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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of neuraxial anaesthesia for open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is postulated to reduce mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the 90-day outcomes after elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients receiving combined general and neuraxial anaesthesia vs general anaesthesia alone. METHODS: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted from 2003 to 2016. All patients ≥40 yr old undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair were included. The propensity score was used to construct inverse probability of treatment weighted regression models to assess differences in 90-day outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 10 447 elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs were identified; 9003 (86%) patients received combined general and neuraxial anaesthesia and 1444 (14%) received general anaesthesia alone. Combined anaesthesia was associated with significantly lower hazards for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.61) and major adverse cardiovascular events (HR=0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86). Combined patients were at lower odds for acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR]=0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.89), respiratory failure (OR=0.41; 95% CI, 0.36-0.47), and limb complications (OR=0.30; 95% CI, 0.25-0.37), with higher odds of being discharged home (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51). Combined anaesthesia was also associated with significant mechanical ventilation and ICU and hospital length of stay benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Combined general and neuraxial anaesthesia in elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is associated with reduced 90-day mortality and morbidity. Neuraxial anaesthesia should be considered as a routine adjunct to general anaesthesia for elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

2.
Wounds ; 32(3): 81-85, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bacterial biofilm in wounds prevents healing by acting as a physical barrier to wound closure and hyperactivating local inflammatory processes, thus making its removal a high priority. The authors previously have shown that adding topical oxygen to standard wound care increased healing of Texas Grade II and III diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), which they hypothesized was a result of alterations of the wound microbiome/biofilm. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the mechanism of action of topical oxygen in DFUs by examining the diversity of bacterial genera present in DFUs treated with topical oxygen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with chronic DFUs had their wounds swabbed weekly over an 8-week period of continuous topical oxygen treatment, and microbiome diversity was assessed by metagenomic 16S rDNA sequencing using a next-generation sequencing platform. RESULTS: The wound microbiome shifted toward a diverse flora dominated by aerobes and facultative anaerobes with oxygen therapy in 5 healed wounds. In contrast, anaerobic flora persisted in a single nonhealing ulcer in the present study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sample size was small, this study suggests topical oxygen therapy may have the ability to encourage the growth of aerobic members of the wound microbiome and be an effective alternative to antibiotics in this area.

3.
J Vasc Surg ; 71(3): 1046-1054.e1, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Owing to the lack of comparative evidence between the endovascular technologies for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis treatments, we sought to summarize the reported data comparing the effectiveness of different endovascular approaches for the treatment of AVF stenoses at the juxta-anastomotic site. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched from inception to June 12, 2018 for observational and randomized studies that had examined the effectiveness of AVF stenosis treatment using plain percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA), cutting balloon angioplasty, drug-eluting balloon (DEB) angioplasty, high-pressure balloon angioplasty, and stenting. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Collaboration tool for randomized studies. Article screening, full-text review, assessment of bias, and data collection were conducted in duplicate, with a third reviewer to reconcile any discrepancies. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the available evidence and a quantitative meta-analysis for the primary assisted patency outcome. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager, version 5.3, using random effects models, with the I2 statistic used to assess heterogeneity. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: Our search yielded 3683 reports. Of these, three randomized trials and three observational studies were included. Three studies with 342 patients had described the effectiveness of high-pressure balloon angioplasty, conventional PTA, and stenting and had analyzed the data qualitatively. Three studies with 141 patients had investigated native AVF patency after DEB angioplasty and conventional PTA and were included in the meta-analysis. DEB angioplasty showed significantly greater primary assisted patency rates at 12 months after treatment compared with PTA (odds ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-10.14; I2 = 49%). No statistically significant differences were found in 6-month primary assisted patency among the treatment groups (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-6.45; I2 = 50%). A total of 58 of 72 AVFs remained patent 6 months after DEB angioplasty compared with 45 of 69 at 6 months after PTA. At 12 months after treatment, 48 of 72 AVFs remained patent after DEB angioplasty compared with 23 of 69 AVFs after PTA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest DEB angioplasty is a more effective treatment option for AVF stenosis at the juxta-anastomotic site compared with PTA. Although DEB angioplasty might provide longer term patency than other endovascular treatments, further high-quality data are needed to confirm this finding.

