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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327556

RESUMO

We examine the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and concomitant restrictions (i.e., lockdown) on 24-hour movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sitting, sleep) in a purposive sample of people (n = 3230) reporting change recruited online. Participants' self-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking, sitting and sleep prior to lockdown (T1), during the first national lockdown (T2) and as restrictions initially started to ease (T3). For each 24-hour movement behavior, category-shifts are reported (positive, negative or did not change), as well as the percentage of participants recording positive/negative changes across clusters of behaviors and the percentage of participants recording improvement or maintenance of change across time. From T1 to T2 walking decreased, whereas MVPA, sitting and sleep increased, from T2 to T3 levels returned to pre-lockdown for all but MVPA. Participants who changed one behavior positively were more likely to report a positive change in another and 50% of those who reported positive changes from T1 to T2 maintained or improved further when restrictions started to ease. The current study showed that a large proportion of the sample reported positive changes, most notably those displaying initially poor levels of each behavior. These findings will inform salutogenic intervention development.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Postura Sentada , Adulto Jovem
3.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 26(7): 485-490, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327311

RESUMO

Background: Physical activity is recommended after stroke but levels for stroke survivors are typically low. The use of indoor recumbent cycling, delivered through local government leisure facilities, may increase access to exercise among stroke survivors. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of an indoor cycling program delivered through existing local government services. Methods: Participants were recruited through stroke liaison nurses and public advertising. After a home visit to assess eligibility and conduct psychological and general health assessments, participants attended their local leisure center for an initial fitness test and short battery of physical tests. Then, an 8 week training program was designed with weekly goals. Following the program the assessments were retaken along with an evaluation questionnaire. In-depth, semi-structured, interviews were conducted with 15 participants and five fitness coaches. Results: One hundred fifteen individuals volunteered to participate during a 10-month recruitment period, 77 met the inclusion criteria and consented, 66/77 (86%) completed the program including all nine non-ambulatory participants. The program and procedures (recruitment and outcome measures) were feasible and acceptable to participants (81% reported following the program). Participants were generally very positive about the experience. Significant improvements in sit-to-stand capacity (Mpre = 25.2 s, Mpost = 19.0 s, p = .002), activities of daily living (NEADL, Mpre = 12.2, Mpost = 13.2, p = .002), psychosocial functioning (SAQOL, Mpre = 3.82, Mpost = 4.15, p = .001), energy (SAQOL, Mpre = 3.75, Mpost = 4.02, p = .018) and depression (GHQ, Mpre = .97, Mpost = .55, p = .009) were observed. Conclusion: A cycling-based exercise program delivered through local leisure center staff and facilities was shown to be feasible and acceptable for people living with stroke.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Exercício Físico , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
4.
Exp Aging Res ; 45(4): 346-356, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167604

RESUMO

Background/Study Context: Older adults show a greater response to feedback whilst learning than younger adults. To date this has only been shown for receiving veridical feedback, but there is evidence that suggests that receiving false positive feedback may further enhance learning. We tested the hypothesis that receiving false positive feedback, being told you are preforming better than expected, would be more advantageous for older than younger adults when learning an inhibitory-action task. Methods: 42 younger and 34 older adults trained to improve their inhibition and response times on the Simon task. They completed 18 training blocks and a retention test two weeks after training. Participants received either false positive feedback or veridical feedback on their performance at the end of each training session and the start of the next session. Those in the false positive feedback group were told they were performing faster than expected. Results: Both older and younger adults improved their inhibition and response times but receiving false positive feedback did not significantly change their rate of learning on these outcomes. However, false positive feedback did impact on accuracy levels with those receiving this type of feedback making fewer errors. Older adults were slower but more accurate than younger adults, but contrary to our hypothesis they did not benefit more from false positive feedback than younger adults. Conclusion: This first direct comparison of the effects of false positive feedback on older and younger adults showed that the positive impact of false positive feedback does not decline with age. We also demonstrated that feedback given about one aspect of a skill (in this case speed) may in fact influence another aspect of the skill (in this case accuracy). This suggests that false positive feedback could be used as a motivational tool to enhance cognitive-motor learning in older adults, but care needs to be taken when using this, as the feedback may not affect the element of the skill at which it is targeted.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897119

