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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445355

RESUMO

Recently, lithium nitride (Li3N) has been proposed as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) neutralization reagent for its ability to produce nucleophilic ammonia molecules and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Quantum chemical calculations can provide insight into the Li3N neutralization process that has been studied experimentally. Here, we calculate reaction-free energies associated with the Li3N-based neutralization of the CWA VX using quantum chemical density functional theory and ab initio methods. We find that alkaline hydrolysis is more favorable to either ammonolysis or neutral hydrolysis for initial P-S and P-O bond cleavages. Reaction-free energies of subsequent reactions are calculated to determine the full reaction pathway. Notably, products predicted from favorable reactions have been identified in previous experiments.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Compostos de Lítio/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Água/química , Amônia/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Lítio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica
2.
J Chem Phys ; 154(10): 104503, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722003

RESUMO

Water in nano-scale confining environments is a key element in many biological, material, and geological systems. The structure and dynamics of the liquid can be dramatically modified under these conditions. Probing these changes can be challenging, but vibrational spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for investigating their behavior. A critical, evolving component of this approach is a detailed understanding of the connection between spectroscopic features and molecular-level details. In this paper, this issue is addressed by using molecular dynamics simulations to simulate the linear infrared (IR) and Raman spectra for isotopically dilute HOD in D2O confined in hydroxylated amorphous silica slit pores. The effect of slit-pore width and hydroxyl density on the silica surface on the vibrational spectra is also investigated. The primary effect of confinement is a blueshift in the frequency of OH groups donating a hydrogen bond to the silica surface. This appears as a slight shift in the total (measurable) spectra but is clearly seen in the distance-based IR and Raman spectra. Analysis indicates that these changes upon confinement are associated with the weaker hydrogen-bond accepting properties of silica oxygens compared to water molecules.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(11): 6441-6448, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149288

RESUMO

Molecular modeling of mixture adsorption in nanoporous materials can provide insight into the molecular-level details that underlie adsorptive separations. Modeling of adsorption often employs a rigid framework approximation for computational convenience. All real materials, however, have intrinsic flexibility due to thermal vibrations of their atoms. In this article, we examine quantitative predictions of the adsorption selectivity for a dilute concentration of a chemical warfare agent, sarin, from bulk mixtures with aqueous and non-aqueous (methanol, isopropyl alcohol) solvents using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). These predictions were made in MOFs approximated as rigid and also in MOFs allowed to have intrinsic flexibility. Including framework flexibility appears to have important consequences for quantitative predictions of adsorption selectivity, particularly for sarin/water mixtures. Our observations suggest the intrinsic flexibility of MOFs can have a nontrivial impact on adsorption modeling of molecular mixtures, especially for mixtures containing polar species and molecules of different sizes.

4.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(8): 085401, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741462

RESUMO

Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to provide a conceptual understanding of the amorphous-crystalline interface for a candidate negative thermal expansion (NTE) material, ZrW2O8. Simulations of pressure-induced amorphization at 300 K indicate that an amorphous phase forms at pressures of 10 GPa and greater, and this phase persists when the pressure is subsequently decreased to 1 bar. However, the crystalline phase is recovered when the slightly distorted 5 GPa phase is relaxed to 1 bar. Simulations were also performed on a two-phase model consisting of the high-pressure amorphous phase in direct contact with the crystalline phase. Upon equilibration at 300 K and 1 bar, the crystalline phase remains unchanged beyond a thin layer of disrupted structure at the crystalline-amorphous interface. Differences in local atomic structure at the interface are quantified from the simulation trajectories.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(24): 7823-7830, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750662

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown potential for selective capture of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). To determine characteristic adsorption times, the kinetics of CWA uptake in MOFs must be known. Here, we calculate diffusion coefficients of the CWA sarin and simulants in prototypical MOFs using classical molecular simulations. Sarin can diffuse throughout a one micrometer crystal in less than a second in MIL-47 and Cu-BTC, but this process takes more than 3 h in ZIF-8 and UiO-66. A simple estimate based on Knudsen diffusion is able to describe diffusion of sarin in MIL-47 but fails to do so in other MOFs. This work has implications in designing devices to detect and capture CWAs.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(17): 5142-5147, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402669

