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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 605, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation in COVID-19 often leads to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) in combination with sequential extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBP) might support renal function, attenuate systemic inflammation, and prevent or mitigate multiple organ dysfunctions in COVID-19. AIM: Describe overtime variations of clinical and biochemical features of critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with EBP with a hemodiafilter characterized by enhanced cytokine adsorption properties. METHODS: An observational prospective study assessing the outcome of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU (February to April 2020) treated with EBP according to local practice. Main endpoints included overtime variation of IL-6 and multiorgan function-scores, mortality, and occurrence of technical complications or adverse events. RESULTS: The study evaluated 37 patients. Median baseline IL-6 was 1230 pg/ml (IQR 895) and decreased overtime (p < 0.001 Kruskal-Wallis test) during the first 72 h of the treatment, with the most significant decrease in the first 24 h (p = 0.001). The reduction in serum IL-6 concentrations correlated with the improvement in organ function, as measured in the decrease of SOFA score (rho = 0.48, p = 0.0003). Median baseline SOFA was 13 (IQR 6) and decreased significantly overtime (p < 0.001 at Kruskal-Wallis test) during the first 72 h of the treatment, with the most significant decrease in the first 48 h (median 8 IQR 5, p = 0.001). Compared to the expected mortality rates, as calculated by APACHE IV, the mean observed rates were 8.3% lower after treatment. The best improvement in mortality rate was observed in patients receiving EBP early on during the ICU stay. Premature clotting (running < 24 h) occurred in patients (18.9% of total) which featured higher effluent dose (median 33.6 ml/kg/h, IQR 9) and higher filtration fraction (median 31%, IQR 7.4). No electrolyte disorders, catheter displacement, circuit disconnection, unexpected bleeding, air, or thromboembolisms due to venous cannulation of EBP were recorded during the treatment. In one case, infection of vascular access occurred during RRT, requiring replacement. CONCLUSIONS: EBP with heparin-coated hemodiafilter featuring cytokine adsorption properties administered to patients with COVID-19 showed to be feasible and with no adverse events. During the treatment, patients experienced serum IL-6 level reduction, attenuation of systemic inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction improvement, and reduction in expected ICU mortality rate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/sangue , Hemodiafiltração/instrumentação , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1345-1355, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667669

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures: Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high.

3.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324537

RESUMO

We described features of hospitalized Covid-19 patients and identified predictors of clinical deterioration. We included patients consecutively admitted at Humanitas Research Hospital (Rozzano, Milan, Italy); retrospectively extracted demographic; clinical; laboratory and imaging findings at admission; used survival methods to identify factors associated with clinical deterioration (defined as intensive care unit (ICU) transfer or death), and developed a prognostic index. Overall; we analyzed 239 patients (29.3% females) with a mean age of 63.9 (standard deviation [SD]; 14.0) years. Clinical deterioration occurred in 70 patients (29.3%), including 41 (17.2%) ICU transfers and 36 (15.1%) deaths. The most common symptoms and signs at admission were cough (77.8%) and elevated respiratory rate (34.1%), while 66.5% of patients had at least one coexisting medical condition. Imaging frequently revealed ground-glass opacity (68.9%) and consolidation (23.8%). Age; increased respiratory rate; abnormal blood gas parameters and imaging findings; coexisting coronary heart disease; leukocytosis; lymphocytopenia; and several laboratory parameters (elevated procalcitonin; interleukin-6; serum ferritin; C-reactive protein; aspartate aminotransferase; lactate dehydrogenase; creatinine; fibrinogen; troponin-I; and D-dimer) were significant predictors of clinical deterioration. We suggested a prognostic index to assist risk-stratification (C-statistic; 0.845; 95% CI; 0.802‒0.887). These results could aid early identification and management of patients at risk, who should therefore receive additional monitoring and aggressive supportive care.

