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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1317-1328, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. RESULTS: Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (ß change for an interquartile-range increase in exposure: -1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5 to -0.8 mm Hg]), maternal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 118 (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.6 to -0.2 mm Hg]) and child concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE: -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.7 mm Hg]), hexachlorobenzene (-1.5 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.6 mm Hg]), and mono-benzyl phthalate (-0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.3 to -0.1 mm Hg]), whereas increases in systolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature during pregnancy (1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.2 to 2.9 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.4 to 3.5 mm Hg]), maternal cotinine concentrations (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.3 to 2.8 mm Hg]), and child perfluorooctanoate concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.6 mm Hg]). Decreases in diastolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature at examination (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.3 to -0.5 mm Hg]) and child DDE concentrations (-1.1 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3 mm Hg]), whereas increases in diastolic BP were observed with maternal bisphenol-A concentrations (0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.2 to 2.7 mm Hg]), and child copper concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6 mm Hg]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early-life exposure to several chemicals, as well as built environment and meteorological factors, may affect BP in children.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is a molecular marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether early-life exposure to residential air pollution was associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at 8 y of age. METHODS: In a multicenter European birth cohort study, HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) ([Formula: see text]), we estimated prenatal and 1-y childhood exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and proximity to major roads. Average relative LTL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates of the association between LTL and prenatal, 1-y childhood air pollution, and proximity to major roads were calculated using multiple linear mixed models with a random cohort effect and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: LTL was inversely associated with prenatal and 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposures levels. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in prenatal [Formula: see text] was associated with a [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) change in LTL. Prenatal [Formula: see text] was nonsignificantly associated with LTL ([Formula: see text] per SD increase; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.6). For each SD increment in 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposure, LTL shortened by [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.1), respectively. Each doubling in residential distance to nearest major road during childhood was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.02, 3.1) lengthening in LTL. CONCLUSION: Lower exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and childhood were associated with longer telomeres in European children at 8 y of age. These results suggest that reductions in traffic-related air pollution may promote molecular longevity, as exemplified by telomere length, from early life onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4148.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

4.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121806

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) is associated with health benefits; however, evidence on the impact of NOE exposure during childhood on mental health (MH) and vitality in adulthood is scarce. This study was based on questionnaire data collected from 3585 participants, aged 18-75, in the PHENOTYPE project (2013) in four European cities. Mixed models were used to investigate associations between childhood NOE exposure and (i) MH; (ii) vitality (perceived level of energy and fatigue); and (iii) potential mediation by perceived amount, use, satisfaction, importance of NOE, and residential surrounding greenness, using pooled and city-level data. Adults with low levels of childhood NOE exposure had, when compared to adults with high levels of childhood NOE exposure, significantly worse mental health (coef. -4.13; 95% CI -5.52, -2.74). Childhood NOE exposure was not associated with vitality. Low levels of childhood NOE exposure were associated with lower importance of NOE (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.66, 0.98) in adulthood. The association with perceived amount of NOE differed between cities. We found no evidence for mediation. Childhood NOE exposure might be associated with mental well-being in adulthood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to identify mechanisms underlying long-term benefits of childhood NOE exposure.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e023000, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dog owners walking their dog in natural outdoor environments (NOE) may benefit from the physical activity facilitated by dog walking and from time spent in nature. However, it is unclear whether dog owners receive additional health benefits associated with having access to NOE above the physical activity benefit of walking with their dog. We investigated associations between dog ownership, walking, time spent in NOE and health and whether these associations differed among those with good and poor access to NOE and those living in green and less green areas. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Typical Populations in Different Regions in Europe project. PARTICIPANTS: n=3586 adults from Barcelona (Spain), Doetinchem (the Netherlands), Kaunas (Lithuania) and Stoke-on-Trent (UK). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated access to NOE with land maps and residential surrounding greenness with satellite data. Leisure time walking, time spent in NOE and general and mental health status were measured using validated questionnaires. Associations were estimated using multilevel analysis with a random intercept defined at the neighbourhood level. RESULTS: Dog ownership was associated with higher rates of leisure time walking and time spending in NOE (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.54 and 2.37, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.79, respectively). These associations were stronger in those living within 300 m of a NOE and in greener areas. No consistent associations were found between dog ownership and perceived general or mental health status. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with non-dog owners, dog owners walked more and spent more time in NOE, especially those living within 300 m of a NOE and in greener areas. The health implications of these relationships should be further investigated. In a largely physically inactive society, dog walking in NOE may be a simple way of promoting physical activity and health.

