disease events, and three fewer deaths. CONCLUSION: Compared with non-active commuting to work, commuting by cycling was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a first injury and higher risk of transport related incidents specifically. These risks should be viewed in context of the health benefits of active commuting and underscore the need for a safer infrastructure for cycling in the UK.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/lesões , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Caminhada
2.
BMJ ; 368: m688, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of macronutrient intake with all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the implications for dietary advice. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 195 658 of the 502 536 participants in UK Biobank completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were included in the analyses. Diet was assessed using Oxford WebQ, a web based 24 hour recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using standard methodology. Cox proportional models with penalised cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality and incidence of CVD. RESULTS: 4780 (2.4%) participants died over a mean 10.6 (range 9.4-13.9) years of follow-up, and 948 (0.5%) and 9776 (5.0%) experienced fatal and non-fatal CVD events, respectively, over a mean 9.7 (range 8.5-13.0) years of follow-up. Non-linear associations were found for many macronutrients. Carbohydrate intake showed a non-linear association with mortality; no association at 20-50% of total energy intake but a positive association at 50-70% of energy intake (3.14 v 2.75 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28 (60-70% v 50% of energy)). A similar pattern was observed for sugar but not for starch or fibre. A higher intake of monounsaturated fat (2.94 v 3.50 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 0.58, 0.51 to 0.66 (20-25% v 5% of energy)) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat (2.66 v 3.04 per 1000 person years, 0.78, 0.75 to 0.81 (5-7% v 12% of energy)) and saturated fat (2.66 v 3.59 per 1000 person years, 0.67, 0.62 to 0.73 (5-10% v 20% of energy)) were associated with a lower risk of mortality. A dietary risk matrix was developed to illustrate how dietary advice can be given based on current intake. CONCLUSION: Many associations between macronutrient intake and health outcomes are non-linear. Thus dietary advice could be tailored to current intake. Dietary guidelines on macronutrients (eg, carbohydrate) should also take account of differential associations of its components (eg, sugar and starch).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Adulto , Idoso , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic obesity is defined as a combination of sarcopenia and obesity. Previous studies have shown a positive association between sarcopenia and respiratory disease, while other studies have identified that obese individuals have a lower risk for respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association of obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with respiratory disease incidence and mortality. METHODS: Data from 170,083 participants from the prospective UK Biobank study were included. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as the combination of sarcopenia with one of the following obesity criteria: BMI ≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ≥ 88 cm in women or ≥ 102 cm in men, or the two highest sex-specific quintiles of body fat. Respiratory disease incidence and mortality were the outcomes. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 7.0 years. 5459 (3.2%) participants developed respiratory diseases and 780 (0.5%) died from respiratory diseases. Compared to individuals without obesity or sarcopenia, those who were obese (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.13 [95 CI: 1.03; 1.23]), sarcopenic (HR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.10; 1.36]) or sarcopenic obese (based on BMI) (HR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.30; 1.77]), had a higher risk of respiratory disease incidence. However, the risk of respiratory disease mortality was higher in sarcopenic individuals and lower in obese individuals. No associations were identified between sarcopenic obesity and respiratory mortality (HR: 1.12 [95% CI: 0.76; 1.63]). Similar patterns were found when obesity was defined using WC or body fat. CONCLUSION: Obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were associated with a higher risk of respiratory disease incidence. However, while obesity was associated with lower, and sarcopenia with higher respiratory mortality risk, no associations between sarcopenic obesity and respiratory mortality were identified.

