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1.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 711-723, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Keratinocyte cancers are exceedingly common in high-risk populations, but accurate measures of incidence are seldom derived because the burden of manually reviewing pathology reports to extract relevant diagnostic information is excessive. Thus, we sought to develop supervised learning algorithms for classifying basal and squamous cell carcinomas and other diagnoses, as well as disease site, and incorporate these into a Web application capable of processing large numbers of pathology reports. METHODS: Participants in the QSkin study were recruited in 2011 and comprised men and women age 40-69 years at baseline (N = 43,794) who were randomly selected from a population register in Queensland, Australia. Histologic data were manually extracted from free-text pathology reports for participants with histologically confirmed keratinocyte cancers for whom a pathology report was available (n = 25,786 reports). This provided a training data set for the development of algorithms capable of deriving diagnosis and site from free-text pathology reports. We calculated agreement statistics between algorithm-derived classifications and 3 independent validation data sets of manually abstracted pathology reports. RESULTS: The agreement for classifications of basal cell carcinoma (κ = 0.97 and κ = 0.96) and squamous cell carcinoma (κ = 0.93 for both) was almost perfect in 2 validation data sets but was slightly lower for a third (κ = 0.82 and κ = 0.90, respectively). Agreement for total counts of specific diagnoses was also high (κ > 0.8). Similar levels of agreement between algorithm-derived and manually extracted data were observed for classifications of keratoacanthoma and intraepidermal carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Supervised learning methods were used to develop a Web application capable of accurately and rapidly classifying large numbers of pathology reports for keratinocyte cancers and related diagnoses. Such tools may provide the means to accurately measure subtype-specific skin cancer incidence.

2.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682911

RESUMO

The long-term effect of diet on skin aging is largely unknown but evidence suggests antioxidants from foods may mitigate the main component of skin aging caused by sun exposure. We assessed the association between total antioxidant capacity of foods people eat and photoaging of their skin. In a community-based, prospective study among 777 Australian adults aged <55 years at baseline, we estimated the total dietary antioxidant capacity of participants' diets in 1992, 1994 and 1996 and graded photoaging severity using microtopography in 1992, 1996 and 2007. We used ordinal logistic regression and applied generalized estimating equations to estimate change in degree of photoaging associated with increasing total antioxidant capacity compared with the group with the lowest antioxidant capacity, separately in younger (≤45 years) and older (>45) adults. In the15-year study period, overall prevalence of severe skin photoaging increased from 42% at baseline to 88%. Adults aged >45 years who consumed foods with high antioxidant capacity experienced approximately 10% less photoaging over 15 years than those ate foods with low antioxidant capacity. No association was found among adults aged ≤45. Foods rich in antioxidants as measured by antioxidant capacity may retard skin aging among healthy men and women aged >45 years.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101742, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease burden globally and people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have a higher incidence of many types of cancer. We investigated the potential to reduce socioeconomic disparities in cancer incidence in Australia by lowering the prevalence of exposure to four modifiable causes: smoking, alcohol, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity. METHODS: We used cancer incidence data from the Australian Cancer Database and risk factor prevalence data from the Australian National Health Survey to estimate the proportions of cancers attributable to the four factors, by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage. For the three risk factors where prevalence was lowest among the least disadvantaged (smoking, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity), we also estimated the potential impact of reducing prevalence in the most disadvantaged areas to that in the least disadvantaged areas. RESULTS: The proportion of cancer attributable to the four factors in combination ranged from 22 % in the most disadvantaged areas to 14 % in the least disadvantaged areas. If the prevalence of tobacco smoking, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in the more disadvantaged areas were the same as that in the least disadvantaged, an estimated 19,500 cancers (4 % of all cancers diagnosed) could have been prevented in Australia between 2009 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the prevalence of key causal factors in areas of greater social disadvantage would prevent many cases of cancer. Strategies to achieve this in highly disadvantaged areas are needed.