RESUMO

Here we report molecular level details regarding the adsorption of sarin (GB) gas in a prototypical zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF, UiO-66). By combining predictive modeling and experimental spectroscopic techniques, we unambiguously identify several unique bindings sites within the MOF, using the P═O stretch frequency of GB as a probe. Remarkable agreement between predicted and experimental IR spectrum is demonstrated. As previously hypothesized, the undercoordinated Lewis acid metal site is the most favorable binding site. Yet multiple sites participate in the adsorption process; specifically, the Zr-chelated hydroxyl groups form hydrogen bonds with the GB molecule, and GB weakly interacts with fully coordinated metals. Importantly, this work highlights that subtle orientational effects of bound GB are observable via shifts in characteristic vibrational modes; this finding has large implications for degradation rates and opens a new route for future materials design.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(13): 3704-3709, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244275

RESUMO

A molecular-scale understanding of the transition between hydration states in clay minerals remains a challenging problem because of the very fast stepwise swelling process observed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments. XRD profile modeling assumes the coexistence of multiple hydration states in a clay sample to fit the experimental XRD pattern obtained under humid conditions. While XRD profile modeling provides a macroscopic understanding of the heterogeneous hydration structure of clay minerals, a microscopic model of the transition between hydration states is still missing. Here, for the first time, we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the transition states between a dry interlayer, one-layer hydrate, and two-layer hydrate. We find that the hydrogen bonds that form across the interlayer at the clay particle edge make an important contribution to the energy barrier to interlayer hydration, especially for initial hydration.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(24): 3453-3456, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742175

RESUMO

Observation of vibrational properties of phyllosilicate edges via a combined molecular modeling and experimental approach was performed. Deuterium exchange was utilized to isolate edge vibrational modes from their internal counterparts. The appearance of a specific peak within the broader D2O band indicates the presence of deuteration on the edge surface, and this peak is confirmed with the simulated spectra. These results are the first to unambiguously identify spectroscopic features of phyllosilicate edge sites.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(18): 5379-5385, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169044

RESUMO

The adsorption equilibrium constants of monovalent and divalent cations to material surfaces in aqueous media are central to many technological, natural, and geochemical processes. Cation adsorption-desorption is often proposed to occur in concert with proton transfer on hydroxyl-covered mineral surfaces, but to date this cooperative effect has been inferred indirectly. This work applies density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations of explicit liquid water/mineral interfaces to calculate metal ion desorption free energies. Monodentate adsorption of Na+, Mg2+, and Cu2+ on partially deprotonated silica surfaces are considered. Na+ is predicted to be unbound, while Cu2+ exhibits binding free energies to surface SiO- groups that are larger than those of Mg2+. The predicted trends agree with competitive adsorption measurements on fumed silica surfaces. As desorption proceeds, Cu2+ dissociates one of the H2O molecules in its first solvation shell, turning into Cu2+(OH-)(H2O)3, while Mg remains Mg2+(H2O)6. The protonation state of the SiO- group at the initial binding site does not vary monotonically with cation desorption.

10.
Langmuir ; 34(20): 5926-5934, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746135

RESUMO

Classical molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the adsorption of Na+, Ca2+, Ba2+, and Cl- ions on gibbsite edge (1 0 0), basal (0 0 1), and nanoparticle (NP) surfaces. The gibbsite NP consists of both basal and edge surfaces. Simulation results indicate that Na+ and Cl- ions adsorb on both (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces as inner-sphere species (i.e., no water molecules between an ion and the surface). Outer-sphere Cl- ions (i.e., one water molecule between an ion and the surface) were also found on these surfaces. On the (1 0 0) edge, Ca2+ ions adsorb as inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes, whereas on the (0 0 1) surface, outer-sphere Ca2+ ions are the dominant species. Ba2+ ions were found as inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes on both surfaces. Calculated ion surface coverages indicate that, for all ions, surface coverages are always higher on the basal surface compared to those on the edge surface. More importantly, surface coverages for cations on the gibbsite NP are always higher than those calculated for the (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces. This enhanced ion adsorption behavior for the NP is due to the significant number of inner-sphere cations found at NP corners. Outer-sphere cations do not contribute to the enhanced surface coverage. In addition, there is no ion adsorption enhancement observed for the Cl- ion. Our work provides a molecular-scale understanding of the relative significance of ion adsorption onto gibbsite basal versus edge surfaces and demonstrates the corner effect on ion adsorption on NPs.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 57(5): 2402-2415, 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431993

