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1.
Planta Med ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839466

RESUMO

The publisher announces that this article has been temporarily removed. An edited version will be published under the same DOI as soon as possible. We thank you for your understanding. If you have any questions, please contact am-query@thieme.com.

2.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(8): 694-697, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059455

RESUMO

Here we highlight coinfections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with ectoparasites, helminths, and protozoa, described in the literature, and the urgent need to understand the conditions of these associated pathologies. We emphasize the notion that such information is crucial for the continuity of measures that have been used for decades to control neglected parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Doenças Parasitárias , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 705-713, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415404

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected parasitic infections of the world and current therapeutic options show several limitations. In the search for more effective drugs, plant compounds represent a powerful natural source. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone extracted from Artemisia annua L. leaves, from which dihydroartemisinin (DQHS) and artesunic acid (AA)/artesunate are examples of active derivatives. These lactones have been applied successfully on malaria therapy for decades. Herein, we investigated the sensitivity of Leishmania braziliensis, one of the most prevalent Leishmania species that cause cutaneous manifestations in the New World, to artemisinin, DQHS, and AA. L. braziliensis promastigotes and the stage that is targeted for therapy, intracelular amastigotes, were more sensitive to DQHS, showing EC50 of 62.3 ± 1.8 and 8.9 ± 0.9 µM, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that 50% of bone marrow-derived macrophages cultures were inhibited with 292.8 ± 3.8 µM of artemisinin, 236.2 ± 4.0 µM of DQHS, and 396.8 ± 6.7 µM of AA. The control of intracellular infection may not be essentially attributed to the production of nitric oxide. However, direct effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics and H2O2 production appear to be associated with the leishmanicidal effect of DQHS. Our data provide support for further studies of artemisinin and derivatives repositioning for experimental leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Succinatos/farmacologia
4.
Planta Med ; 86(11): 782-789, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512613

RESUMO

Ten lignans (1:  - 10: ) were isolated from the hexane-ethyl acetate extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves. Three of them, cubebin dimethyl ether (3: ), urinatetralin (4: ), and lintetralin (7: ) are described for the first time in this species, while phyllanthin (1: ), niranthin (2: ), 5-demethoxyniranthin (5: ), isolintetralin (6: ), hypophyllanthin (8: ), nirtetralin (9: ), and phyltetralin (10: ) have been already reported from P. amarus. Among the lignans tested against Trypanosoma cruzi intracellular amastigotes, 2: was the most active with an EC50 of 35.28 µM. Lignans 2, 5, 7: , and 9: showed inhibitory effects against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes with EC50 of 56.34, 51.86, 23.57, and 43.27 µM, respectively. During in vitro infection assays, 5: reduced amastigotes by 91% at 103.68 µM concentration, whereas 7: and 9: reduced amastigotes by approximately 84% at 47.5 and 86.04 µM, respectively. Lignans 5, 7: , and 9: were more potent in intracellular amastigotes with EC50 of 2.76, 8.30, and 15.83 µM, respectively, than in promastigotes. CC50 for all samples was > 100 µg/mL, thus revealing low cytotoxicity against macrophages, and selectivity against the parasite. L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with compounds 2: and 9: showed decreased respiratory control of 38% and 25%, respectively, suggesting a change in mitochondrial membrane potential and lower ATP production.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania mexicana , Lignanas , Phyllanthus , Extratos Vegetais
5.
J Nat Prod ; 83(1): 55-65, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895573

RESUMO

A new method of screening was developed to generate 770 organic and water-soluble fractions from extracts of nine species of marine sponges, from the growth media of 18 species of marine-derived fungi, and from the growth media of 13 species of endophytic fungi. The screening results indicated that water-soluble fractions displayed significant bioactivity in cytotoxic, antibiotic, anti-Leishmania, anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, and inhibition of proteasome assays. Purification of water-soluble fractions from the growth medium of Penicillium solitum IS1-A provided the new glutamic acid derivatives solitumine A (1), solitumine B (2), and solitumidines A-D (3-6). The structures of compounds 1-6 have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, chemical derivatizations, and vibrational circular dichroism calculations. Although no biological activity could be observed for compounds 1-6, the new structures reported for 1-6 indicate that the investigation of water-soluble natural products represents a relevant strategy in finding new secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Glutamatos/química , Regiões Antárticas , Fungos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Penicillium/química , Água
6.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 17: 352-361, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949306

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania (NTD) endemic in 98 countries. Although some drugs are available, current treatments deal with issues such as toxicity, low efficacy, and emergence of resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new targets for the development of new antileishmanial drugs. Protein kinases (PKs), which play an essential role in many biological processes, have become potential drug targets for many parasitic diseases. A refined bioinformatics pipeline was applied in order to define and compare the kinomes of L. infantum and L. braziliensis, species that cause cutaneous and visceral manifestations of leishmaniasis in the Americas, the latter being potentially fatal if untreated. Respectively, 224 and 221 PKs were identified in L. infantum and L. braziliensis overall. Almost all unclassified eukaryotic PKs were assigned to six of nine major kinase groups and, consequently, most have been classified into family and subfamily. Furthermore, revealing the kinomes for both Leishmania species allowed for the prioritization of potential drug targets that could be explored for discovering new drugs against leishmaniasis. Finally, we used a drug repurposing approach and prioritized seven approved drugs and investigational compounds to be experimentally tested against Leishmania. Trametinib and NMS-1286937 inhibited the growth of L. infantum and L. braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes and therefore might be good candidates for the drug repurposing pipeline.

7.
J Nat Prod ; 81(1): 188-202, 2018 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297684

RESUMO

The isolation and identification of a series of new pseudoceratidine (1) derivatives from the sponge Tedania brasiliensis enabled the evaluation of their antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agents of malaria, cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, respectively. The new 3-debromopseudoceratidine (4), 20-debromopseudoceratidine (5), 4-bromopseudoceratidine (6), 19-bromopseudoceratidine (7), and 4,19-dibromopseudoceratidine (8) are reported. New tedamides A-D (9-12), with an unprecedented 4-bromo-4-methoxy-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide moiety, are also described. Compounds 4 and 5, 6 and 7, 9 and 10, and 11 and 12 have been isolated as pairs of inseparable structural isomers differing in their sites of bromination or oxidation. Tedamides 9+10 and 11+12 were obtained as optically active pairs, indicating an enzymatic formation rather than an artifactual origin. N12-Acetylpseudoceratidine (2) and N12-formylpseudoceratidine (3) were obtained by derivatization of pseudoceratidine (1). The antiparasitic activity of pseudoceratidine (1) led us to synthesize 23 derivatives (16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27-29, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, and 51) with variations in the polyamine chain and aromatic moiety in sufficient amounts for biological evaluation in antiparasitic assays. The measured antimalarial activity of pseudoceratidine (1) and derivatives 4, 5, 16, 23, 25, 31, and 50 provided an initial SAR evaluation of these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitics against Leishmania amastigotes and against P. falciparum. The results obtained indicate that pseudoceratidine represents a promising scaffold for the development of new antimalarial drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Poríferos/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
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