4.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519121

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the prevalence of anxiety or depression (overall; melanoma-related) among people with high-risk primary melanoma, their related use of mental health services and medications, and factors associated with persistent new-onset symptoms across 4 years post-diagnosis. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 675 patients newly diagnosed with tumor-stage 1b-4b melanoma. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and answered questions about fear of cancer recurrence, use of medication, and support, serially over 4 years. We identified anxiety and depression trajectories with group-based trajectories models and factors associated with persistent symptoms with logistic regression. RESULTS: At diagnosis, 93 participants (14%) had melanoma-related anxiety or depression, and 136 (20%) were affected by anxiety and/or depression unrelated to melanoma. After 6 months, no more than 27 (5%) reported melanoma-related anxiety or depression at any time, while the point prevalence of anxiety and depression unrelated to melanoma was unchanged (16-21%) among the disease-free. Of 272 participants reporting clinical symptoms of any cause, 34% were taking medication and/or seeing a psychologist or psychiatrist. Of the participants, 11% (n = 59) had new-onset symptoms that persisted; these participants were more likely aged < 70. CONCLUSIONS: Melanoma-related anxiety or depression quickly resolves in high-risk primary melanoma patients after melanoma excision, while prevalence of anxiety or depression from other sources remains constant among the disease-free. However, one-in-ten develop new anxiety or depression symptoms (one-in-twenty melanoma-related) that persist. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Chronic stress has been linked to melanoma progression. Survivors with anxiety and depression should be treated early to improve patient and, potentially, disease outcomes.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1647-1653, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have divergent effects on melanoma growth, but epidemiologic evidence on their combined effect is lacking. METHODS: In 634 Australian patients with primary melanoma, we assessed prediagnosis consumption of 39 food groups by food frequency questionnaires completed within 2 months of diagnosis. We derived, by reduced rank regression, dietary patterns that explained variability in selected omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of dietary patterns and melanoma thickness >2 mm versus ≤2 mm were estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall omega-3 fatty acid intakes were low. Two major fatty acid dietary patterns were identified: "meat, fish, and fat," positively correlated with intakes of all fatty acids; and "fish, low-meat, and low-fat," positively correlated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake, and inversely with medium-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes. Prevalence of thick melanomas was significantly higher in those in the highest compared with lowest tertile of the "meat, fish, and fat" pattern (PR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.01-1.94), especially those with serious comorbidity (PR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.15-2.92) or a family history (PR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.00-5.35). The "fish, low-meat, and low-fat" pattern was not associated with melanoma thickness. CONCLUSIONS: People with high meat, fish, and fat intakes, who thus consumed relatively high levels of omega-3 and high omega-6 fatty acid intakes, are more likely to be diagnosed with thick than thin melanomas. IMPACT: High omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes may contribute to patients' presentation with thick melanomas.

6.
Health Policy ; 124(6): 665-670, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the consequences of a total ban on indoor tanning for short-term regulatory enforcement, for consumers, and the longer-term health economic effects. METHODS: Instances of illegal solarium prosecutions and tanning bed confiscations in the state of Victoria (population 7 million) were obtained from government surveillance records. Consumer interest for indoor tanning and spray/fake tanning were assessed using Google Trends' Search Volume Index (range 0 to maximum 100). Long-term health economic effects were estimated using a Markov cohort model. RESULTS: The Victorian Government completed 13 prosecutions and confiscated 39 illegal tanning units. Consumer interest for indoor tanning reduced to less than one quarter of pre-regulation seasonal peaks (Search Volume Index 12/48) while spray tanning interest remained high (70-88). For young Australians over their remaining lives, banning commercial indoor tanning is expected to avert 31,009 melanomas (-3.7%), avert 468,249 keratinocyte cancers (-3.6%) and save over AU$64 (US$47) million in healthcare costs and produce over AU$516 (US$375) million in productivity gains. CONCLUSIONS: Three years after the nationwide ban, regulation enforcement activities have decreased, and consumers have adopted substitute tanning methods.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445192