RESUMO

Action errors can put older adults at risk of injury. Our study is the first to investigate whether older adults are more prone than younger adults to making 'ironic' motor errors (i.e., actions they have been instructed not to perform), or over-compensatory motor errors (e.g., moving more to the right when instructed not to move to the left). We also investigated whether error patterns change under cognitive load, and assessed whether age effects in the ability to inhibit a prohibited action are comparable to the age decrements found in the ability to inhibit a natural perception-action coupling in the Simon task. Sixty-four older (Mean = 70.64 years, SD = 5.81) and 39 younger (Mean = 28.74 years, SD = 16.39) adults completed an avoidant instruction line-drawing task (with and without cognitive load), and the Simon task. Older adults showed significantly slower inhibition times than younger adults on the Simon task, as expected, and in line with previous research. Surprisingly, however, older adults outperformed younger adults on the avoidant instruction task, producing fewer ironic and over-compensatory errors, and they performed similarly to the younger adults under cognitive load. Age-related decrements on the Simon but not the avoidant instruction task suggests that the two different types of motor tasks involve different subtypes of inhibition which likely recruit independent cognitive processes and neural circuitry in older age. It is speculated that the older adults' superior ability to inhibit a prohibited action could be the result of age-related changes in distractibility.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197749, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795619

RESUMO

The anti-saccade task has been used to measure attentional control related to general anxiety but less so with social anxiety specifically. Previous research has not been conclusive in suggesting that social anxiety may lead to difficulties in inhibiting faces. It is possible that static face paradigms do not convey a sufficient social threat to elicit an inhibitory response in socially anxious individuals. The aim of the current study was twofold. We investigated the effect of social anxiety on performance in an anti-saccade task with neutral or emotional faces preceded either by a social stressor (Experiment 1), or valenced sentence primes designed to increase the social salience of the task (Experiment 2). Our results indicated that latencies were significantly longer for happy than angry faces. Additionally, and surprisingly, high anxious participants made more erroneous anti-saccades to neutral than angry and happy faces, whilst the low anxious groups exhibited a trend in the opposite direction. Results are consistent with a general approach-avoidance response for positive and threatening social information. However increased socio-cognitive load may alter attentional control with high anxious individuals avoiding emotional faces, but finding it more difficult to inhibit ambiguous faces. The effects of social sentence primes on attention appear to be subtle but suggest that the anti-saccade task will only elicit socially relevant responses where the paradigm is more ecologically valid.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brain Behav ; 6(10): e00540, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781148

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. METHODS: This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants. RESULTS: Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of the fMRI studies comparing visual creativity to non-rest control tasks yielded significant clusters in thalamus, left fusiform gyrus, and right middle and inferior frontal gyri. The EEG studies revealed a tendency for decreased alpha power during visual creativity compared to baseline, but comparisons of visual creativity to non-rest control tasks revealed inconsistent findings. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are consistent with suggested contributions to visual creativity of prefrontally mediated inhibition, evaluation, and working memory, as well as visual imagery processes. Findings are discussed in relation to prominent theories of the neural basis of creativity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criatividade , Imaginação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos
8.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1246, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630588

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

9.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155576, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27175487

RESUMO

The role of self-relevance has been somewhat neglected in static face processing paradigms but may be important in understanding how emotional faces impact on attention, cognition and affect. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of self-relevant primes on processing emotional composite faces. Sentence primes created an expectation of the emotion of the face before sad, happy, neutral or composite face photos were viewed. Eye movements were recorded and subsequent responses measured the cognitive and affective impact of the emotion expressed. Results indicated that primes did not guide attention, but impacted on judgments of valence intensity and self-esteem ratings. Negative self-relevant primes led to the most negative self-esteem ratings, although the effect of the prime was qualified by salient facial features. Self-relevant expectations about the emotion of a face and subsequent attention to a face that is congruent with these expectations strengthened the affective impact of viewing the face.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Adolescente , Adulto , Face , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Física , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 164: 127-35, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799983