4.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443899

RESUMO

We described features of hospitalized Covid-19 patients and identified predictors of clinical deterioration. We included patients consecutively admitted at Humanitas Research Hospital (Rozzano, Milan, Italy); retrospectively extracted demographic; clinical; laboratory and imaging findings at admission; used survival methods to identify factors associated with clinical deterioration (defined as intensive care unit (ICU) transfer or death), and developed a prognostic index. Overall; we analyzed 239 patients (29.3% females) with a mean age of 63.9 (standard deviation [SD]; 14.0) years. Clinical deterioration occurred in 70 patients (29.3%), including 41 (17.2%) ICU transfers and 36 (15.1%) deaths. The most common symptoms and signs at admission were cough (77.8%) and elevated respiratory rate (34.1%), while 66.5% of patients had at least one coexisting medical condition. Imaging frequently revealed ground-glass opacity (68.9%) and consolidation (23.8%). Age; increased respiratory rate; abnormal blood gas parameters and imaging findings; coexisting coronary heart disease; leukocytosis; lymphocytopenia; and several laboratory parameters (elevated procalcitonin; interleukin-6; serum ferritin; C-reactive protein; aspartate aminotransferase; lactate dehydrogenase; creatinine; fibrinogen; troponin-I; and D-dimer) were significant predictors of clinical deterioration. We suggested a prognostic index to assist risk-stratification (C-statistic; 0.845; 95% CI; 0.802‒0.887). These results could aid early identification and management of patients at risk, who should therefore receive additional monitoring and aggressive supportive care.

5.
Updates Surg ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406043

RESUMO

Postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level allows to rule out infectious complications ensuring safe hospital discharge in colorectal cancer surgery. Since its clinical significance in Crohn's disease (CD) has not been studied yet, we investigated whether CRP can guide decision-making on hospital discharge in this population. Only consecutive CD patients undergoing resections with primary anastomosis and without covering stoma (2013-2017) were analysed. Pre- and post-operative CRP values, measured daily until discharge, were correlated with postoperative complications including anastomotic leakage (AL), infectious and non-infectious complications. The diagnostic accuracy of CRP in predicting AL was evaluated according to the area under the curve (AUC), using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. Two-hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for CD were selected. AL was diagnosed in 10 patients (4%). High CRP level was associated with AL on postoperative day (POD) 3-5 (p = 0.002, AUC 0.825) with a positive predictive value of 60%. CRP linear difference of 140 between POD 1 and 3 (AUC 0.800) maximizes sensitivity and specificity with a NPV of 98.6%. CRP trend, measured with the linear difference between POD 1 and 3, is able to rule out anastomotic complications with a high NPV and may allow a safe early hospital discharge after surgery for CD.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-325541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Choque/terapia
7.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Choque/terapia
8.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(5): 854-887, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia , Sobreviventes
9.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(5): 854-887, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia , Sobreviventes
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045699

RESUMO

Untargeted lipidomics is a powerful tool to discover new biomarkers and to understand the physiology and pathology of lipids. The use of stable isotopes as tracers to investigate the kinetics of lipids is another tool able to supply dynamic information on lipid synthesis and catabolism. Coupling the two methodology is then very appealing in the study of lipid metabolism. The main issue to face is to perform thousands of calculations in order to obtain kinetic parameters starting from the MS raw data. An automated computerized routine able to do accomplish such task is presented in this paper. We analyzed the lipid kinetics of palmitic acid (PA) in hepatoma liver cells cultured in vitro in which insulin resistance has been induced by high glucose supplementation. The deuterated palmitate tracer (d5PA) was administered as a bolus and the cells were harvested daily for 48 h. 5dPA was incorporated into 326 monoisotopic compounds and in 84 of their [M + 1] isotopologues detected by high resolution orbitrap MS. The differences between the kinetics curves showed that at least four long chain triglycerides (TG) species incorporated more PA in glucose treated cells, while phosphocholines, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-glycerides and ceramides (Cer) incorporated less tracer under glucose treatment. Nevertheless, Cer amount was increased by glucose treatment. In conclusion we developed an automated powerful algorithm able to model simultaneously hundreds of kinetic curves obtained in a cell culture spiked with a stable isotope tracer, and to analyze the difference between the two different cell models.