4.
Maturitas ; 133: 60-67, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005425

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The critical sociodemographic, lifestyle and diseases factors influencing sarcopenia, defined by the current European Working Group on Sarcopenia 2 (EWGSOP2) classification and cut-off points, have not yet been fully elucidated. This study aimed, therefore, to determine sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health-related factors associated with sarcopenia using the new EWGSOP2 definition. STUDY DESIGN: 396,283 participants (52.8 % women, age 38-73 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. The potential factors associated with sarcopenia were allocated to four categories: sociodemographic (sex, age, education, income and professional qualification), anthropometric (nutritional status, abdominal obesity, body fat and birth weight), lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, sleeping, sitting time, TV viewing, alcohol, and dietary intakes) and health status (self-reported prevalent diseases). P-values were corrected for multiple testing using the Bonferroni method. RESULTS: Age, women, lower education, higher deprivation, underweight, lower birth weight, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic bronchitis and osteoporosis were associated with a higher likelihood of sarcopenia. Conversely, overweight, obesity, as well as a self-reported higher intake of energy, protein, vitamins (B12 and B9) and minerals (potassium, calcium and magnesium) were associated with lower odds of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Women, people aged over 65 years, underweight people and those with rheumatoid arthritis were most likely to have sarcopenia. Considering the increase in the ageing population, sarcopenia is likely to become more prevalent. Identifying factors associated with sarcopenia could inform future strategies for early identification of individuals at high risk of sarcopenia and therefore the implementation of preventive strategies against the disease.

5.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 79(1): 47-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282319

RESUMO

This narrative review aims to critically evaluate scientific evidence exploring the therapeutic role(s) of long-chain n-3 PUFA in the context of ageing, and specifically, sarcopenia. We highlight that beyond impairments in physical function and a lack of independence, the age-related decline in muscle mass has ramifications for cardio-metabolic health. Specifically, skeletal muscle is crucial in regulating blood glucose homeostasis (and by extension reducing type 2 diabetes mellitus risk) and providing gluconeogenic precursors that are critical for survival during muscle wasting conditions (i.e. AIDS). Recent interest in the potential anabolic action of n-3 PUFA is based on findings from experimental studies that measured acute changes in the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and/or chronic changes in muscle mass and strength in response to fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA supplementation. Key findings include a potentiated response of MPS to amino acid provision or resistance-based exercise with n-3 PUFA in healthy older adults that extrapolated to longer-term changes in muscle mass and strength. The key mechanism(s) underpinning this enhanced response of MPS remains to be fully elucidated, but is likely driven by the incorporation of exogenous n-3 PUFA into the muscle phospholipid membrane and subsequent up-regulation of cell signalling proteins known to control MPS. In conclusion, multiple lines of evidence suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA provide an essential link between musculoskeletal and cardio-metabolic health in older adults. Given that western diets are typically meagre in n-3 PUFA content, nutritional recommendations for maintaining muscle health with advancing age should place greater emphasis on dietary n-3 PUFA intake.