4.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Existing data regarding endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) are conflicting in their findings. The purpose of this paper was to determine the long-term outcomes of EVAR vs open surgical repair (OSR) for treatment of rAAA. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study of all patients 40 years or more that underwent OSR or EVAR of rAAA in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2016 was conducted. Administrative data from the province of Ontario was used as the data source. The propensity for repair approach was calculated using a logistic regression model including all covariates and used for inverse probability of treatment weighting. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted using the weighted cohort to determine the survival and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)-free survival of EVAR relative to OSR for rAAA up to 10 years after repair. RESULTS: A total of 2692 rAAA (261 EVAR [10%] and 2431 OSR [90%]) repairs were recorded from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2016. Mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 3.4 years (standard deviation [SD], 3.9 years), with a maximum follow-up of 14.0 years. OSR patients were followed for a mean of 3.5 years (SD, 4.0 years) and maximum of 14.0 years, and EVAR patients were followed for a mean of 2.7 years (SD, 2.7 years) and a maximum of 11.4 years. Median survival was 2.7 years overall, and 2.5 and 3.7 years for OSR and EVAR patients, respectively. There were no significant baseline differences between EVAR and OSR patients after inverse probability of treatment weighting. EVAR patients were at lower hazard for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.65; P < .01), and MACE (hazard ratio, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.66; P < .01) within 30 days of repair. There were no statistically significant differences between EVAR and OSR in the hazard for all-cause mortality or MACE from 30 days to 5 years, and 5 to 10 years. Despite this, the upfront mortality and MACE benefits of EVAR persisted for more than 4.5 years after repair. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based cohort study using administrative data from Ontario, Canada, demonstrated lower hazards for all-cause mortality and MACE within 30 days of operation in favor of EVAR, but no differences in the mid- or longer-term results. More work is needed to understand and improve the long-term outcomes of ruptured endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and ruptured open surgical repair.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e196578, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290986

RESUMO

Importance: Knowledge regarding the long-term outcomes of elective treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is increasing. However, data with greater than 10 years' follow-up remain sparse and are lacking from population-based studies. Objective: To determine the long-term outcomes of EVAR compared with open surgical repair (OSR) for elective treatment of AAA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, population-based cohort study used linked administrative health data from Ontario, Canada, to identify all patients 40 years and older who underwent elective EVAR or OSR for AAA repair from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2016, with follow-up terminating on March 31, 2017. A total of 17 683 patients were identified using validated procedure and billing codes and were propensity score matched. Analysis was conducted from June 26, 2018, to January 16, 2019. Exposures: Elective EVAR or OSR for AAA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival, defined as being free of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; reintervention; and secondary rupture. Results: Among 17 683 patients who received elective AAA repairs (mean [SD] age, 72.6 [7.8] years; 14 286 [80.8%] men), 6100 (34.5%) underwent EVAR and 11 583 (65.5%) underwent OSR. From these patients, 4010 well-balanced propensity score-matched pairs of patients were defined, with a mean (SD) age of 73.0 (7.6) years and 6583 (82.1%) men. In the matched cohort, the mean (SD) follow-up was 4.4 (2.7) years, and maximum follow-up was 13.8 years. The overall median survival was 8.9 years. Compared with OSR, EVAR was associated with a higher survival rate up to 1 year after repair (91.0% [95% CI, 90.1%-91.9%] vs 94.0% [95% CI, 93.3%-94.7%]) and a higher major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival rate up to 4 years after repair (69.9% [95% CI, 68.3%-71.3%] vs 72.9% [95% CI, 71.4%-74.4%]). Cumulative incidence of reintervention was higher among patients who underwent EVAR compared with those who underwent OSR at the 7-year follow-up (45.9% [95% CI, 44.1%-47.8%] vs 42.2% [95% CI, 40.4%-44.0%]). Survival analyses demonstrated no statistically significant differences in long-term survival, reintervention, and secondary rupture for patients who underwent EVAR compared with those who underwent OSR. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested superior long-term major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival among patients who underwent EVAR compared with those who underwent OSR (32.6% [95% CI, 26.9%-38.4%] vs 14.1% [95% CI, 4.0%-30.4%]; stratified log-rank P < .001) during a maximum follow-up of 13.8 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Endovascular aortic repair was not associated with a difference in long-term survival during more than 13 years' maximum follow-up. The reasons for these findings will require studies to consider specific graft makes and models, adherence to instructions for use, and types and reasons for reintervention.