RESUMO

Direct comparisons of the incidence and survival of cutaneous vs mucocutaneous genital squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are lacking even though they may bring important insights. We aimed to compare incidence rates and survival of cutaneous and mucocutaneous genital SCCs head-to-head, using the same source population, cancer registry methodology and statistical methods in a population of predominantly white Caucasian descent. Using data (2007-2015) from the population-based cancer registry of North Rhine-Westphalia, (population of 18 million people), we estimated age-specific and age-standardized (old European standard) incidence rates and age-standardized relative 5-year survival of SCC with the period approach for the period 2012 to 2015. Overall, 83 650 SCC cases were registered. The age-standardized incidence rates (per 100 000 person-years) of cutaneous SCCs were 36.5 (SE 0.17) and 17.0 (SE 0.11) among men and women, respectively, with corresponding rates for mucocutaneous genital skin, 1.3 (SE 0.03) and 4.5 (SE 0.06) for men and women, respectively. In all age groups, incidence rates of mucocutaneous genital SCCs were higher in women than men. Men had higher cutaneous SCC incidence at all nongenital subsites than women, with the exception of the lower extremities. Five-year relative survival was considerably lower for mucocutaneous genital SCCs (men: 71%, women: 75%), especially of the scrotal skin (67%) and labia majora (62%) than for SCC of nongenital skin (men: 93%, women: 97%). Given their relatively high incidence together with a lower survival probability, future studies are warranted to establish therapies for advanced mucocutaneous genital SCC, such as immune checkpoint inhibition.

8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432649

RESUMO

Importance: Biologic therapies are widely prescribed immunomodulatory agents. There are concerns that compared with treatment with conventional systemic therapy, long-term biologic treatment for common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, namely inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriasis, may be associated with increased risk of melanoma. Objective: To examine whether biologic treatment of IBD, RA, or psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of melanoma compared with conventional systemic therapy. Data Sources: Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for articles published from January 1, 1995, to February 7, 2019, for eligible studies. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, and nested case-control studies quantifying the risk of melanoma in biologic-treated patients with IBD, RA, and psoriasis compared with patients treated with conventional systemic therapy were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted key study characteristics and outcomes. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled, and random- and fixed-effects model meta-analyses were conducted. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guidelines were followed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The pooled relative risk (pRR) of melanoma in biologic-treated patients with IBD, RA, and psoriasis compared with biologic-naive patients treated with conventional systemic therapy. Results: Seven cohort studies comprising 34 029 biologic-treated patients and 135 370 biologic-naive patients treated with conventional systemic therapy were eligible for inclusion. Biologic treatment was positively associated with melanoma in patients with IBD (pRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.60-2.40), RA (pRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.83-1.74), or psoriasis (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.61-4.09) compared with those who received conventional systemic therapy, but the differences were not statistically significant. Adjustment for other risk factors was absent from most studies. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that clinically important increases in melanoma risk in patients treated with biologic therapy for common inflammatory diseases cannot be ruled out based on current evidence. However, further studies with large patient numbers that adjust for key risk factors are needed to resolve the issue of long-term safety of biologic therapy.

9.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature surrounding survival of patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) yields variable and opposing findings, constrained by statistical challenges. OBJECTIVES: To critically examine the available literature regarding survival of patients with MPM compared with single primary melanomas (SPM) and detail statistical methods employed. METHODS: Electronic searches of Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus, with cross-checking of references, for the period January 1956 - June 2019 were carried out. All studies published in English examining survival in patients with multiple melanoma were included. Case studies and small case series were excluded. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were eligible for inclusion. Conclusions on survival varied markedly depending on the statistical method used. Four studies that accounted for survival bias by partitioning the survival time were included in the quantitative review, with three of these reporting a survival disadvantage for MPM, while the fourth showed no difference in survival. Pooled HR was 1.39 (1.07-1.81) but with significant heterogeneity (I2= 96.8% Phet < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: Studies showed significant heterogeneity in methodology. CONCLUSIONS: When data was analysed with robust statistical methods, patients with MPM had a survival disadvantage compared with patients with SPM.

