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2.
Chemistry ; 26(11): 2436-2449, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774196

RESUMO

The substitution of scandium in fullerene single-molecule magnets (SMMs) DySc2 N@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 by lutetium has been studied to explore the influence of the diamagnetic metal on the SMM performance of dysprosium nitride clusterfullerenes. The use of lutetium led to an improved SMM performance of DyLu2 N@C80 , which shows a higher blocking temperature of magnetization (TB =9.5 K), longer relaxation times, and broader hysteresis than DySc2 N@C80 (TB =6.9 K). At the same time, Dy2 LuN@C80 was found to have a similar blocking temperature of magnetization to Dy2 ScN@C80 (TB =8 K), but substantially different interactions between the magnetic moments of the dysprosium ions in the Dy2 MN clusters. Surprisingly, although the intramolecular dipolar interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 are of similar strength, the exchange interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 are close to zero. Analysis of the low-frequency molecular and lattice vibrations showed strong mixing of the lattice modes and endohedral cluster librations in k-space. This mixing simplifies the spin-lattice relaxation by conserving the momentum during the spin flip and helping to distribute the moment and energy further into the lattice.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 5998-6004, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408608

RESUMO

Inert single-layer boron nitride (h-BN) grown on a catalytic metal may be functionalized with quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) that are widely used as nonreactive electrolytes. We observe that the quat treatment, which facilitates the electrochemical transfer of two-dimensional materials, involves a decomposition of quat ions and leads to covalently bound quat derivatives on top of the 2D layer. Applying tetraoctylammonium and h-BN on rhodium, the reaction product is top-alkylized h-BN as identified with high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The alkyl chains are homogeneously distributed across the surface, and the properties thereof are well-tunable by the choice of different quats. The functionalization further weakens the 2D material-substrate interaction and promotes easy transfer. Therefore, the functionalization scheme that is presented enables the design of 2D materials with tailored properties and with the freedom to position and orient them as required. The mechanism of this functionalization route is investigated with density functional theory calculations, and we identify the proximity of the catalytic metal substrate to alter the chemical reactivity of otherwise inert h-BN layers.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

5.
ACS Nano ; 12(11): 11161-11168, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371049

RESUMO

Vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures composed of 2D semiconductors have attracted great attention. Most of these include hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as either a substrate, an encapsulant, or a tunnel barrier. However, reliable synthesis of large-area and epitaxial 2D heterostructures incorporating BN remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of nominal monolayer (ML) MoSe2 on h-BN/Rh(111) by molecular beam epitaxy, where the MoSe2/h-BN layer system can be transferred from the growth substrate onto SiO2. The valence band structure of ML MoSe2/h-BN/Rh(111) revealed by photoemission electron momentum microscopy ( kPEEM) shows that the valence band maximum located at the K point is 1.33 eV below the Fermi level ( EF), whereas the energy difference between K and Γ points is determined to be 0.23 eV, demonstrating that the electronic properties, such as the direct band gap and the effective mass of ML MoSe2, are well preserved in MoSe2/h-BN heterostructures.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(70): 9730-9733, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079423

RESUMO

Magnetic properties of endohedral metallofullerenes with nitride clusters DySc2N and Dy2ScN and different carbon cages are studied by SQUID magnetometry. All molecules behave as single molecule magnets (SMMs) and exhibit magnetic hysteresis. It is found that the blocking temperature of magnetization and relaxation times strongly depend on the fullerene cage, with the C80-Ih isomer offering the best SMM properties.

7.
Nature ; 558(7711): 525-526, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946095
8.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 1205-1212, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314849

RESUMO

Large-area hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) promises many new applications of two-dimensional materials, such as the protective packing of reactive surfaces or as membranes in liquids. However, scalable production beyond exfoliation from bulk single crystals remained a major challenge. Single-orientation monolayer h-BN nanomesh is grown on 4 in. wafer single crystalline rhodium films and transferred on arbitrary substrates such as SiO2, germanium, or transmission electron microscopy grids. The transfer process involves application of tetraoctylammonium bromide before electrochemical hydrogen delamination. The material performance is demonstrated with two applications. First, protective sealing of h-BN is shown by preserving germanium from oxidation in air at high temperatures. Second, the membrane functionality of the single h-BN layer is demonstrated in aqueous solutions. Here, we employ a growth substrate intrinsic preparation scheme to create regular 2 nm holes that serve as ion channels in liquids.