6.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(3): 954-969.e30, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study synthesized the literature comparing the long-term (5-9 years) and very long-term (≥10 years) all-cause mortality, reintervention, and secondary rupture rates between endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to May 2018 for studies comparing EVAR to OSR with a minimum follow-up period of 5 years. Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers, with a third author resolving discrepancies. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane and Newcastle-Ottawa scales. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. RESULTS: Our search yielded 3431 unique articles. Three randomized controlled trials and 68 observational studies comparing 151,092 EVAR to 148,692 OSR patients were included. Inter-rater agreement was excellent at the screening (κ = 0.78) and full-text review (κ = 0.89) stages. Overall, the risk of bias was low to moderate. For long-term outcomes, 54 studies reported all-cause mortality (n = 203,246), 23 reported reintervention (n = 157,151), and 4 reported secondary rupture (n = 150,135). EVAR was associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.33; P = .003, I2 = 91%), reintervention (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.67-2.69; P < .00001, I2 = 96%), and secondary rupture rates (OR, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.63-8.89; P < .00001, I2 = 92%). For very long-term outcomes, 15 studies reported all-cause mortality (n = 48,721), 9 reported reintervention (n = 7511), and 1 reported secondary rupture (n = 1116). There was no mortality difference between groups, but EVAR was associated with higher reintervention (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.71-3.57; P < .00001, I2 = 84%) and secondary rupture rates (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 1.01-64.99; P = .05). Subanalysis of more recent studies, with last year of patient recruitment 2010 or after, demonstrated no long-term mortality differences between EVAR and OSR. CONCLUSIONS: EVAR is associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality, reintervention, and secondary rupture rates compared with OSR. In the very long-term, EVAR is also associated with higher reintervention and secondary rupture rates. Notably, EVAR mortality has improved over time. Vigilant long-term surveillance of EVAR patients is recommended.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Retratamento , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
CMAJ Open ; 7(2): E379-E384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen centralization of vascular surgery services in Ontario. We sought to examine the trends in overall and approach-specific elective and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair by hospital type (teaching v. community). METHODS: We conducted a population-based time-series analysis of elective and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2016. Quarterly cumulative incidences of repairs per 100 000 Ontarians aged 40 years and older were calculated. We fit exponential smoothing models to the data stratified by approach and hospital type to examine repair trends. RESULTS: We identified 19 219 elective and 2722 ruptured repairs between 2003 and 2016. The cumulative incidences of overall elective repair and elective open surgical repair decreased by 1.15% (p = 0.008) and 67% (p < 0.001), respectively, in teaching hospitals and by 23% (p < 0.001) and 60% (p < 0.001), respectively, in community hospitals. The cumulative incidence of elective endovascular repair increased 667% in teaching hospitals (p < 0.001). Elective endovascular repair began in community centres after 2010 and increased to 0.98/100 000 (p < 0.001), resulting in a rebound in overall elective repair in the community. Overall ruptured repairs and ruptured open repairs decreased by 84% (p < 0.001) and 88% (p = 0.002), respectively, at community hospitals. Ruptured endovascular repairs at community hospitals increased from no procedures before 2006 to 0.03/100 000 in 2016 (p = 0.005). INTERPRETATION: There has been substantial uptake of endovascular aortic repair in teaching and community hospitals in Ontario, and community hospital uptake of endovascular repair has begun decentralization of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Increased experience and training in endovascular repair and reduced specialized care requirements will probably lead to continued decentralization.