RESUMO

Consistent with the right hemispheric dominance for face processing, a left perceptual bias (LPB) is typically demonstrated by younger adults viewing faces and a left eye movement bias has also been revealed. Hemispheric asymmetry is predicted to reduce with age and older adults have demonstrated a weaker LPB, particularly when viewing time is restricted. What is currently unclear is whether age also weakens the left eye movement bias. Additionally, a right perceptual bias (RPB) for facial judgments has less frequently been demonstrated, but whether this is accompanied by a right eye movement bias has not been investigated. To address these issues older and younger adults' eye movements and gender judgments of chimeric faces were recorded in two time conditions. Age did not significantly weaken the LPB or eye movement bias; both groups looked initially to the left side of the face and made more fixations when the gender judgment was based on the left side. A positive association was found between LPB and initial saccades in the freeview condition and with all eye movements (initial saccades, number and duration of fixations) when time was restricted. The accompanying eye movement bias revealed by LPB participants contrasted with RPB participants who demonstrated no eye movement bias in either time condition. Consequently, increased age is not clearly associated with weakened perceptual and eye movement biases. Instead an eye movement bias accompanies an LPB (particularly under restricted viewing time conditions) but not an RPB.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Motor Control ; 18(4): 347-67, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25270986

RESUMO

We investigated a general theory accounting for the guidance of ongoing movements in an interceptive reaching task. The aim was to assess the premise of tau-coupling that the coupling constant k, the ratio of taus (τs) of motion gaps between hand and object, reflects the kinematics of the on-going movement. The spatial and temporal constraints of the interceptive action were manipulated in three task conditions. While the time dependent counterpart of k, K(t) exhibited task effects, k itself could not distinguish between task manipulations. K(t) showed large variability during the initial acceleration phase, small variability during the rest of the movement, and task dependent changes during the final deceleration phase of interception. The findings highlight the importance of clarifying what constitutes as t-coupling.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia
12.
Front Psychol ; 4: 1005, 2014 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24454298

RESUMO

This study investigated the strategies used by elite golfers to scale their putting actions to achieve putts of different distances. There were three aims; to determine if putting actions are scaled by manipulating swing amplitude as predicted by Craig etal. (2000), to establish the test-retest reliability of the Craig et al. model, and to evaluate whether elite golfers changed their putting scaling strategies when fatigued. Putting actions were recorded at baseline (time 1) and 6 months later (time 2) and after walking at 70% of maximum heart rate for 1 h (time 3). Participants performed a total of 80 putts which varied in distance (1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m) at time 1 and time 2, and 100 putts to the same distances when they were fatigued (time 3). Multiple regression was used to examine how the golfers systematically changed the movement control variables in the Craig etal. (2000) model to achieve golf putts of different distances. Although swing amplitude was a strong predictor of putterhead velocity at ball impact for all of the participants at baseline (time 1), each golfer systematically changed aspects of the timing of their action. A comparison of the regression models between time 1 and time 2 showed no significant changes in the scaling strategies used, indicating that the Craig etal. (2000) model had good test-retest reliability. Fatigue was associated with a decrease in the number of putts that were successfully holed and significant changes in the scaling strategies used by three of the golfers, along with a trend for increasing the putterhead velocity at ball impact. These motor control changes in performance when fatigued were evident in successful putts indicating that even when these elite golfers were able to achieve the goal of holing the putt, moderate levels of fatigue were influencing the consistency of their performance. Theoretical implications for the Craig etal. (2000) model and practical implications for elite golfers are discussed.

13.
Front Psychol ; 5: 1583, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25654735

RESUMO

[This corrects the article on p. 1005 in vol. 4, PMID: 24454298.].