10.
ANZ J Surg ; 90(4): 503-507, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal management of regional lymph nodes for thin cutaneous melanoma is uncertain. We evaluated regional lymph node involvement and 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) in patients with thin (≤1 mm) primary melanoma. METHODS: Patients with a melanoma, American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging 8th Edition pT1a (<0.8 mm) or pT1b (ulceration; and/or 0.8-1.0 mm), diagnosed during 2001-2015 were identified from the Queensland Oncology Repository. We extracted demographic, pathology and clinical details, including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), regional nodal dissection and nodal recurrence. Poisson regression was used to assess recurrence risk in patients who did not undergo SLNB. The 5-year MSS was calculated using the Kaplan-Maier method with Cox regression to compare survival outcomes according to SLNB performance. RESULTS: Of the 27 824 eligible patients, 240 (0.9%) underwent SLNB. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (0.6%) without SLNB had nodal recurrence. Of the 4848 patients with a pT1b lesion, 166 (3.4%) had SLNB with 12 (7.2%) positive; of the remainder, 99 (2.1%) had clinical recurrence. Risk of recurrence was higher in males, nodular subtype and T1b lesions and lower if patients were aged >60 years. The 5-year MSS was similar for observed and SLNB cohorts (99.66% versus 98.92%) but worse for T1b lesions (98.90%) and clinical nodal recurrence (66.89%). CONCLUSION: Overall prognosis for T1 melanoma is excellent with nodal involvement being rare. However, the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition T1b melanoma correlates with significantly worse 5-year MSS and increased regional nodal recurrence (notably for 0.8-1.0 mm lesions with ulceration). Further characterization of high-risk groups for nodal positivity that impacts patient outcome is needed for the pT1 melanoma cohort.

11.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(2): 111-115, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A Melanoma Screening Summit was held in Brisbane, Australia, to review evidence regarding current approaches for early detection of melanomas and explore new opportunities. RESULTS: Formal population-based melanoma screening is not carried out in Australia, but there is evidence of considerable opportunistic screening as well as early detection. Biopsy rates are rising and most melanomas are now diagnosed when in situ. Based on evidence review and expert opinion, the Summit attendees concluded that there is currently insufficient information in terms of comparative benefits, harms and costs to support change from opportunistic to systematic screening. Assessment of gains in precision and cost-effectiveness of integrating total body imaging, artificial intelligence algorithms and genetic risk information is required, as well as better understanding of clinical and molecular features of thin fatal melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to understand how to further optimise early detection of melanoma in Australia. Integrating risk-based population stratification and more precise diagnostic tests is likely to improve the balance of benefits and harms of opportunistic screening, pending assessment of cost-effectiveness. Implications for public health: The Summit Group identified that the personal and financial costs to the community of detecting and treating melanoma are rising, and this may be mitigated by developing and implementing a more systematic process for diagnosing melanoma.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Austrália , Consenso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
12.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1391-1396, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067220

RESUMO

There is little long-term follow-up information about how the number of melanoma deaths and case fatality vary over time according to the measured thickness of melanoma at diagnosis. This population-based longitudinal cohort study examines patterns and trends in case fatality among 44,531 people in Queensland (Australia) diagnosed with a single invasive melanoma (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third revision [ICD-O-3], C44, Morphology 872-879) between 1987 and 2011, including 11,883 diagnosed between 1987 and 1996, with up to 20 years follow-up (to December 2016). The 20-year case fatality increased by thickness, with the percentage of melanoma deaths within 20 years of diagnosis being up to 4.8% for melanomas with measured thickness <0.80 mm, 10.6% for tumors 0.8 to <1.0 mm and generally more than 30% for melanomas measuring 3 mm and more. For melanomas <1.0 mm, most deaths occurred between 5 and 20 years after diagnosis, whereas for thicker melanomas the reverse was true with most deaths occurring within the first 5 years. Five-year case fatality decreased over successive calendar time periods for melanomas <1.0 mm, but not for melanomas ≥1.0 mm. These findings demonstrate that the time course for fatal melanomas varies markedly according to tumor thickness at diagnosis. Improved understanding of the patient factors and characteristics of melanomas, in addition to tumor thickness, which increase the likelihood of progression, is needed to guide clinical diagnosis, communication with patients and ongoing surveillance pathways of patients with potentially fatal lesions.