RESUMO

A family of magnesium and calcium salen-derivatives was synthesized and characterized for use as subterranean fluid flow monitors. For the Mg complexes, di- n-butyl magnesium ([Mg(Bu n)2]) was reacted with N, N'-ethylene bis(salicylideneimine) (H2-salen), N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2-saloPh), N, N'-bis(3,5-di- t-butylsalicylidene)-ethylenediamine (H2-salo-Bu t), or N, N'-bis(3,5-di- t-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2-saloPh-Bu t), and the products were identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as [(κ3-(O,N,N'),µ-(O')saloPh)(µ-(O),(κ2-(N,N'),µ-(O')saloPh)2(µ-(O),κ3-(N,N',O')saloPh')Mg4]·2tol (1·2tol; saloPh' = an alkyl-modified saloPh derivative generated in situ), [(κ4-(O,N,N',O')saloPh)Mg(py)2]·py (2·py), [(κ4-(O,N,N',O')salo-Bu t)Mg(py)2] (3), [(κ4-(O,N,N',O')saloPh-Bu t)Mg(py)2]·tol (4·tol), and [(κ3-(O,N,N'),µ-(O')saloPh-Bu t)Mg]2 (5), where tol = toluene; py = pyridine. For the Ca species, a calcium amide was independently reacted with H2-salo-Bu t and H2-saloPh-Bu t to generate the crystallographcially characterized compounds: [(κ4-(O,N,N',O')salo-Bu t)Ca(py)3] (6), [(κ4-(O,N,N',O')saloPh-Bu t)Ca(py)3]·py (7·py). The bulk powders of these compounds were further characterized by a number of analytical tools, where 2-7 were found to be distinguishable by Fourier transform infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Structural properties obtained from quantum calculations of gas-phase analogues are in good agreement with the single-crystal results. The potential utility of these compounds as taggants for monitoring subterranean fluid flows was demonstrated through a series of experiments to evaluate their stability to high temperature and pressure, interaction with mineral surfaces, and elution behavior from a loaded proppant pack.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 47(12): 4162-4174, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473063

RESUMO

A pair of thallium salen derivatives was synthesized and characterized for potential use as monitors (or taggants) or as models for Group 13 complexes for subterranean fluid flows. These precursors were isolated from the reaction of thallium ethoxide with N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-ethylenediamine (H2-salo-But), or N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2-saloPh-But). The products were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction as: [((µ-O)2,κ1-(N)(N')salo-But)Tl2] (1) and {[((µ-O)2saloPh-But)Tl2][((µ-O)2,κ1-(N)(N')saloPh-But)Tl2]} (2). Both structures are similar, wherein each O atom of the salo moiety bridges the two Tl atoms, leading to a TlTl interaction, which is further stabilized by an intramolecular π-bond with neighboring phenyl rings. For 1, an additional TlN interaction was solved for each metal center; whereas, for 2, one of the two molecules in the matrix has a weak TlN interaction but no bonding noted in the other molecule. Both Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and variable temperature solution 205Tl NMR studies of 1 and 2 further confirmed the TlTl interaction. The UV-vis absorbance spectra of these compounds had an absorbance peak at 392 nm for 1 and a broad absorbance peak centered at 469 nm for 2, which were found to be in good agreement with the DFT calculated spectra that were dominated by the singlet state. Fluorescence emission and excitation studies reveal absorptions at 360 and 380 nm for 1 and 2, respectively, which are attributed to the TlTl metal centers. To demonstrate practicality, fluorescence spectra of 1 and 2 were obtained using a handheld 405 nm cw laser pointer and portable spectrometer where compound 1 was found to glow 15 times brighter than compound 2. Only compound 1 was found to survive the simulated deep-well conditions explored, which was attributed to the TlN interaction noted for 1 but not for 2.