11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(1): 119-127, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative hemorrhage in cardiac surgery is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Standard laboratory tests fail as predictors for bleeding in the surgical setting. The use of viscoelastic (VE) hemostatic assays thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) could be an advantage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of this meta-analysis was to analyze the effects (benefits and harms) of VE-guided transfusion practice in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. SETTING: For this study, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Collaboration database were searched, and only randomized controlled trials were included. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in accordance with the standards set forth by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, using a random-effects model. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised adult cardiac surgery patients. INTERVENTIONS: VE-hemostatic assays transfusion algorithm compared with transfusion algorithms based on clinicians' discretion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seven comparative randomized controlled trials were considered, including a total of 1,035 patients (522 patients in whom a TEG- or ROTEM-based transfusion algorithm was used). In patients treated according to VE-guided algorithms, red blood cell (odds ratio 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.99; p: 0.04; I2: 66%) and fresh frozen plasma transfusions (risk difference 0.22; 95% CI: 0.11-0.33; p < 0.0001; I2: 79%) use was reduced; platelets transfusion was not reduced (odds ratio 0.61; 95% CI: 0.32-1.15; p: 0.12; I2 74%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the use of VE assays in cardiac surgical patients is effective in reducing allogenic blood products exposure, postoperative bleeding at 12 and 24 hours after surgery, and the need for redo surgery unrelated to surgical bleeding.

13.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 25(3): 259-265, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946038

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an integrated clinical approach to the critically ill patients in shock. RECENT FINDINGS: The complexity behind shock mechanism has improved in the last decades; as consequence, conventional generalized practices have been questioned, in favour of different approaches, titrated to patient's individual response. Bedside clinical examination has been demonstrated to be a reliable instrument to recognize the mismatch between cardiac function and peripheral oxygen demand. Mottling skin and capillary refill time have been recently proposed using a semi-quantitative approach as reliable tool to guide shock therapy; lactate, ΔCO2 and ScVO2 are also useful to track the effect of the therapies overtime. Critical care echocardiography is useful to assess the source of the shock, to choice the correct the therapy and to customize the therapy. Finally, a more sophisticated and invasive calibrated monitoring should be promptly adopted in case of refractory or mixed shock state to titrate the therapy on predefined goals, avoiding the inappropriate use of fluids and vasoactive drugs. SUMMARY: Bedside haemodynamic assessment in critically ill patients should be considered an integrated approach supporting the decision-making process and should be based on clinical examination and critical care echocardiography.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Ecocardiografia , Hemodinâmica , Choque , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Choque/congênito , Choque/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Pain Pract ; 19(6): 586-593, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management after surgery is crucial to decrease perioperative morbidity and mortality. Acute pain services (APS) are multidisciplinary teams that represent a modern strategy to address pain inside hospitals. The APS defines and applies pain treatment protocols specific for each surgery. To evaluate the performance of the APS at our institute, we performed a large retrospective cohort study focusing on complications of epidural analgesia and IV opiates. METHODS: Data from the 10 years of activity of the APS were collected. Pain was assessed using the VAS at rest (VASr) and during movement (VASm) at each daily visit; the presence of side effects and complications was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 17,913 adult patients were followed by APS during the study period. Epidural analgesia was used in 7,776 cases (43%), while 9,239 (52%) patients used IV patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). A combination of the 2 was used in 87 patients (0.5%). A total of 456 perineural catheters (2.6%) were placed, while 442 patients(2.5%) used other analgesic techniques. We recorded 163 dural punctures during catheter placement, with no epidural hematoma, epidural abscess, or meningitis, and no permanent modification in sensitive or motor functions. CONCLUSIONS: In our large case series, APS was confirmed safe and effective in treating postoperative pain, using both epidural analgesia and IV PCA with morphine.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Clínicas de Dor , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(6): 1639-1645, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the beneficial effects of noninvasive ventilation in treating postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) open repair surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients who underwent elective TAAA open repair. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to the "noninvasive ventilation" group, receiving 2-hour cycles of noninvasive ventilation every 8 hours for at least 3 days in addition to the best available postoperative treatment currently in use at the authors' institution versus the "standard" group, not receiving noninvasive ventilation treatment MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome of clinical worsening, described as a composite outcome of need for therapeutic noninvasive ventilation, need for mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory causes, need for intensive care unit admission owing to respiratory causes, and in-hospital mortality, occurred in 2 (11%) patients in the noninvasive ventilation group versus 12 (57%) in the standard group (p = 0.002; relative risk 0.18; 95% confidence interval 0.047-0.72). CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ventilation is a promising, affordable, and easy-to-use tool to prevent postoperative respiratory complications after TAAA open surgical repair.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
16.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(4): 2125-2134, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850116