13.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 193-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110111

RESUMO

Purpose: Melanoma is the cancer with the most rapidly rising incidence rate in Norway. Although exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major environmental risk factor, other factors may also contribute. Antidepressants have cancer inhibiting and promoting side effects, and their prescription rates have increased in parallel with melanoma incidence. Thus, we aimed to prospectively examine the association between use of antidepressants and melanoma by using nation-wide data from the Cancer Registry of Norway, the National Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Patient and Methods: All cases aged 18-85 with a primary cutaneous invasive melanoma diagnosed during 2007-2015 (n=12,099) were matched to population controls 1:10 (n=118,467) by sex and year of birth using risk-set sampling. We obtained information on prescribed antidepressants and other potentially confounding drug use (2004-2015). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between overall and class-specific use of antidepressants and incident melanoma. Results: Compared with ≤1 prescription, ≥8 prescriptions of antidepressants overall were negatively associated with melanoma (RR 0.81 CI 0.75-0.87). Class-specific analyses showed decreased RRs for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (RR 0.82 CI 0.73-0.93) and mixed antidepressants (RR 0.77 CI 0.69-0.86). The negative association was found for both sexes, age ≥50 years, residential regions with medium and highest ambient UVR exposure, all histological subtypes, trunk, upper and lower limb sites and local disease. Conclusion: Use of antidepressants was associated with decreased risk of melanoma. There are at least two possible explanations for our results; cancer-inhibiting actions induced by the drug and less UVR exposure among the most frequent users of antidepressants.

14.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074257

RESUMO

Importance: UV radiation emissions from indoor tanning devices are carcinogenic. Regulatory actions may be associated with reduced exposure of UV radiation at a population level. Objective: To estimate the long-term health and economic consequences of banning indoor tanning devices or prohibiting their use by minors only in North America and Europe compared with ongoing current levels of use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic analysis modeled data for individuals 12 to 35 years old in North America and Europe, who commonly engage in indoor tanning. A Markov cohort model was used with outcomes projected during the cohort's remaining life-years. Models were populated by extracting data from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses, epidemiologic reports, and cancer registrations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were numbers of melanomas and deaths from melanoma, numbers of keratinocyte carcinomas, life-years, and health care and productivity costs. Extensive sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of results. Results: In an estimated population of 110 932 523 in the United States and Canada and 141 970 492 in Europe, for the next generation of youths and young adults during their remaining lifespans, regulatory actions that ban indoor tanning devices could be expected to gain 423 000 life-years, avert 240 000 melanomas (-8.2%), and avert 7.3 million keratinocyte carcinomas (-7.8%) in North America and gain 460 000 life-years, avert 204 000 melanomas (-4.9%), and avert 2.4 million keratinocyte carcinomas (-4.4%) in Europe compared with ongoing current levels of use. Economic cost savings of US $31.1 billion in North America and €21.1 billion (US $15.9 billion) in Europe could occur. Skin cancers averted and cost savings after prohibiting indoor tanning by minors may be associated with one-third of the corresponding benefits of a total ban. Conclusions and Relevance: Banning indoor tanning may be associated with reduced skin cancer burden and health care costs. Corresponding gains from prohibiting indoor tanning by minors only may be smaller.