7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 864-872, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to environmental chemical contaminants at critical periods of development can lead to lifelong health consequences. Traditionally, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are thought to experience higher contaminant exposures; however, this relationship may not hold for all contaminants. METHODS: Using data from six European birth cohorts (1301 mother-child pairs), we determined biomarkers of exposure to 41 contaminants in biological samples from children (6-12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metals, phthalate metabolites, phenols, and organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites. We analyzed these biomarkers with several socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators (maternal education, employment status and family affluence scale). RESULTS: Higher SEP was associated with higher concentrations of several chemicals during pregnancy, including certain PFASs, mercury, arsenic, several phenols, and OP pesticides. Similarly, childhood concentrations of OCs, PFASs, mercury, arsenic, and bisphenol A were higher in higher SEP groups. Conversely, cadmium exposure during pregnancy and exposure to lead and phthalate metabolites in childhood were higher in lower SEP. Principal components representing multiple pollutant exposures showed similar association with SEP. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that environmental chemical contaminant exposure during fetal and childhood life is not exclusively associated to lower SEP and that for several contaminants higher SEP groups incur higher exposure levels.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917598

RESUMO

Background: Environmental factors determine children's health. Quantifying the health impacts related to environmental hazards for children is essential to prioritize interventions to improve health in Europe. Objective: This study aimed to assess the burden of childhood disease due to environmental risks across the European Union. Methods: We conducted an environmental burden of childhood disease assessment in the 28 countries of the EU (EU28) for seven environmental risk factors (particulate matter less than 10 micrometer of diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5 micrometer of diameter (PM2.5), ozone, secondhand smoke, dampness, lead, and formaldehyde). The primary outcome was disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), assessed from exposure data provided by the World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease project, scientific literature, and epidemiological risk estimates. Results: The seven studied environmental risk factors for children in the EU28 were responsible for around 211,000 DALYs annually. Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was the main environmental risk factor, producing 59% of total DALYs (125,000 DALYs), followed by secondhand smoke with 20% of all DALYs (42,500 DALYs), ozone 11% (24,000 DALYs), dampness 6% (13,000 DALYs), lead 3% (6200 DALYs), and formaldehyde 0.2% (423 DALYs). Conclusions: Environmental exposures included in this study were estimated to produce 211,000 DALYs each year in children in the EU28, representing 2.6% of all DALYs in children. Among the included environmental risk factors, air pollution (particulate matter and ozone) was estimated to produce the highest burden of disease in children in Europe, half of which was due to the effects of PM10 on infant mortality. Effective policies to reduce environmental pollutants across Europe are needed.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença , Europa (Continente) , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Umidade , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
10.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(2): e81-e92, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children. METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures. FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions. INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease. FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(10): 10070-10082, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756350

RESUMO

Exposure assessment is an important part in environmental epidemiology for determining the associations of environmental factors with health effects. One of the greatest challenges for personal exposure assessment is associated with peoples' mobility during the day and spatial and temporal dynamics of air pollution. In this study, the impact of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 µm) on allergy risk among adults was assessed using objective methods of exposure assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to estimate personal exposure to PM10 based on individual daily movement patterns. Significant differences between the concentration of PM10 in different microenvironments (MEs) and personal exposure to PM10 were determined. Home exposure accounted for the largest part of PM10 exposure. Thirty-five percent of PM10 exposure was received in other non-home MEs. Allergy risk increased significantly with increasing exposure to PM10. Adults exposed to the highest levels of PM10 exposure had a twice-higher risk of allergies than adults exposed to the lowest levels of PM10 exposure. The study results have practical relevance for exposure assessment to environmental factors and its impact on health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Int ; 123: 189-200, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530161