13.
ACS Omega ; 3(11): 15780-15788, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31458228

RESUMO

The negative thermal expansion (NTE) material Zr2(WO4)(PO4)2 has been investigated for the first time within the framework of the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of this material have been predicted using the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof for solid (PBEsol) exchange-correlation functional, which showed superior accuracy over standard functionals in previous computational studies of the NTE material α-ZrW2O8. The bulk modulus calculated for Zr2(WO4)(PO4)2 using the Vinet equation of state at room temperature is K 0 = 63.6 GPa, which is in close agreement with the experimental estimate of 61.3(8) at T = 296 K. The computed mean linear coefficient of thermal expansion is -3.1 × 10-6 K-1 in the temperature range ∼0-70 K, in line with the X-ray diffraction measurements. The mean Grüneisen parameter controlling the thermal expansion of Zr2(WO4)(PO4)2 is negative below 205 K, with a minimum of -2.1 at 10 K. The calculated standard molar heat capacity and entropy are C P 0 = 287.6 and S 0 = 321.9 J·mol-1·K-1, respectively. The results reported in this study demonstrate the accuracy of DFPT/PBEsol for assessing or predicting the relationship between structural and thermomechanical properties of NTE materials.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15286, 2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127405

RESUMO

The porosity of clay aggregates is an important property governing chemical reactions and fluid flow in low-permeability geologic formations and clay-based engineered barrier systems. Pore spaces in clays include interlayer and interparticle pores. Under compaction and dewatering, the size and geometry of such pore spaces may vary significantly (sub-nanometer to microns) depending on ambient physical and chemical conditions. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation method to construct a complex and realistic clay-like nanoparticle aggregate with interparticle pores and grain boundaries. The model structure is then used to investigate the effect of dewatering and water content on micro-porosity of the aggregates. The results suggest that slow dewatering would create more compact aggregates compared to fast dewatering. Furthermore, the amount of water present in the aggregates strongly affects the particle-particle interactions and hence the aggregate structure. Detailed analyses of particle-particle and water-particle interactions provide a molecular-scale view of porosity and texture development of the aggregates. The simulation method developed here may also aid in modeling the synthesis of nanostructured materials through self-assembly of nanoparticles.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(16): 11528-38, 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063148

RESUMO

The separation of oxygen from nitrogen using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is of great interest for potential pressure-swing adsorption processes for the generation of purified O2 on industrial scales. This study uses ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations to examine for the first time the pure-gas and competitive gas adsorption of O2 and N2 in the M2(dobdc) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe) MOF series with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. Effects of metal, temperature, and gas composition are explored. This unique application of AIMD allows us to study in detail the adsorption/desorption processes and to visualize the process of multiple guests competitively binding to coordinatively unsaturated metal sites of a MOF.

16.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 118(15): 7946-7953, 2014 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24803972

RESUMO

We introduce a nonbonded three-body harmonic potential energy term for Mg-O-H interactions for improved edge surface stability in molecular simulations. The new potential term is compatible with the Clayff force field and is applied here to brucite, a layered magnesium hydroxide mineral. Comparisons of normal mode frequencies from classical and density functional theory calculations are used to verify a suitable spring constant (k parameter) for the Mg-O-H bending motion. Vibrational analysis of hydroxyl librations at two brucite surfaces indicates that surface Mg-O-H modes are shifted to frequencies lower than the corresponding bulk modes. A comparison of DFT and classical normal modes validates this new potential term. The methodology for parameter development can be applied to other clay mineral components (e.g., Al, Si) to improve the modeling of edge surface stability, resulting in expanded applicability to clay mineral applications.