16.
Australas J Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the most commonly encountered cancers in fair-skinned populations worldwide. Perineural invasion is associated with worse outcomes for patients with BCC or SCC. Estimates of perineural invasion prevalence range widely, likely reflecting non-representative patient samples. We sought to determine the prevalence of perineural invasion in BCC and SCC in the general population, as well as among cancers arising in solid organ transplant recipients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed histopathology reports of BCC and SCC from patients enrolled in the QSkin Study (a population-based cohort of 43 794 Queensland residents recruited 2010-2011) and the Skin Tumours in Allograft Recipients (STAR) study (a cohort of 509 high-risk kidney or liver transplant recipients at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, recruited 2012-2014.) We estimated the prevalence of perineural invasion (and 95% confidence interval) in BCC and SCC, respectively, and identified clinical factors associated with perineural invasion. RESULTS: In QSkin, we observed 35 instances of perineural invasion in 9850 histopathologically confirmed BCCs (0.36%) and 9 instances of perineural invasion in 3982 confirmed SCC (0.23%) lesions. In the STAR cohort, we identified 4 lesions with perineural invasion in 692 BCCs (0.58%) and 16 reports of perineural invasion in 875 SCC lesions (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the overall prevalence of perineural invasion in keratinocyte cancer is low, although perineural invasion prevalence may be slightly higher among organ transplant recipients when compared to the general population.

17.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(1): 53-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is a rare subgroup of basal cell carcinomas with a diameter of >5 cm. Current evidence about determining factors is conflicting, suggesting patient neglect, on the one hand, and biologically aggressive behaviour, on the other, with outcomes varying from clearance to death. We aimed to clarify the natural history of GBCC and its response to treatment. METHODS: We extracted information from clinical records of all patients with GBCC treated from 1998 to 2017 in a tertiary oncology hospital in northwest England. Associations between patient and tumour characteristics were investigated, and modes of treatment and outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: In the 20-year study period, 43 patients (median age 76 years; 23 (53%) female), 3 of whom had Gorlin syndrome, were treated for GBCCs. Median diameter was 6.3 cm, and median time to presentation was 5 years. Seven (16%) GBCCs arose from recurrent BCC, while the majority (84%) presented de novo. The size of GBCC was significantly correlated with delay in presentation (p = 0.03) but not with age or sex. Of 41 patients receiving definitive treatment, 19 GBCCs were treated by excision with ≤1 cm margin and none recurred during follow-up, compared with 10 recurrences of 23 treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and 1 of 7 recurred after radiotherapy. Two of 43 patients with GBCC (<5%) presented with extensive local invasion, one of whom also had distant metastases, and both died of the disease. CONCLUSION: The majority of GBCCs are not clinically aggressive and respond to conservative surgical treatment with a low risk of recurrence.