9.
Chem Sci ; 8(9): 6451-6465, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263779

RESUMO

A method for the selective synthesis of sulfide clusterfullerenes Dy2S@C2n is developed. Addition of methane to the reactive atmosphere reduces the formation of empty fullerenes in the arc-discharge synthesis, whereas the use of Dy2S3 as a source of metal and sulfur affords sulfide clusterfullerenes as the main fullerene products along with smaller amounts of carbide clusterfullerenes. Two isomers of Dy2S@C82 with Cs(6) and C3v(8) cage symmetry, Dy2S@C72-Cs(10528), and a carbide clusterfullerene Dy2C2@C82-Cs(6) were isolated. The molecular structure of both Dy2S@C82 isomers was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. SQUID magnetometry demonstrates that all of these clusterfullerenes exhibit hysteresis of magnetization, with Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) being the strongest single molecule magnet in the series. DC- and AC-susceptibility measurements were used to determine magnetization relaxation times in the temperature range from 1.6 K to 70 K. Unprecedented magnetization relaxation dynamics with three consequent Orbach processes and energy barriers of 10.5, 48, and 1232 K are determined for Dy2S@C82-C3v(8). Dy2S@C82-Cs(6) exhibits faster relaxation of magnetization with two barriers of 15.2 and 523 K. Ab initio calculations were used to interpret experimental data and compare the Dy-sulfide clusterfullerenes to other Dy-clusterfullerenes. The smallest and largest barriers are ascribed to the exchange/dipolar barrier and relaxation via crystal-field states, respectively, whereas an intermediate energy barrier of 48 K in Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) is assigned to the local phonon mode, corresponding to the librational motion of the Dy2S cluster inside the carbon cage.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(23): 237202, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286680

RESUMO

For the endohedral fullerene molecule HoLu_{2}N@C_{80}, it is shown that the endohedral HoLu_{2}N unit may be oriented in a magnetic field. The Ho magnetic moment is fixed in the strong ligand field and aligns along the holmium-nitrogen axis. The torque of a magnetic field on the Ho magnetic moment leads to a hopping bias of the endohedral unit inclining to an orientation parallel to the externally applied field. This endohedral cluster distribution remains frozen below the onset of thermally induced rotation of the endohedral units. We derive an analytical statistical model for the description of the effect that scales below 7 T with the square of the external field strength, and that allows us to resolve the freezing temperature of the endohedral hopping motion. The freezing temperature is around 55 K and depends on the cooling rate, which in turn determines an activation energy for the hopping motion of 185 meV and a prefactor of 1.8×10^{14} s^{-1}. For TbSc_{2}N@C_{80} we find the same behavior with a 3.5% higher freezing temperature.

11.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16098, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706223

RESUMO

Increasing the temperature at which molecules behave as single-molecule magnets is a serious challenge in molecular magnetism. One of the ways to address this problem is to create the molecules with strongly coupled lanthanide ions. In this work, endohedral metallofullerenes Y2@C80 and Dy2@C80 are obtained in the form of air-stable benzyl monoadducts. Both feature an unpaired electron trapped between metal ions, thus forming a single-electron metal-metal bond. Giant exchange interactions between lanthanide ions and the unpaired electron result in single-molecule magnetism of Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) with a record-high 100 s blocking temperature of 18 K. All magnetic moments in Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) are parallel and couple ferromagnetically to form a single spin unit of 21 µB with a dysprosium-electron exchange constant of 32 cm-1. The barrier of the magnetization reversal of 613 K is assigned to the state in which the spin of one Dy centre is flipped.

12.
Nature ; 543(7644): 226-228, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277519

RESUMO

The single-atom bit represents the ultimate limit of the classical approach to high-density magnetic storage media. So far, the smallest individually addressable bistable magnetic bits have consisted of 3-12 atoms. Long magnetic relaxation times have been demonstrated for single lanthanide atoms in molecular magnets, for lanthanides diluted in bulk crystals, and recently for ensembles of holmium (Ho) atoms supported on magnesium oxide (MgO). These experiments suggest a path towards data storage at the atomic limit, but the way in which individual magnetic centres are accessed remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the reading and writing of the magnetism of individual Ho atoms on MgO, and show that they independently retain their magnetic information over many hours. We read the Ho states using tunnel magnetoresistance and write the states with current pulses using a scanning tunnelling microscope. The magnetic origin of the long-lived states is confirmed by single-atom electron spin resonance on a nearby iron sensor atom, which also shows that Ho has a large out-of-plane moment of 10.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons on this surface. To demonstrate independent reading and writing, we built an atomic-scale structure with two Ho bits, to which we write the four possible states and which we read out both magnetoresistively and remotely by electron spin resonance. The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(7): 1830-1834, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079303