17.
Chemphyschem ; 14(16): 3740-50, 2013 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24123984

RESUMO

A set of 98 nanoporous framework material (NFM) structures was investigated by classical Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations for low-pressure O2 adsorption properties (Henry's constant and isosteric heat of adsorption). The set of materials includes those that have shown high O2 uptake experimentally as well as a subset of more than 2000 structures previously screened for noble-gas uptake. While use of the general force field UFF is fruitful for noble-gas adsorption studies, its use is shown to be limited for the case of O2 adsorption-one distinct limitation is a lack of sufficient O2 -metal interactions to be able to describe O2 interaction with open metal sites. Nonetheless, those structures without open metal sites that have very small pores (<2.5 Å) show increased O2 /N2 selectivity. Additionally, O2 /N2 mixture simulations show that in some cases, H2 O or N2 can hinder O2 uptake for NFMs with small pores due to competitive adsorption.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(23): 9093-106, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23646358

RESUMO

The adsorption of noble gases and nitrogen by sixteen metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The MOFs were chosen to represent a variety of net topologies, pore dimensions, and metal centers. Three commercially available MOFs (HKUST-1, AlMIL-53, and ZIF-8) and PCN-14 were also included for comparison. Experimental adsorption isotherms, obtained from volumetric and gravimetric methods, were used to compare krypton, argon, and nitrogen uptake with the simulation results. Simulated trends in gas adsorption and predicted selectivities among the commercially available MOFs are in good agreement with experiment. In the low pressure regime, the expected trend of increasing adsorption with increasing noble gas polarizabilty is seen. For each noble gas, low pressure adsorption correlates with several MOF properties, including free volume, topology, and metal center. Additionally, a strong correlation exists between the Henry's constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption for all gases and MOFs considered. Finally, we note that the simulated and experimental gas selectivities demonstrated by this small set of MOFs show improved performance compared to similar values reported for zeolites.


Assuntos
Gases Nobres/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Adsorção , Ar/análise , Simulação por Computador , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Método de Monte Carlo , Porosidade
19.
Anal Chem ; 84(16): 7043-51, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22905832

RESUMO

The use of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films to detect water vapor across a wide concentration range is demonstrated using MOF-functionalized quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. A range of 3-14,800 ppmv was obtained with thin films of the MOF Cu(3)(benzenetricarboxylate)(2) (Cu-BTC) deposited by an automated layer-by-layer method. Devices coated by a manual technique demonstrated sensitivity from 0.28 to 14,800 ppmv, the limit of our test system. This exceeds the sensitivity of many commercially available sensors. Cu-BTC layers were covalently bonded directly to the silicon oxide surface, allowing devices to be heated beyond 100 °C to desorb water adsorbed in the pores without decomposition, thereby regenerating the sensors. Sensor response as a function of coating thickness was evaluated, showing that the SAW sensor response is bounded by maximum and minimum layer thicknesses. Computer simulation of H(2)O uptake shows a multistep adsorption isotherm defined by initial adsorption at open Cu-sites, followed by pore-filling and finally full saturation. Modeling and experimental results are consistent. Calculated uptake values suggest an efficient adsorption of H(2)O by Cu-BTC. These results provide the first convincing evidence that MOF functionalization of compact sensing technologies such as SAW devices and microcantilevers can compete with state-of-the art devices.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(5): 1728-34, 2012 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22186883

RESUMO

While performing molecular dynamics simulations of water or aqueous solutions in a slab geometry, such as at mineral surfaces, it is important to match bulk water density in the diffuse region of the model system with that expected for the appropriate experimental conditions. Typically, a slab geometry represents parallel surfaces with a variable region of confined water (this region can range in size from a few Ångstroms to many tens of Ångstroms). While constant-pressure simulations usually result in appropriate density values in the bulk diffuse region removed from either surface, constant-volume simulations have also been widely used, sometimes without careful consideration of the method for determining water content. Simulations using two thermodynamic ensembles as well as two methods for calculating the water-accessible volume have been investigated for two distinct silicate surfaces-hydrophilic cristobalite (111) and hydrophobic pyrophyllite (001). In cases where NPT simulations are not feasible, a simple geometry-based treatment of the accessible volume can be sufficient to replicate bulk water density far from the surface. However, the use of the Connolly method can be more appropriate in cases where a surface is less well-defined. Specific water-surface interactions (e.g., hydrophobic repulsion) also play a role in determining water content in a confined water simulation. While reported here for planar surfaces, these results can be extended to an interface with any solvent, or to other types of surfaces and geometries.

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