14.
Trials ; 13: 163, 2012 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22967674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that use of augmented visual feedback could be a useful approach to stroke rehabilitation. In current clinical practice, visual feedback of movement performance is often limited to the use of mirrors or video. However, neither approach is optimal since cognitive and self-image issues can distract or distress patients and their movement can be obscured by clothing or limited viewpoints. Three-dimensional motion capture has the potential to provide accurate kinematic data required for objective assessment and feedback in the clinical environment. However, such data are currently presented in numerical or graphical format, which is often impractical in a clinical setting. Our hypothesis is that presenting this kinematic data using bespoke visualisation software, which is tailored for gait rehabilitation after stroke, will provide a means whereby feedback of movement performance can be communicated in a more meaningful way to patients. This will result in increased patient understanding of their rehabilitation and will enable progress to be tracked in a more accessible way. METHODS: The hypothesis will be assessed using an exploratory (phase II) randomised controlled trial. Stroke survivors eligible for this trial will be in the subacute stage of stroke and have impaired walking ability (Functional Ambulation Classification of 1 or more). Participants (n = 45) will be randomised into three groups to compare the use of the visualisation software during overground physical therapy gait training against an intensity-matched and attention-matched placebo group and a usual care control group. The primary outcome measure will be walking speed. Secondary measures will be Functional Ambulation Category, Timed Up and Go, Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale-16 and spatiotemporal parameters associated with walking. Additional qualitative measures will be used to assess the participant's experience of the visual feedback provided in the study. DISCUSSION: Results from the trial will explore whether the early provision of visual feedback of biomechanical movement performance during gait rehabilitation demonstrates improved mobility outcomes after stroke and increased patient understanding of their rehabilitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79005974.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Terapia por Exercício , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Projetos de Pesquisa , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Percepção Visual , Caminhada , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Protocolos Clínicos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Marcha , Humanos , Exame Físico , Projetos Piloto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Escócia , Design de Software , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Gravação em Vídeo
15.
Fam Pract ; 29(6): 633-42, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22843637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity can positively influence health for older adults. Primary care is a good setting for physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultations. DESIGN: Two-arm (intervention/control) 12-week randomized controlled trial with a 12-week follow-up for the intervention group. SETTING: One general practice in Glasgow, UK. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS were aged ≥65 years. The intervention group received two 30-minute physical activity consultations from a trained practice nurse, a pedometer and a walking programme. The control group continued as normal for 12 weeks and then received the intervention. Both groups were followed up at 12 and 24 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Step counts were measured by sealed pedometers and an activPALTM monitor. Psychosocial variables were assessed and focus groups conducted. RESULTS: The response rate was 66% (187/284), and 90% of those randomized (37/41) completed the study. Qualitative data suggested that the pedometer and nurse were helpful to the intervention. Step counts (activPAL) showed a significant increase from baseline to week 12 for the intervention group, while the control group showed no change. Between weeks 12 and 24, step counts were maintained in the intervention group, and increased for the control group after receiving the intervention. The intervention was associated with improved quality of life and reduced sedentary time. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to recruit and retain older adults from primary care and help them increase walking. A larger trial is necessary to confirm findings and consider cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Caminhada , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Escócia
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 140(3): 208-17, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22664318

RESUMO

Research on aging and visual search often requires older people to search computer screens for target letters or numbers. The aim of this experiment was to investigate age-related differences using an everyday-based visual search task in a large participant sample (n=261) aged 20-88 years. Our results show that: (1) old-old adults have more difficulty with triple conjunction searches with one highly distinctive feature compared to young-old and younger adults; (2) age-related declines in conjunction searches emerge in middle age then progress throughout older age; (3) age-related declines are evident in feature searches on target absent trials, as older people seem to exhaustively and serially search the whole display to determine a target's absence. Together, these findings suggest that declines emerge in middle age then progress throughout older age in feature integration, guided search, perceptual grouping and/or spreading suppression processes. Discussed are implications for enhancing everyday functioning throughout adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
Qual Health Res ; 21(10): 1388-99, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21498827