6.
Age Ageing ; 49(2): 300-304, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: recently, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) established a new operational definition and cut-off points for sarcopenia. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associations with different health outcomes using the old (EWGSOP1) and new (EWGSOP2) definitions of sarcopenia in the UK Biobank cohort. METHODS: sarcopenia was defined as low grip strength plus low muscle mass. Using both EWGSOP cut-off points, we created specific sarcopenia variables. Prevalence of sarcopenia derived using both EWGSOP definitions was calculated and compared as well as prospective health outcomes including all-cause mortality as well as incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RESULTS: the prevalence of sarcopenia based on the EWGSOP1 and EWGSOP2 classifications were 8.14 and 0.36%, respectively. Sarcopenia defined by EWGSOP1 was associated with a higher risk of respiratory disease and COPD as well as mortality from all-cause, CVD and respiratory diseases. However, only respiratory incidence remained associated with sarcopenia when EWGSOP2 was used (HR: 1.32 [95% CI: 1.05-1.66]). Moreover, although individuals classified as sarcopenic using both classifications had the highest risk of all-cause mortality and respiratory disease, those with sarcopenia based on EWGSOP1 only experienced a more extensive range of poorer health outcomes. CONCLUSION: in comparison with EWGSOP1, the new classification (EWGSOP2) produced a lower estimate of sarcopenia prevalence and fewer associations with adverse health outcomes. Although these associations were higher, many become non-significant.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 440-445, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HbA1c levels are increasingly measured in screening for diabetes; we investigated whether HbA1c may simultaneously improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment, using QRISK3, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scoring systems. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: UK Biobank participants without baseline CVD or known diabetes (n = 357,833) were included. Associations of HbA1c with CVD was assessed using Cox models adjusting for classical risk factors. Predictive utility was determined by the C-index and net reclassification index (NRI). A separate analysis was conducted in 16,596 participants with known baseline diabetes. RESULTS: Incident fatal or nonfatal CVD, as defined in the QRISK3 prediction model, occurred in 12,877 participants over 8.9 years. Of participants, 3.3% (n = 11,665) had prediabetes (42.0-47.9 mmol/mol [6.0-6.4%]) and 0.7% (n = 2,573) had undiagnosed diabetes (≥48.0 mmol/mol [≥6.5%]). In unadjusted models, compared with the reference group (<42.0 mmol/mol [<6.0%]), those with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes were at higher CVD risk: hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 (95% CI 1.69-1.97) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.96-2.60), respectively. After adjustment for classical risk factors, these attenuated to HR 1.11 (95% CI 1.03-1.20) and 1.20 (1.04-1.38), respectively. Adding HbA1c to the QRISK3 CVD risk prediction model (C-index 0.7392) yielded a small improvement in discrimination (C-index increase of 0.0004 [95% CI 0.0001-0.0007]). The NRI showed no improvement. Results were similar for models based on the ACC/AHA and SCORE risk models. CONCLUSIONS: The near twofold higher unadjusted risk for CVD in people with prediabetes is driven mainly by abnormal levels of conventional CVD risk factors. While HbA1c adds minimally to cardiovascular risk prediction, those with prediabetes should have their conventional cardiovascular risk factors appropriately measured and managed.

8.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 2924818, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827375

RESUMO

Background: Evidence suggests that exercise improves neutrophil function. The decreased functional longevity of neutrophils and their increased clearance from infectious sites contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection and severity of infection observed in patients with diabetes. Objective: Herein, we investigated the effects of a dance program on neutrophil number, function, and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: Ten patients with T2DM and twelve healthy individuals participated in a moderate-intensity dance training program for 4 months. The plasma levels of leptin, free fatty acids (FFAs), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra); neutrophil counts; extent of DNA fragmentation; cell membrane integrity; and production of TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1ß in neutrophils were measured before and after training. Results: Training reduced plasma levels of TNF-α (1.9-fold in controls and 2.2-fold in patients with T2DM) and CRP (1.4-fold in controls and 3.4-fold in patients with T2DM). IL-1ra levels were higher in the control group (2.2-fold) after training. After training, neutrophil DNA fragmentation was decreased in patients with T2DM (90%), while the number of neutrophils increased (70% in controls and 1.1-fold in patients with T2DM). Conclusion: Dance training is a nonpharmacological strategy to reduce inflammation and improve neutrophil clearance in patients with T2DM.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2230-2240, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and grip strength (GS) with incident heart failure (HF), a clinical syndrome that results in substantial social and economic burden, using UK Biobank data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 502,628 participants recruited into the UK Biobank between April 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, a total of 374,493 were included in our GS analysis and 57,053 were included in CRF analysis. Associations between CRF and GS and incident HF were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for known measured confounders. RESULTS: During a mean of 4.1 (range, 2.4-7.1) years, 631 HF events occurred in those with GS data, and 66 HF events occurred in those with CRF data. Higher CRF was associated with 18% lower risk for HF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88) per 1-metabolic equivalent increment increase and GS was associated with 19% lower incidence of HF risk (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) per 5-kg increment increase. When CRF and GS were standardized, the HR for CRF was 0.50 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and for GS was 0.65 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.58-0.72). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that objective measurements of physical function (GS and CRF) are strongly and independently associated with lower HF incidence. Future studies targeting improving CRF and muscle strength should include HF as an outcome to assess whether these results are causal.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
10.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1753-1760, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700174