RESUMO

Fused-pentagons results in an increase of local steric strain according to the isolated pentagon rule (IPR), and for all reported non-IPR clusterfullerenes multiple (two or three) metals are required to stabilize the strained fused-pentagons, making it difficult to access the single-atom properties. Herein, we report the syntheses and isolations of novel non-IPR mononuclear clusterfullerenes MNC@C76 (M=Tb, Y), in which one pair of strained fused-pentagon is stabilized by a mononuclear cluster. The molecular structures of MNC@C76 (M=Tb, Y) were determined unambiguously by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, featuring a non-IPR C2v (19138)-C76 cage entrapping a nearly linear MNC cluster, which is remarkably different from the triangular MNC cluster within the reported analogous clusterfullerenes based on IPR-obeying C82 cages. The TbNC@C76 molecule is found to be a field-induced single-molecule magnet (SMM).

14.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 24(Pt 1): 354-366, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28009578

RESUMO

The Photo-Emission and Atomic Resolution Laboratory (PEARL) is a new soft X-ray beamline and surface science laboratory at the Swiss Light Source. PEARL is dedicated to the structural characterization of local bonding geometry at surfaces and interfaces of novel materials, in particular of molecular adsorbates, nanostructured surfaces, and surfaces of complex materials. The main experimental techniques are soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoelectron diffraction in angle-scanned mode measures bonding angles of atoms near the emitter atom, and thus allows the orientation of small molecules on a substrate to be determined. In energy scanned mode it measures the distance between the emitter and neighboring atoms; for example, between adsorbate and substrate. STM provides complementary, real-space information, and is particularly useful for comparing the sample quality with reference measurements. In this article, the key features and measured performance data of the beamline and the experimental station are presented. As scientific examples, the adsorbate-substrate distance in hexagonal boron nitride on Ni(111), surface quantum well states in a metal-organic network of dicyano-anthracene on Cu(111), and circular dichroism in the photoelectron diffraction of Cu(111) are discussed.

15.
ACS Nano ; 10(12): 11187-11195, 2016 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024350

RESUMO

On the path to functional graphene electronics, suitable templates for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of high-mobility graphene are of great interest. Among various substrates, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has established itself as one of the most promising candidates. The nanomesh, a h-BN monolayer grown on the Rh(111) surface where the lattice mismatch of h-BN and rhodium leads to a characteristic corrugation of h-BN, offers an interesting graphene/h-BN interface, different from flat graphene/h-BN systems hitherto studied. In this report, we describe a two-step CVD process for graphene formation on h-BN/Rh(111) at millibar pressures and describe the influence of the surface texture on the CVD process. During a first exposure to the 3-pentanone precursor, carbon atoms are incorporated in the rhodium subsurface, which leads to decoupling of the h-BN layer from the Rh(111) surface. This is reflected in the electronic band structure, where the corrugation-induced splitting of the h-BN bands vanishes. In a second 3-pentanone exposure, a graphene layer is formed on the flat h-BN layer, evidenced by the appearance of the characteristic linear dispersion of its π band. The graphene layer grows incommensurate and highly oriented. The formation of graphene/h-BN on rhodium opens the door to scalable production of well-aligned heterostacks since single-crystalline thin-film Rh substrates are available in large dimensions.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(44): 14764-14771, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755875

RESUMO

Clusterfullerenes are capable of entrapping a variety of metal clusters within carbon cage, for which the entrapped metal cluster generally keeps its geometric structure (e.g., bond distance and angle) upon changing the isomeric structure of fullerene cage, and whether the properties of the entrapped metal cluster is geometry-dependent remains unclear. Herein we report an unusual triangular monometallic cluster entrapped in fullerene cage by isolating several novel terbium cyanide clusterfullerenes (TbNC@C82) with different cage isomeric structures. Upon varying the isomeric structure of C82 cage from C2(5) to Cs(6) and to C2v(9), the entrapped triangular TbNC cluster exhibits significant distortions as evidenced by the changes of Tb-C(N) and C-N bond distances and variation of the Tb-C(N)-N(C) angle by up to 20°, revealing that the geometric structure of the entrapped triangular TbNC cluster is variable. All three TbNC@C82 molecules are found to be single-ion magnets, and the change of the geometric structure of TbNC cluster directly leads to the alternation of the magnetic relaxation time of the corresponding TbNC@C82 clusterfullerene.