RESUMO

Characterization of the "exposome", the set of all environmental factors that one is exposed to from conception onwards, has been advocated to better understand the role of environmental factors on chronic diseases. Here, we aimed to describe the early-life exposome. Specifically, we focused on the correlations between multiple environmental exposures, their patterns and their variability across European regions and across time (pregnancy and childhood periods). We relied on the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project, in which 87 environmental exposures during pregnancy and 122 during the childhood period (grouped in 19 exposure groups) were assessed in 1301 pregnant mothers and their children at 6-11 years in 6 European birth cohorts. Some correlations between exposures in the same exposure group reached high values above 0.8. The median correlation within exposure groups was >0.3 for many exposure groups, reaching 0.69 for water disinfection by products in pregnancy and 0.67 for the meteorological group in childhood. Median correlations between different exposure groups rarely reached 0.3. Some correlations were driven by cohort-level associations (e.g. air pollution and chemicals). Ten principal components explained 45% and 39% of the total variance in the pregnancy and childhood exposome, respectively, while 65 and 90 components were required to explain 95% of the exposome variability. Correlations between maternal (pregnancy) and childhood exposures were high (>0.6) for most exposures modeled at the residential address (e.g. air pollution), but were much lower and even close to zero for some chemical exposures. In conclusion, the early life exposome was high dimensional, meaning that it cannot easily be measured by or reduced to fewer components. Correlations between exposures from different exposure groups were much lower than within exposure groups, which have important implications for co-exposure confounding in multiple exposure studies. Also, we observed the early life exposome to be variable over time and to vary by cohort, so measurements at one time point or one place will not capture its complexities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Purificação da Água
13.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 202, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environment and diet in early life can affect development and health throughout the life course. Metabolic phenotyping of urine and serum represents a complementary systems-wide approach to elucidate environment-health interactions. However, large-scale metabolome studies in children combining analyses of these biological fluids are lacking. Here, we sought to characterise the major determinants of the child metabolome and to define metabolite associations with age, sex, BMI and dietary habits in European children, by exploiting a unique biobank established as part of the Human Early-Life Exposome project ( http://www.projecthelix.eu ). METHODS: Metabolic phenotypes of matched urine and serum samples from 1192 children (aged 6-11) recruited from birth cohorts in six European countries were measured using high-throughput 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and a targeted LC-MS/MS metabolomic assay (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit). RESULTS: We identified both urinary and serum creatinine to be positively associated with age. Metabolic associations to BMI z-score included a novel association with urinary 4-deoxyerythreonic acid in addition to valine, serum carnitine, short-chain acylcarnitines (C3, C5), glutamate, BCAAs, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C14:0, lysoPC a C16:1, lysoPC a C18:1, lysoPC a C18:2) and sphingolipids (SM C16:0, SM C16:1, SM C18:1). Dietary-metabolite associations included urinary creatine and serum phosphatidylcholines (4) with meat intake, serum phosphatidylcholines (12) with fish, urinary hippurate with vegetables, and urinary proline betaine and hippurate with fruit intake. Population-specific variance (age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, dietary and country of origin) was better captured in the serum than in the urine profile; these factors explained a median of 9.0% variance amongst serum metabolites versus a median of 5.1% amongst urinary metabolites. Metabolic pathway correlations were identified, and concentrations of corresponding metabolites were significantly correlated (r > 0.18) between urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS: We have established a pan-European reference metabolome for urine and serum of healthy children and gathered critical resources not previously available for future investigations into the influence of the metabolome on child health. The six European cohort populations studied share common metabolic associations with age, sex, BMI z-score and main dietary habits. Furthermore, we have identified a novel metabolic association between threonine catabolism and BMI of children.

14.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 721-727, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commuting routes with natural features could promote walking or cycling for commuting. Commuting through natural environments (NE) could have mental health benefits as exposure to NE can reduce stress and improve mental health, but there is little evidence. This study evaluates the association between NE and commuting, whether active or not, and the association between commuting (through NE), whether active or not, and mental health. We also evaluate the moderating effect of NE quality on the association between NE commuting and mental health. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on adult respondents (n = 3599) of the Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Typical Populations in Different Regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project. Data were collected in four European cities in Spain, the Netherlands, Lithuania and the United Kingdom. Data on commuting behavior (active commuting at least one day/week, daily NE commuting) and mental health were collected with questionnaires. Associations were estimated with multilevel analyses including random intercepts at city- and neighborhood level. RESULTS: Adjusted multilevel analyses showed that daily NE commuters were more often active commuters (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.19, 1.70). There was no association between active commuting and mental health, but daily NE commuters had on average a 2.74 (95% CI 1.66, 3.82) point higher mental health score than those not commuting through NE. The association with mental health was stronger among active commuters (4.03, 95% CI 2.13, 5.94) compared to non-active commuters (2.21; 95% CI 0.90, 3.51) when daily commuting through NE, but NE quality did not have a moderating effect. CONCLUSIONS: Daily NE commuting was associated with better mental health, especially for active commuters. Daily NE commuters were likely to be active commuters. Active commuting itself was not associated with mental health. These findings suggest that cities should invest in commuting routes with nature for cycling and walking.

15.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 751-763, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmonized data describing simultaneous exposure to a large number of environmental contaminants in-utero and during childhood is currently very limited. OBJECTIVES: To characterize concentrations of a large number of environmental contaminants in pregnant women from Europe and their children, based on chemical analysis of biological samples from mother-child pairs. METHODS: We relied on the Early-Life Exposome project, HELIX, a collaborative project across six established population-based birth cohort studies in Europe. In 1301 subjects, biomarkers of exposure to 45 contaminants (i.e. organochlorine compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, toxic and essential elements, phthalate metabolites, environmental phenols, organophosphate pesticide metabolites and cotinine) were measured in biological samples from children (6-12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, using highly sensitive biomonitoring methods. RESULTS: Most of the exposure biomarkers had high detection frequencies in mothers (35 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected) and children (33 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected). Concentrations were significantly different between cohorts for all compounds, and were generally higher in maternal compared to children samples. For most of the persistent compounds the correlations between maternal and child concentrations were moderate to high (Spearman Rho > 0.35), while for most non-persistent compounds correlations were considerably lower (Spearman Rho < 0.15). For mercury, PFOS and PFOA a considerable proportion of the samples of both mothers and their children exceeded the HBM I value established by The Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency. DISCUSSION: Although not based on a representative sample, our study suggests that children across Europe are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants in fetal life and childhood including many with potential adverse effects. For values exceeding the HBM I value identification of specific sources of exposure and reducing exposure in an adequate way is recommended. Considerable variability in this "chemical exposome" was seen between cohorts, showing that place of residence is a strong determinant of one's personal exposome. This extensive dataset comprising >100,000 concentrations of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs forms a unique possibility for conducting epidemiological studies using an exposome approach.