18.
Med J Aust ; 212(3): 121-125, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of second primary cancers in people diagnosed with cancer during childhood. DESIGN, SETTING: Retrospective, population-based study; analysis of Australian Childhood Cancer Registry data. PARTICIPANTS: People alive at least two months after being diagnosed before the age of 15 years with a primary cancer, 1983-2013, followed until 31 December 2015 (2-33 years' follow-up). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risks of second primary cancer compared with the general population, expressed as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). RESULTS: Among 18 230 people diagnosed with cancer during childhood, 388 (2%) were later diagnosed with second primary cancers; the estimated 30-year cumulative incidence of second cancers was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.8-5.0%). The risk of a new primary cancer was five times as high as for the general population (SIR, 5.13; 95% CI, 4.65-5.67). Relative risk of a second primary cancer was greatest for people who had childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (SIR, 19.9; 95% CI, 14.4-27.6). Relative risk was particularly high for children who had undergone both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (SIR, 9.80; 95% CI, 8.35-11.5). Relative risk peaked during the 5 years following the first diagnosis (2 to less than 5 years: SIR, 10.3; 95% CI, 8.20-13.0), but was still significant at 20-33 years (SIR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.02-3.30). The most frequent second primary cancers were thyroid carcinomas (65 of 388, 17%) and acute myeloid leukaemias (57, 15%). CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of childhood cancer remain at increased risk of a second primary cancer well into adulthood. As the late effects of cancer treatment probably contribute to this risk, treatments need to be refined and their toxicity reduced, without reducing their benefit for survival.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med J Aust ; 212(3): 113-120, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in childhood cancer incidence in Australia, 1983-2015, and to estimate projected incidence to 2035. DESIGN, SETTING: Population-based study; analysis of Australian Childhood Cancer Registry data for the 20 547 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with cancer in Australia between 1983 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rate changes during 1983-2015 were assessed by joinpoint regression, with rates age-standardised to the 2001 Australian standard population. Incidence projections to 2035 were estimated by age-period-cohort modelling. RESULTS: The overall age-standardised incidence rate of childhood cancer increased by 34% between 1983 and 2015, increasing by 1.2% (95% CI, +0.5% to +1.9%) per annum between 2005 and 2015. During 2011-2015, the mean annual number of children diagnosed with cancer in Australia was 770, an incidence rate of 174 cases (95% CI, 169-180 cases) per million children per year. The incidence of hepatoblastoma (annual percentage change [APC], +2.3%; 95% CI, +0.8% to +3.8%), Burkitt lymphoma (APC, +1.6%; 95% CI, +0.4% to +2.8%), osteosarcoma (APC, +1.1%; 95%, +0.0% to +2.3%), intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumours (APC, +0.9%; 95% CI, +0.4% to +1.5%), and lymphoid leukaemia (APC, +0.5%; 95% CI, +0.2% to +0.8%) increased significantly across the period 1983-2015. The incidence rate of childhood melanoma fell sharply between 1996 and 2015 (APC, -7.7%; 95% CI, -10% to -4.8%). The overall annual cancer incidence rate is conservatively projected to rise to about 186 cases (95% CI, 175-197 cases) per million children by 2035 (1060 cases per year). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rates of several childhood cancer types steadily increased during 1983-2015. Although the reasons for these rises are largely unknown, our findings provide a foundation for health service planning for meeting the needs of children who will be diagnosed with cancer until 2035.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , Hepatoblastoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
20.
JAMA Dermatol ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577329

RESUMO

Importance: No study, to our knowledge, has prospectively investigated a dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Objective: To investigate the dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and SCC risk, the association between duration of use and age at initiation with SCC risk, and the association between age at initiation and age at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included data from women born from 1927 to 1963 from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study, established in 1991 with follow-up through December 31, 2015. Baseline questionnaires were issued to participants from 1991 to 2007, with follow-up questionnaires given every 5 to 7 years. Data analysis was performed from January 2, 2018, to March 2, 2019. Exposures: Participants reported pigmentation factors. Sunburns, sunbathing vacations, and indoor tanning were reported for childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Main Outcomes and Measures: Information on all cancer diagnoses and dates of emigration or death were obtained through linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway, using the unique personal identification number of Norwegian citizens. Results: A total of 159 419 women (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 49.9 [8.3] years) were included in the study. During follow-up (mean [SD], 16.5 [6.4] years), 597 women were diagnosed with SCC. Risk of SCC increased with increasing cumulative number of indoor tanning sessions. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for highest use vs never use was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.38-2.42; P < .001 for trend). A significantly higher risk of SCC was found among women with 10 years or less of use (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08-1.85) and more than 10 years of use (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.76) and among women with age at initiation of 30 years or older (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.67) and younger than 30 years (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) vs never users. No significant association was found between age at initiation and age at diagnosis (estimated regression coefficient, -0.09 [95% CI, -1.11 to 0.94] for age at initiation of ≥30 years and -0.02 [95% CI, -1.27 to 1.22] for <30 years vs never use). Conclusion and Relevance: The findings provide supporting evidence that there is a dose-response association between indoor tanning and SCC risk among women. The association between cumulative exposure to indoor tanning and SCC risk was the same regardless of duration of use and age at initiation. These results support development of policies that regulate indoor tanning.

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