9.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(1): 242-248.e1, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of an infected aorta, open repair and replacement with a rifampin-impregnated Dacron vascular graft decrease the risk of prosthetic graft infections, with several protocols available in the literature. We hypothesize that the same holds true for endovascular aneurysm repair, and after studying and optimizing rifampin solution concentration and incubation period to maximize the coating process of rifampin on Dacron endovascular stent grafts (ESGs), we propose a rapid real-time perioperative protocol. METHODS: Several prepared rifampin solutions, including a negative control solution, were used to coat multiple triplicate sets of Dacron endovascular aortic stent grafts at different but set incubation periods. Rifampin elution from the grafts was studied by spectroscopic analysis. Once an optimized solution concentration and incubation time were determined, the elution of rifampin over time from the graft and the graft's surface characteristics were studied by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. RESULTS: All coated ESGs with any concentration of prepared rifampin solution, regardless of incubation time, immediately demonstrated a visible bright orange discoloration and subsequently after elution procedures returned to the original noncolored state. At the 25-minute incubation time (standard flush), there was no statistical difference in the amount of rifampin coated to the ESGs with 10-mg/mL, 30-mg/mL, and 60-mg/mL solutions (0.06 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.05, and 0.044 ± 0.01, respectively; P > .05). This was also true for a 10-minute incubation time (express flush) of 10-mg/mL and 60-mg/mL rifampin solution concentrations (0.04 ± 0.007 and 0.066 ± 0.014, respectively; P = .22). The elution-over-time of coated rifampin ESG, although not statistically significant, did seem to plateau and to reach a steady state by 50 hours and was confirmed by surface characteristics using atomic force microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Having studied two variables of rifampin coating techniques to Dacron ESGs, the authors propose a rapid real-time perioperative coating protocol by using a 10-mg/mL rifampin solution for a 10-minute incubation period. As rifampin loosely binds to Dacron ESGs by weak intermolecular forces, a rifampin-coated ESG would need to be inserted in a timely fashion to treat the diseased aorta and to deliver its antibiotic affect. A rapid perioperative coating protocol followed by immediate deployment makes our proposed technique especially useful in an urgent and unstable clinical scenario.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/química , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Rifampina/química , Stents , Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/microbiologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Polietilenotereftalatos , Desenho de Prótese , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Clin Invest Med ; 41(3): E148-E155, 2018 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the positive predictive values (PPV) of Ontario administrative data codes for the identification of open (OSR) and endovascular (EVAR) repairs of elective (eAAA) and ruptured (rAAA) abdominal aortic aneurysms. METHODS: We randomly identified 319 eAAA and rAAA repairs at two Toronto hospitals between April 2003 and March 2015, using administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes I71.3 and I71.4, were used to identify rAAA and eAAA patients, respectively. A blinded retrospective chart review was conducted and served as the gold standard comparator. Re-abstracted records were compared to Canadian Classification of Health Interventions (CCI) and Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) codes in the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database (CIHI-DAD) and OHIP databases. We calculated the PPV and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of individual and combined procedure and billing codes for elective and ruptured OSR and EVAR (eOSR, eEVAR, rOSR, and rEVAR). RESULTS: Permutation of codes allowed identification of eOSR with 95% PPV (95% CI 88, 98), eEVAR with 96% PPV (95% CI 90, 99), rOSR with 87% PPV (95% CI 79, 93) and rEVAR with 91% PPV (95% CI 59, 100). CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic, procedure and billing code combinations allow identification of eOSR, eEVAR, rOSR and rEVAR patients in Ontario administrative data with a high degree of certainty.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(19): e008657, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371297

RESUMO

Background There are no recognized pharmacological treatments for abdominal aortic aneurysms ( AAA ), although statins are suggested to be beneficial. We sought to summarize the literature regarding the effects of statins on human AAA growth, rupture, and 30-day mortality. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies using the Cochrane CENTRAL database, MEDLINE , and EMBASE up to June 15, 2018. Review, abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted by 2 independent reviewers, and a third author resolved discrepancies. Pooled mean differences and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Our search yielded 911 articles. One case-control and 21 cohort studies involving 80 428 patients were included. The risk of bias was low to moderate. Statin use was associated with a mean AAA growth rate reduction of 0.82 mm/y (95% confidence interval 0.33, 1.32, P=0.001, I2=86%). Statins were also associated with a lower rupture risk (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.51, 0.78, P<0.0001, I2=27%), and preoperative statin use was associated with a lower 30-day mortality following elective AAA repair (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.83, P=0.005, I2=57%). Conclusions Statin therapy may be associated with reduction in AAA progression, rupture, and lower rates of perioperative mortality following elective AAA repair. These data argue for widespread statin use in AAA patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL : www.crd.york.ac.uk . Unique identifier: CRD 42017056480.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/prevenção & controle , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Roto/mortalidade , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(7): e185418, 2018 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646400