16.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 561-573, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposome studies are challenged by exposure misclassification for non-persistent chemicals, whose temporal variability contributes to bias in dose-response functions. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the variability of urinary concentrations of 24 non-persistent chemicals: 10 phthalate metabolites, 7 phenols, 6 organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites, and cotinine, between weeks from different pregnancy trimesters in pregnant women, and between days and between seasons in children. METHODS: 154 pregnant women and 152 children from six European countries were enrolled in 2014-2015. Pregnant women provided three urine samples over a day (morning, midday, and night), for one week in the 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters. Children provided two urines a day (morning and night), over two one-week periods, six months apart. We pooled all samples for a given subject that were collected within a week. In children, we also made four daily pools (combining morning and night voids) during the last four days of the first follow-up week. Pools were analyzed for all 24 metabolites of interest. We calculated intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) and estimated the number of pools needed to obtain an ICC above 0.80. RESULTS: All phthalate metabolites and phenols were detected in >90% of pools whereas certain OP pesticide metabolites and cotinine were detected in <43% of pools. We observed fair (ICC = 0.40-0.59) to good (0.60-0.74) between-day reliability of the pools of two samples in children for all chemicals. Reliability was poor (<0.40) to fair between trimesters in pregnant women and between seasons in children. For most chemicals, three daily pools of two urines each (for weekly exposure windows) and four weekly pools of 15-20 urines each would be necessary to obtain an ICC above 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This quantification of the variability of biomarker measurements of many non-persistent chemicals during several time windows shows that for many of these compounds a few dozen samples are required to accurately assess exposure over periods encompassing several trimesters or months.

17.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development. OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic position (SEP), assessed at both the area and individual level, was related to the exposome through an exposome-wide association study and principal component (PC) analysis. RESULTS: Mean±standard deviation (SD) NO2 levels ranged from 13.6±5.1 µg/m3 (in Heraklion, Crete) to 43.2±11 µg/m3 (in Sabadell, Spain), mean±SD walkability score ranged from 0.22±0.04 (Kaunas, Lithuania) to 0.32±0.07 (Valencia, Spain) and mean±SD Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ranged from 0.21±0.05 in Heraklion to 0.51±0.1 in Oslo, Norway. Four PCs explained more than half of variation in the urban exposome. There was considerable heterogeneity in social patterning of the urban exposome across cities. For example, high-SEP (based on family education) women lived in greener, less noisy, and less polluted areas in Bradford, UK (0.39 higher PC1 score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 0.47), but the reverse was observed in Oslo (-0.57 PC1 score, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.41). For most cities, effects were stronger when SEP was assessed at the area level: In Bradford, women living in high SEP areas had a 1.34 higher average PC1 score (95% CI: 1.21, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: The urban exposome showed considerable variability across Europe. Pregnant women of low SEP were exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards in some cities, but not others, which may contribute to inequities in child health and development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2862.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510565

RESUMO

Background: The complex impact of environmental and social factors on preschool children being overweight/obese is unclear. We examined the associations between the levels of green space exposure and the risk of being overweight/obese for 4-6 year-old children and assessed the impact of maternal education on these associations. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 2012-2013. We assessed children overweight/obesity by standardized questionnaires using international body mass index cut-off points, and the level of greenness exposures by satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each child's home and by the distance to a nearest city park. The maternal education was used as the SES indicator. We used logistic regression models to investigate the strength of the associations. Results: Children from families with poorer maternal education, pathological mother-child relations and smoking mothers, and living in areas with less greenness exposure (NDVI-100 m), had significantly higher odds ratios of being overweight/obese. Lower maternal education and distance to a city park modified the effect of greenness cover level exposure on the risk of children being overweight/obese. Conclusions: Higher greenness exposure in the residential settings has beneficial effects on children's physical development. The green spaces exposures for psychosocial stress management is recommended as a measure to prevent overweight/obesity among children.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064401

RESUMO

Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children's mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4-6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4-6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51-3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children's emotional and behavioral difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Emoções , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
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