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is common in the general population and associated with excess cardiovascular disease (CVD), but kidney function does not feature in current CVD risk-prediction models. We tested three formulae for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to determine which was the most clinically informative for predicting CVD and mortality. Using data from 440,526 participants from UK Biobank, eGFR was calculated using serum creatinine, cystatin C (eGFRcys) and creatinine-cystatin C. Associations of each eGFR with CVD outcome and mortality were compared using Cox models and adjusting for atherosclerotic risk factors (per relevant risk scores), and the predictive utility was determined by the C-statistic and categorical net reclassification index. We show that eGFRcys is most strongly associated with CVD and mortality, and, along with albuminuria, adds predictive discrimination to current CVD risk scores, whilst traditional creatinine-based measures are weakly associated with risk. Clinicians should consider measuring eGFRcys as part of cardiovascular risk assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/complicações , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Albuminúria/urina , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Nutr Sci ; 8: e33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656624

RESUMO

Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.

12.
Circulation ; 140(7): 542-552, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements are central to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment, but there is continuing debate around the utility of other lipids for risk prediction. METHODS: Participants from UK Biobank without baseline CVD and not taking statins, with relevant lipid measurements (n=346 686), were included in the primary analysis. An incident fatal or nonfatal CVD event occurred in 6216 participants (1656 fatal) over a median of 8.9 years. Associations of nonfasting lipid measurements (total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, direct and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and apolipoproteins [Apo] A1 and B) with CVD were compared using Cox models adjusting for classical risk factors, and predictive utility was determined by the C-index and net reclassification index. Prediction was also tested in 68 649 participants taking a statin with or without baseline CVD (3515 CVD events). RESULTS: ApoB, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C were highly correlated (r>0.90), while HDL-C was strongly correlated with ApoA1 (r=0.92). After adjustment for classical risk factors, 1 SD increase in ApoB, direct LDL-C, and non-HDL-C had similar associations with composite fatal/nonfatal CVD events (hazard ratio, 1.23, 1.20, 1.21, respectively). Associations for 1 SD increase in HDL-C and ApoA1 were also similar (hazard ratios, 0.81 [both]). Adding either total cholesterol and HDL-C, or ApoB and ApoA, to a CVD risk prediction model (C-index, 0.7378) yielded similar improvement in discrimination (C-index change, 0.0084; 95% CI, 0.0065, 0.0104, and 0.0089; 95% CI, 0.0069, 0.0109, respectively). Once total and HDL-C were in the model, no further substantive improvement was achieved with the addition of ApoB (C-index change, 0.0004; 95% CI, 0.0000, 0.0008) or any measure of LDL-C. Results for predictive utility were similar for a fatal CVD outcome, and in a discordance analysis. In participants taking a statin, classical risk factors (C-index, 0.7118) were improved by non-HDL-C (C-index change, 0.0030; 95% CI, 0.0012, 0.0048) or ApoB (C-index change, 0.0030; 95% CI, 0.0011, 0.0048). However, adding ApoB or LDL-C to a model already containing non-HDL-C did not further improve discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of total cholesterol and HDL-C in the nonfasted state is sufficient to capture the lipid-associated risk in CVD prediction, with no meaningful improvement from addition of apolipoproteins, direct or calculated LDL-C.

13.
Age Ageing ; 48(5): 684-691, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: higher grip strength is associated with better health outcomes. The optimal way to report grip strength (i.e. absolute vs. relative) for prediction, however, remains to be established. METHODS: in participants (aged 37-73 at baseline) from the UK Biobank, we examined the associations of grip strength, expressed in absolute terms (kilograms) and relative to anthropometric variables, with mortality and disease incidence, after exclusion of the first 2 years of follow-up, and compared risk predictions scores of handgrip strength when differentially expressed. RESULTS: of the 356 721 participants included in the analysis 6,234 died (1.7%) and 4,523 developed CVD (1.3%) over a mean follow-up of 5.0 years (ranging from 3.3 to 7.8) for mortality and 4.1 years (ranging from 2.4 to 7.0) for disease incidence data. As expected, baseline higher grip strength was associated with lower risk of all-cause and cause specific mortality and incidence. These associations did not meaningfully differ when grip-strength was expressed in absolute terms, vs. relative to height, weight, fat-free mass, BMI, fat-free mass index and fat-free mass, or as z-scores. Similarly the different ways of expressing grip strength had little effect on the ability of grip strength to improve risk prediction, based on C-index change, of an office-based risk score. CONCLUSIONS: the ability of grip strength to predict mortality is not altered by changing how it is expressed.