RESUMO

Poor social functioning is a prevalent complaint of unipolar depression, but subjective experiences of social interactions have not been systematically studied. A limited number of qualitative researchers have specifically addressed the social difficulties in depression. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 11 depressed women. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Five themes emerged. The first two, diminished desire to socially interact and fear of social interactions, encompass perceptions that have not been previously reported. The third theme, the pressure to adhere to social norms, provided support for previous findings. The final two themes, the perceptions of others and isolation, elaborated on existing knowledge. We found that difficulties with social engagements are much broader than previously reported, with a lack of interest in others, being too emotionally overloaded to interact, perceptions that other people will not understand how women with depression are feeling, and fears of being a burden all contributing to the difficulties experienced in depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Saúde da Mulher
18.
BMC Public Health ; 11: 120, 2011 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21333020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Scotland, older adults are a key target group for physical activity intervention due to the large proportion who are inactive. The health benefits of an active lifestyle are well established but more research is required on the most effective interventions to increase activity in older adults. The 'West End Walkers 65+' randomised controlled trial aims to examine the feasibility of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention to adults aged 65 years through a primary care setting and to determine the efficacy of this pilot. The study rationale, protocol and recruitment process are discussed in this paper. METHODS/DESIGN: The intervention consisted of a 12-week pedometer-based graduated walking programme and physical activity consultations. Participants were randomised into an immediate intervention group (immediate group) or a 12-week waiting list control group (delayed group) who then received the intervention. For the pilot element of this study, the primary outcome measure was pedometer step counts. Secondary outcome measures of sedentary time and physical activity (time spent lying/sitting, standing or walking; activPAL™ monitor), mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), functional ability (Perceived Motor-Efficacy Scale for Older Adults), quality of life (Short-Form (36) Health Survey version 2) and loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale) were assessed. Focus groups with participants and semi-structured interviews with the research team captured their experiences of the intervention. The feasibility component of this trial examined recruitment via primary care and retention of participants, appropriateness of the intervention for older adults and the delivery of the intervention by a practice nurse. DISCUSSION: West End Walkers 65+ will determine the feasibility and pilot the efficacy of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention through primary care to Scottish adults aged 65 years. The study will also examine the effect of the intervention on the well-being of participants and gain an insight into both participant and research team member experiences of the intervention.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Caminhada , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Escócia
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 49(2): 271-5, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20932984

RESUMO

The cerebellum receives signals from, and sends signals to, the parietal cortex and instances of cerebellocerebral diaschisis indicate that some behaviours are controlled through this circuitry. Not all aspects of action control associated with the parietal cortex have been reported in patients with cerebellar damage though. Presented here is a case study of a cerebellar patient whose action deficits appear to be associated with both cerebellar and parietal functions. AM was 27 years old and eight years previously he had an operation to remove a cystic cerebellar tumour. He was tested on his ability to carry out motor imagery, make instructed and spontaneous actions, and intrinsic and extrinsic movements. Similar to ideomotor apraxia patients AM showed an automatic-voluntary dissociation where his motor control was better on spontaneous actions than instructed ones. He also had poor motor imagery timing. However, unlike apraxia patients he was equally poor at controlling body-related and object-related actions and his performance improved without vision. The presence of problems more commonly associated with parietal cortex functions suggest that the cerebellum is involved in a broader spectrum of action abilities than previously thought.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Neoplasias Cerebelares/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neurocirurgia , Desempenho Psicomotor
20.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 63(9): 1671-82, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20204921

RESUMO

Giving avoidant instructions can ironically result in the forbidden act being carried out, especially when the person is anxious or cognitive loaded. However, the consistency with which individuals make ironic errors across conditions remains unexamined. Forty participants were instructed to avoid moving a cursor above, below, left, and right when tracing an invisible line connecting two points while rehearsing seven-digit numbers on half of trials. Results showed that, without cognitive load, 26 participants made consistent overcompensatory movements, 10 made consistent ironic errors, and 4 showed no distinct error bias, with levels of somatic anxiety predicting this pattern. However, 21 (52.5%) participants changed their error tendency when cognitive loaded, indicating that movement effects of avoidant instruction were not experienced as general phenomena but rather differed between and within individuals. Overcompensatory errors made by participants grouped as overcompensatory performers under low load were significantly larger than the ironic errors made by participants grouped as ironic performers under low load, yet, paradoxically, ironic performers reported higher state and trait anxiety. Overall, results demonstrate a clear experimenter bias inherent in the use of avoidant instructions to direct participants' motor control.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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