17.
Nature ; 534(7609): 676-9, 2016 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357755

RESUMO

When a gecko moves on a ceiling it makes use of adhesion and stiction. Stiction--static friction--is experienced on microscopic and macroscopic scales and is related to adhesion and sliding friction. Although important for most locomotive processes, the concepts of adhesion, stiction and sliding friction are often only empirically correlated. A more detailed understanding of these concepts will, for example, help to improve the design of increasingly smaller devices such as micro- and nanoelectromechanical switches. Here we show how stiction and adhesion are related for a liquid drop on a hexagonal boron nitride monolayer on rhodium, by measuring dynamic contact angles in two distinct states of the solid-liquid interface: a corrugated state in the absence of hydrogen intercalation and an intercalation-induced flat state. Stiction and adhesion can be reversibly switched by applying different electrochemical potentials to the sample, causing atomic hydrogen to be intercalated or not. We ascribe the change in adhesion to a change in lateral electric field of in-plane two-nanometre dipole rings, because it cannot be explained by the change in surface roughness known from the Wenzel model. Although the change in adhesion can be calculated for the system we study, it is not yet possible to determine the stiction at such a solid-liquid interface using ab initio methods. The inorganic hybrid of hexagonal boron nitride and rhodium is very stable and represents a new class of switchable surfaces with the potential for application in the study of adhesion, friction and lubrication.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/química , Ródio/química , Adesividade , Animais , Eletricidade , Fricção , Hidrogênio/química , Locomoção , Lubrificação , Molhabilidade
18.
Nat Chem ; 8(4): 326-30, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001727

RESUMO

In biomineralization, inorganic materials are formed with remarkable control of the shape and morphology. Chirality, as present in the biomolecular world, is therefore also common for biominerals. Biomacromolecules, like proteins and polysaccharides, are in direct contact with the mineral phase and act as modifiers during nucleation and crystal growth. Owing to their homochirality--they exist only as one of two possible mirror-symmetric isomers--their handedness is often transferred into the macroscopic shape of the biomineral crystals, but the way in which handedness is transmitted into achiral materials is not yet understood at the atomic level. By using the submolecular resolution capability of scanning tunnelling microscopy, supported by photoelectron diffraction and density functional theory, we show how the chiral 'buckybowl' hemibuckminsterfullerene arranges copper surface atoms in its vicinity into a chiral morphology. We anticipate that such new insight will find its way into materials synthesis techniques.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(45): 13411-5, 2015 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350440

RESUMO

The use of methane as a reactive gas dramatically increases the selectivity of the arc-discharge synthesis of M-Ti-carbide clusterfullerenes (M=Y, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, Lu). Optimization of the process parameters allows the synthesis of Dy2TiC@C80-I and its facile isolation in a single chromatographic step. A new type of cluster with an endohedral acetylide unit, M2TiC2@C80, is discovered along with the second isomer of M2TiC@C80. Dy2TiC@C80-(I,II) and Dy2TiC2@C80-I are shown to be single-molecule magnets (SMM), but the presence of the second carbon atom in the cluster Dy2TiC2@C80 leads to substantially poorer SMM properties.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(8): 087201, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768775

RESUMO

The interaction between the endohedral unit in the single-molecule magnet Dy_{2}ScN@C_{80} and a rhodium (111) substrate leads to alignment of the Dy 4f orbitals. The resulting orientation of the Dy_{2}ScN plane parallel to the surface is inferred from comparison of the angular anisotropy of x-ray absorption spectra and multiplet calculations in the corresponding ligand field. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism is also angle dependent and signals strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This directly relates geometric and magnetic structure. Element specific magnetization curves from different coverages exhibit hysteresis at a sample temperature of ∼4 K. From the measured hysteresis curves, we estimate the zero field remanence lifetime during x-ray exposure of a submonolayer to be about 30 seconds.

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