14.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(8): 1526-1538, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between a genetic profile risk score for obesity (GPRS-obesity) (based on 93 SNPs) and body mass index (BMI) was modified by physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness, commuting mode, walking pace and sedentary behaviours. METHODS: For the analyses we used cross-sectional baseline data from 310,652 participants in the UK Biobank study. We investigated interaction effects of GPRS-obesity with objectively measured and self-reported PA, cardiorespiratory fitness, commuting mode, walking pace, TV viewing, playing computer games, PC-screen time and total sedentary behaviour on BMI. Body mass index (BMI) was the main outcome measure. RESULTS: GPRS-obesity was associated with BMI (ß:0.54 kg.m-2 per standard deviation (SD) increase in GPRS, [95% CI: 0.53; 0.56]; P = 2.1 × 10-241). There was a significant interaction between GPRS-obesity and objectively measured PA (P[interaction] = 3.3 × 10-11): among inactive individuals, BMI was higher by 0.58 kg.m-2 per SD increase in GPRS-obesity (p = 1.3 × 10-70) whereas among active individuals the relevant BMI difference was less (ß:0.33 kg.m-2, p = 6.4 × 10-41). We observed similar patterns for fitness (Unfit ß:0.72 versus Fit ß:0.36 kg.m-2, P[interaction] = 1.4 × 10-11), walking pace (Slow ß:0.91 versus Brisk ß:0.38 kg.m-2, P[interaction] = 8.1 × 10-27), discretionary sedentary behaviour (High ß:0.64 versus Low ß:0.48 kg.m-2, P[interaction] = 9.1 × 10-12), TV viewing (High ß:0.62 versus Low ß:0.47 kg.m-2, P[interaction] = 1.7 × 10-11), PC-screen time (High ß:0.82 versus Low ß:0.54 kg.m-2, P[interaction] = 0.0004) and playing computer games (Often ß:0.69 versus Low ß:0.52 kg.m-2, P[interaction] = 8.9 × 10-10). No significant interactions were found for commuting mode (car, public transport, active commuters). CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and fitness modify the extent to which a set of the most important known adiposity variants affect BMI. This suggests that the adiposity benefits of high PA and low sedentary behaviour may be particularly important in individuals with high genetic risk for obesity.

15.
J Nutr Metab ; 2019: 8594825, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944739

RESUMO

Citrate synthase (CS) is a key mitochondrial enzyme. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low CS activity impairs the metabolic health of mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and promotes palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in muscle cells. C57BL/6J (B6) mice and congenic B6.A-(rs3676616-D10Utsw1)/KjnB6 (B6.A), a strain which carries the A/J allele of CS on the B6 strain background, were fed HFD (45% kcal from fat) for 12 weeks. C2C12 mouse muscle cells were used to investigate effects of CS knockdown on cell viability and signalling after incubation in 0.8 mM palmitate. CS activity, but not that of ß-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme-A dehydrogenase was lower in the gastrocnemius muscle and heart of B6.A mice compared to B6 mice (P < 0.001). During HFD feeding, glucose tolerance of mice decreased progressively and to a greater extent in B6.A females compared to B6 females, with males showing a similar trend. Body weight and fat gain did not differ between B6.A and B6 mice. After an 18 h incubation in 0.8 mM palmitate C2C12 muscle cells with ∼50% shRNA mediated reduction in CS activity showed lower (P < 0.001) viability and increased (P < 0.001) levels of cleaved caspase-3 compared to the scramble shRNA treated C2C12 cells. A/J strain variant of CS is associated with low enzyme activity and impaired metabolic health. This could be due to impaired lipid metabolism in muscle cells.