RESUMO

Background: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) had a pivotal role in the therapy of cardiogenic shock (CS), but recent studies have questioned its effects on patients' outcome. Aim of this study is the description of a "real world" series of patients in which IABP was used as a primary mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Methods: All patients who received IABP in our institution during 1 year were prospectively enrolled in our study. The outcomes were: ICU mortality, length of ICU stay, factors associated with mortality and complications of IABP. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the effect of several risk factors on mortality. Results: A total of 119 patients were enrolled, 54 patients underwent IABP placement for CS unrelated to cardiac surgery (medical CS) and 65 after open-heart surgery. There was no significant difference for mortality between medical CS [12/54 (22.2%)] and cardiac surgery [7/65 (10.8%)] (P=0.09). The morbidity rate related to IABP was 11.3%. Multivariable analysis identified AKI (OR =9.3; 95% CI, 2.0-40.0; P=0.004), inotropic score at the time of IABP implantation (OR =1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; P=0.009) and history of myocardial revascularization (OR =4.7; 95% CI, 1.1-20.2; P=0.036) as independent predictors for early death (P<0.05). A ROC curve analysis for inotropic score at time of implantation and mortality was performed in the overall population [AUC=0.78 (95% CI, 0.66-0.90)]. A cutoff of 20 has a specificity =72% and sensitivity=74% in this population. Conclusions: Mortality is similar in medical and postcardiotomy CS. The benefits of IABP are limited if the amount of inotropes and the severity of shock are too high.

17.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 43(12): 3241-3249, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to systematically review the evidence about synchronous colorectal cancer diagnosed with or without computed tomography colonography (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two systematic searches were performed (PubMed and EMBASE) for studies reporting the prevalence of synchronous colorectal cancer (CRC): one considering patients who underwent CTC and the another one considering patients who did not undergo CTC. A three-level analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of patients with synchronous CRC in both groups of studies. Heterogeneity was explored for multiple variables. Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. A quality assessment (STROBE) was done for the studies. RESULTS: For CTC studies, among 2645 articles initially found, 21 including 1673 patients, published from 1997 to 2018, met the inclusion criteria. For non-CTC studies, among 6192 articles initially found, 27 including 111,873 patients published from 1974 to 2015 met the inclusion criteria. The pooled synchronous CRC prevalence was 5.7% (95% CI 4.7%-7.1%) for CTC studies, and 3.9% (95% CI 3.3%-4.4%) for non-CTC studies, with a significant difference (p = 0.004). A low heterogeneity was found for the CTC group (I2 = 10.3%), whereas a high heterogeneity was found in the non-CTC group of studies (I2 = 93.5%), and no significant explanatory variables were found. Of the 22 STROBE items, a mean of 18 (82%) was fulfilled by CTC studies, and a mean of 16 (73%) by non-CTC studies. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of synchronous CRC was about 4-6%. The introduction of CTC is associated with a significant increase of the prevalence of synchronous CRCs.


