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J Adv Res ; 6(3): 501-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26257948


Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

PLoS One ; 9(9): e107534, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25222021


The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT) on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry. Ballast water samples from a Great Lakes ship were collected from the intake and discharge of both control and NaOH (pH 12) treated tanks and were analyzed in duplicates. One set of duplicates was treated with the membrane-impermeable DNA cross-linking reagent propidium mono-azide (PMA) prior to PCR amplification to differentiate between live and dead microorganisms. Ion Torrent sequencing generated nearly 580,000 reads for 31 bar-coded samples and revealed alterations of the microbial community structure in ballast water that had been treated with NaOH. Rarefaction analysis of the Ion Torrent sequencing data showed that BWT using NaOH significantly decreased microbial community diversity relative to control discharge (p<0.001). UniFrac distance based principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plots and UPGMA tree analysis revealed that NaOH-treated ballast water microbial communities differed from both intake communities and control discharge communities. After NaOH treatment, bacteria from the genus Alishewanella became dominant in the NaOH-treated samples, accounting for <0.5% of the total reads in intake samples but more than 50% of the reads in the treated discharge samples. The only apparent difference in microbial community structure between PMA-processed and non-PMA samples occurred in intake water samples, which exhibited a significantly higher amount of PMA-sensitive cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA than their corresponding non-PMA total DNA samples. The community assembly obtained using Ion Torrent sequencing was comparable to that obtained from a subset of samples that were also subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. This study showed the efficacy of alkali ballast water treatment in reducing ballast water microbial diversity and demonstrated the application of new Ion Torrent sequencing techniques to microbial community studies.

Álcalis/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água , Bactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Hidróxido de Sódio/química