RESUMO

Importance: Age and sex are important considerations in assessing and individualizing therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Objective: To determine the prevalence of open and endovascular elective AAA (EAAA) and ruptured AAA (RAAA) repair by age and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional, time-series analysis in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2016, all patients undergoing AAA repair who were older than 39 years were included. Exposures: Elective AAA and RAAA repair with open surgical repair (OSR) or endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). Main Outcomes and Measures: Age- and sex-standardized rates of EAAA and RAAA repair with OSR and EVAR. Results: From 2003 to 2016, 19 489 EAAA repairs (12 232 [63%] OSR and 7257 [37%] EVAR) and 2732 RAAA repairs (2466 [90%] OSR and 266 [10%] EVAR) were identified. The mean (SD) age was 72.7 (8.1) years in the EAAA subgroup and 73.5 (8.9) years in the RAAA subgroup; 15 813 patients (81%) in the EAAA subgroup and 2178 (80%) in the RAAA subgroup were men. The rates of EAAA by age quintile and sex decreased over the study period except among patients older than 79 years (1.3 per 100 000 population in 2003 to 2.2 per 100 000 population in 2016; 70% increase; P < .001). The rates of elective OSR decreased across all age and sex subgroups (range, 38%-74% decrease; P ≤ .009 for all subgroups) except among patients older than 79 years (1.3 per 100 000 population at baseline to 0.56 per 100 000 population in the second quarter of 2016; 53% decrease; P = .05). The rates of elective EVAR significantly increased across all age and sex subgroups (range, 566%-1585% increase; P ≤ .04 for all subgroups). Elective EVAR became the dominant treatment approach for aneurysms in men around 2010, whereas it maintained parity among women in 2016. The RAAA repair rate decreased over the study period in all subgroups (range, 32%-91% decrease; P ≤ .001 for all subgroups), but the decrease was not significant among women (80% decrease; P = .08). Similarly, the rates of ruptured OSR decreased among all subgroups (range, 47%-91% decrease; P < .001), but the decrease was not significant among women (87% decrease; P = .54). Ruptured EVAR showed significant uptake in all subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AAA in Ontario, Canada, use of EVAR appeared to increase from 2003 to 2016, whereas OSR use appeared to decrease. These findings were most pronounced among elective procedures for men and older patients. The delayed increase in the use of EVAR among women may reflect continued anatomical constraints for women seeking elective repair.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/terapia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 44: 421.e1-421.e4, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulnar artery aneurysms are rare with less than 150 previously reported. Previously ulnar aneurysms have been most commonly noted as occurring in the distal ulnar artery close to the palmar arch. METHODS: We present the case of a 47-year-old male with a background history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who attended our outpatient clinic with symptoms of distal embolization from a proximal ulnar artery aneurysm. RESULTS: Preoperatively, the aneurysm was thought to arise from the distal brachial artery, and only intraoperatively was the diagnosis of ulnar aneurysm made. The aneurysm was excised, and a reverse vein bypass graft anastomosed end to side on the brachial artery, and end to end on the distal ulnar. True ulnar artery aneurysms also involving the more proximal ulnar artery have been previously reported associated with vasculitic disorders. HIV has been previously associated with aneurysm formation in a number of anatomical locations. This case is noteworthy as it reports on the presentation and successful operative management of a true ulnar artery aneurysm arising in the proximal forearm in the setting of HIV, which has not been previously reported in medical literature. CONCLUSIONS: We present successful operative management of a true ulnar aneurysm in the proximal forearm using a reverse venous interposition bypass. Diagnosis of a proximal ulnar artery aneurysm may represent a diagnostic challenge given its rarity as it may mimic brachial artery aneurysm.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/complicações , Artéria Braquial/cirurgia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Artéria Ulnar , Enxerto Vascular/métodos , Veias/transplante , Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma/cirurgia , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Artéria Ulnar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ulnar/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
14.
JAMA Surg ; 152(3): 265-272, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973673