Assuntos
Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Humanos , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Nutrition ; 37: 48-52, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary misplacement during the blind insertion of enteral feeding tubes is frequent, particularly in ventilated and neurologically impaired patients. This is probably the first clinical study using the Kangaroo Feeding Tube with IRIS technology (IRIS) which incorporates a camera designed to provide anatomic landmark visualization during insertion. The study aim was to evaluate IRIS performance during bedside gastric placement. METHODS: This is the first prospective study to collect data on the use of IRIS. Twenty consecutive unconscious patients requiring enteral nutrition were recruited at a single center. IRIS placement was considered complete when a clear image of the gastric mucosa appeared. Correct placement was confirmed using a contrast-enhanced abdominal X-ray. To evaluate the device performance over time, the camera was activated every other day up to 17 d postplacement. RESULTS: In 7 (35%) patients, the trachea was initially visualized, requiring a second placement attempt with the same tube. The IRIS camera allowed recognition of the gastric mucosa in 18 (90%) patients. The esophagogastric junction was identified in one patient, while in a second patient the quality of visualization was poor. Contrast-enhanced X-ray confirmed the gastric placement of IRIS in all patients. IRIS allowed identification of gastric mucosa in 14 (70%) patients 3 d after placement. Performance progressively declined with time (P = 0.006, chi-square for trend). CONCLUSION: IRIS placement could have spared X-ray confirmation in almost all patients and prevented misplacement into the airway in about one third. Visualization quality needs to be improved, particularly after the first week.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Raios X , Adulto Jovem
19.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 83(7): 720-727, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a useful tool for assessing lung status in critically ill patients, but is not widely applied in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of LUS in Italian ICUs. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 116 ICU representatives belonging to the Italian GiViTI network, participating in a national project on continuous quality of care assessment. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed with the data collected in the course of said project. RESULTS: 87 ICUs took part in the study. LUS was performed in 94.3% of them, generally by an internal intensivist. The mean number of tests per bed per week was 0.97 (SD, 1.0). A standardized reporting format was present in only 11% of ICUs. LUS was generally used to investigate known or suspected diseases and as a screening tool in only 10%. The number of testes per bed per week was inversely correlated to the number of beds per physician (P<0.001) and to the provider performing the LUS (P<0.001), but not to other structural, organizational or performance data. CONCLUSIONS: LUS is performed in the majority of ICUs and is generally used to investigate known or suspected diseases. Frequency of use appears to be low and related to selected organizational factors. There is generally no standardized format for reporting LUS findings.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Formulários como Assunto , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Anesth Analg ; 124(2): 456-464, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099320

RESUMO

Bispectral Index Scale (BIS)-guided closed-loop delivery of anesthetics has been extensively studied. We performed a meta-analysis of all the randomized clinical trials comparing efficacy and performance between BIS-guided closed-loop delivery and manually controlled administration of total IV anesthesia. Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials were searched for pertinent studies. Inclusion criteria were random allocation to treatment and closed-loop delivery systems versus manually controlled administration of total IV anesthesia in any surgical setting. Exclusion criteria were duplicate publications and nonadult studies. Twelve studies were included, randomly allocating 1284 patients. Use of closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems was associated with a significant reduction in the dose of propofol administered for induction of anesthesia (mean difference [MD] = 0.37 [0.17-0.57], P for effect <0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.001, I = 74%) and a significant reduction in recovery time (MD = 1.62 [0.60-2.64], P for effect <0.0001, P for heterogeneity = 0.06, I = 47%). The target depth of anesthesia was preserved more frequently with closed-loop anesthetic delivery than with manual control (MD = -15.17 [-23.11 to -7.24], P for effect <0.00001, P for heterogeneity <0.00001, I = 83%). There were no differences in the time required to induce anesthesia and the total propofol dose. Closed-loop anesthetic delivery performed better than manual-control delivery. Both median absolute performance error and wobble index were significantly lower in closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems group (MD = 5.82 [3.17-8.46], P for effect <0.00001, P for heterogeneity <0.00001, I = 90% and MD = 0.92 [0.13-1.72], P for effect = 0.003, P for heterogeneity = 0.07, I = 45%). When compared with manual control, BIS-guided anesthetic delivery of total IV anesthesia reduces propofol requirements during induction, better maintains a target depth of anesthesia, and reduces recovery time.


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa/instrumentação , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia com Circuito Fechado , Monitores de Consciência , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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