16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(4): 653-661, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether the association between a validated genetic profile risk score for BMI (GPRS-BMI) (based on 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and phenotypic obesity (BMI) was modified by the combined categories of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors in a large population-based study. METHODS: This study included cross-sectional baseline data from 338,216 white European adult men and women aged 37 to 73 years. Interaction effects of GPRS-BMI with the combined categories of PA and sedentary behaviors on BMI were investigated. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between GPRS-BMI and the combined categories of objectively measured PA and total sedentary behavior (P[interaction] = 3.5 × 10-6 ); among physically inactive and highly sedentary individuals, BMI was higher by 0.60 kg/m2 per 1-SD increase in GPRS-obesity (P = 8.9 × 10-50 ), whereas the relevant BMI difference was 38% lower among physically active individuals and those with low sedentary time (ß: 0.37 kg/m2 ; P = 2.3 × 10-51 ). A similar pattern was observed for the combined categories of objective PA and TV viewing (inactive/high TV viewing ß: 0.60 vs. active/low TV viewing ß: 0.40 kg/m2 ; P[interaction] = 2.9 × 10-6 ). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that combined categories of PA and sedentary behaviors modify the extent to which genetic predisposition to obesity results in higher BMI.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e026793, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue remains pervasive, disabling and challenging to manage across all inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive-behavioural approaches (CBAs) and graded exercise programmes designed to support and increase exercise, are valuable treatments which help patients with IRD to manage their fatigue. Yet, healthcare systems have encountered substantial barriers to the implementation of these therapeutic options. Lessening the Impact of Fatigue in Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: a Randomised Trial (LIFT) is designed to give insights into the effectiveness of a remotely delivered standardised intervention for a range of patients with IRD. It will also enable the exploration of putative moderating factors which may allow for the future triage of patients and to investigate the precise mediators of treatment effect in IRD-related fatigue. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: LIFT is a pragmatic, multicentre, three-arm randomised, controlled trial, which will test whether adapted CBA and personalised exercise programme interventions can individually reduce the impact and severity of fatigue. This will be conducted with up to 375 eligible patients diagnosed with IRD and interventions will be delivered by rheumatology healthcare professionals, using the telephone or internet-based audio/video calls. ETHICS APPROVAL AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by Wales REC 7 (17/WA/0065). Results of this study will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and in scientific journal. A lay summary of the results will be sent to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03248518; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fadiga/terapia , Febre Reumática/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Febre Reumática/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 78(1): 1-3, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747093

RESUMO

The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2018, held in Glasgow, brought together experts focusing on the interaction between different nutrients and how this impacts absorption, metabolism and health from biochemical and physiological perspectives. This cross-cutting theme was examined from a range of perspectives, bringing together experts on topics ranging from food processing to the impact of inflammation on nutrient status. Two plenary lectures provided a food landscape and lifecourse background to the proceedings, with on the first day a focus on processed/ultra-processed foods and their nutrient composition and, on the second day, a plenary lecture exploring the role that nutrient-nutrient interactions within the maternal diet have for the lifelong health of the offspring. The meeting was framed around three symposia, examining the competition and bioavailability of dietary components, nutrient-nutrient interactions and their role in protection from chronic diseases and the mechanisms of nutrient-nutrient interactions. The meeting ended with a round table, and an overall conclusion highlighting the opportunities to derive further understanding of the short- and long-term implications of diets through the study of nutrient-nutrient interactions.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Nutrientes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Escócia
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(11): 2012-2021, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile. DESIGN: Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka's formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression. SETTING: Chileans aged ≥15 years.ParticipantsParticipants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. RESULTS: Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.

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