RESUMO

Importance: Attrition of residents from general surgery training programs is relatively high; however, there are wide discrepancies in the prevalence and causes of attrition reported among surgical residents in previous studies. Objective: To summarize the estimate of attrition prevalence among general surgery residents. Data Sources: We searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases (January 1, 1946, to October 22, 2015) for studies reporting on the prevalence and causes of attrition in surgical residents, as well as the characteristics and destinations of residents who left general surgery training programs. Database searches were conducted on October 22, 2015. Study Selection: Eligibility criteria included all studies reporting on the primary (attrition prevalence) or secondary (causes of attrition and characteristics and destination of residents who leave residency programs) outcomes in peer-reviewed journals. Commentaries, reviews, and studies reporting on preliminary surgery programs were excluded. Of the 41 full-text articles collected from the title/abstract screening, 22 studies (53.7%) met the selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently collected and summarized the data. We calculated pooled estimates using random effects meta-analyses where appropriate. Main Outcome and Measure: Attrition prevalence of general surgery residents. Results: Overall, we included 22 studies that reported on residents (n = 19 821) from general surgery programs. The pooled estimate for the overall attrition prevalence among general surgery residents was 18% (95% CI, 14%-21%), with significant between-study variation (I2 = 96.8%; P < .001). Attrition was significantly higher among female compared with male (25% vs 15%, respectively; P = .008) general surgery residents, and most residents left after their first postgraduate year (48%; 95% CI, 39%-57%). Departing residents often relocated to another general surgery program (20%; 95% CI, 15%-24%) or switched to anesthesia (13%; 95% CI, 11%-16%) and other specialties. The most common reported causes of attrition were uncontrollable lifestyle (range, 12%-87.5%) and transferring to another specialty (range, 19%-38.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: General surgery programs have relatively high attrition, with female residents more likely to leave their training programs than male residents. Residents most often relocate or switch to another specialty after the first postgraduate year owing to lifestyle-related issues.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
15.
J Vasc Surg Cases ; 1(4): 246-248, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724642

RESUMO

Early graft failure is a complex and challenging clinical condition faced by vascular surgeons performing infrainguinal bypass surgery. This case describes a patient with undiagnosed thrombocytosis undergoing urgent open revascularization for critical limb ischemia. The operative case was complicated by recurrent on-table acute thrombosis that was successfully managed with intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonism with eptifibatide. This is a novel case of its use for on-table salvage of an infrainguinal bypass graft. This case report outlines this challenging clinical problem and a novel use for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists.

16.
Syst Rev ; 1: 52, 2012 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23121841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme is a multimodal evidence-based approach to surgical care which begins in the preoperative setting and extends through to patient discharge in the postoperative period. The primary components of ERAS include the introduction of preoperative patient education; reduction in perioperative use of nasogastric tubes and drains; the use of multimodal analgesia; goal-directed fluid management; early removal of Foley catheter; early mobilization, and early oral nutrition. The ERAS approach has gradually evolved to become the standard of care in colorectal surgery and is presently being used in other specialty areas such as vascular surgery. Currently there is little evidence available for the implementation of ERAS in this field. We plan to conduct a systematic review of this literature with a view to incorporating ERAS principles into the management of major elective vascular surgery procedures. METHODS: We will search EMBASE (OVID, 1947 to June 2012), Medline (OVID, 1948 to June 2012), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley, Issue 1, 2012). Searches will be performed with no year or language restrictions. For inclusion, studies must look at adult patients over 18 years. Major elective vascular surgery includes carotid, bypass, aneurysm and amputation procedures. Studies must have evaluated usual care against an ERAS intervention in the preoperative, perioperative or postoperative period of care. Primary outcome measures are length of stay, decreased complication rate, and patient satisfaction or expectations. Only randomized controlled trials will be included. DISCUSSION: Most ERAS approaches have been considered in the context of colorectal surgery. Given the increasing use of multiple yet different aspects of this pathway in vascular surgery, it is timely to systematically review the evidence for their independent or combined outcomes, with a view to implementing them in this clinical setting. Results from this review will have important implications for vascular surgeons, anaesthetists, nurses, and other health care professionals when making evidenced-based decisions about the use of ERAS in daily practice.


Assuntos
Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Acta Chim Slov ; 59(3): 454-63, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24061297

RESUMO

Three new cinchona-type chiral selectors have been prepared by attaching N-pivaloyl-glycine, N-pivaloyl-(S)-valine and N-pivaloyl-(R)-valine segments to the C9-amino function of 9-amino-9-(deoxy)-epiquinine (eAQN), and immobilized to silica to provide the corresponding chiral stationary phases (CSPs). Evaluation of the chromatographic enantioseparation characteristics of these CSPs with a broad assortment of N-carbamoyl protected amino acids under polar organic mobile phase conditions revealed modest chiral recognition capabilities for N-Fmoc-, N-Cbz- and N-Boc-derivatives. It was found that the enantioselective analyte binding to these CSPs is strictly controlled by the absolute stereo-chemistry of the amino acid functionalities attached to the C9-amino group of the eAQN framework. Specifically, the CSP derived from (S)-valine-based selector exhibits preferential binding of N-carbamoyl-(S)-amino acids, while the CSPs featuring (R)-valine- and the glycine-derived selectors show opposite enantioselective binding preference. The observed impact of analyte structure on enantioselectivity and the specific preferences in enantioselective binding point to chiral recognition mechanisms capitalizing on intermolecular ion pairing, hydrogen bonding and subtle steric interactions, with the latter making the crucial contributions to stereodiscrimination. The finding that the chiral recognition characteristics of epiquinine can be readily controlled via incorporation of additional stereogenic centers remote from the cinchona scaffold might be useful information for the design of new enantioselective receptors and organocatalysts.

18.
HPB (Oxford) ; 13(8): 559-65, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21762299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic resection in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is associated with a risk of post-operative liver failure and higher morbidity than patients without liver disease. There is no universal risk stratification scheme for CLD patients undergoing resection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between routine pre-operative laboratory investigations, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), indocyanine green retention at 15 min (ICG15) and post-operative outcomes in CLD patients undergoing liver resection. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the University Health Network was preformed. ICG15 results, pre- and post-operative laboratory results were obtained from clinical records. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated for associations between pre-operative factors and post-operative outcomes using multivariate logistic regression adjusting for patient age and number of segments resected. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2005, 129 CLD patients underwent surgical resection for HCC. Procedures included 51 (40%) resections of ≤ 2 segments, 52 (40%) hemihepatectomies and 25 (19%) extended hepatic resections. Thirty- and 90-day post-operative mortality was 1.6% and 4.1%, respectively. Prolonged (>10 days) hospital length of stay (LOS) was independently associated with an ICG15 >15% {AOR [95% confidence interval (CI)]= 8.5 (1.4-51)} and an international normalized ratio (INR) > 1.2 [AOR (95% CI) = 5.0 (1.4-18.6)]. An ICG15 > 15% and MELD score were independent predictors of prolonged LOS. An ICG15 > 15% was also independently associated with MELD > 20 on post-operative day 3 [AOR (95% CI) = 24.3 (1.8-319)]. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ICG retention was independently associated with post-operative liver dysfunction and morbidity. The utility of ICG in combination with other biochemical measures to predict outcomes after hepatic resection in CLD patients requires further prospective study.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Corantes , Feminino , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Tempo de Internação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acad Med ; 85(10 Suppl): S5-8, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20881704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent learning with simulators might be improved if simulators could "diagnose the learner" by identifying common novice problems, thereby directing self-guided learning. Our goal was to determine if data collected by a virtual reality simulator could be used to predict the problem areas in novice trainees' laparoscopic performance. METHOD: Fourteen expert laparoscopists were interviewed to identify common problem areas experienced by novices as they learn laparoscopy. Two expert laparoscopists rated 20 novices' simulator performances regarding the extent of each problem area. RESULTS: Moderate interrater reliability and high "interproblem" correlations suggest that experts did not reliably distinguish between the five identified problem areas as expected. CONCLUSIONS: The process by which expert teachers "diagnose" student difficulties did not reduce well to numeric assessments using linear independent scales in the simulated context. This finding raises challenges for our ability to identify such difficulties using the data collected by simulators.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/educação , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Interface Usuário-Computador
20.
Surg Innov ; 16(3): 266-9, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19717393

RESUMO

Quality of Care rounds, also known as Mortality and Morbidity conferences, are an important and time-honored forum for quality audit in clinical surgery services. The authors created a modification to their hospital's Quality of Care rounds by incorporating a clinical librarian, who assisted residents in conducting literature reviews related to clinical topics discussed during the rounds. The objective of this article is to describe the authors' experience with this intervention. The clinical librarian program has greatly improved the Quality of Care rounds by aiding in literature searches and quality of up-to-date, evidence-based presentations.


Assuntos
Bibliotecários , Auditoria Médica/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Adulto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Internato e Residência
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