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1.
J Cell Sci ; 132(5)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665891

RESUMO

Bardet-Beidl syndrome (BBS) manifests from genetic mutations encoding for one or more BBS proteins. BBS4 loss impacts olfactory ciliation and odor detection, yet the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that Bbs4-/- mice exhibit shorter and fewer olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) cilia despite retaining odorant receptor localization. Within Bbs4-/- OSN cilia, we observed asynchronous rates of IFT-A/B particle movements, indicating miscoordination in IFT complex trafficking. Within the OSN dendritic knob, the basal bodies are dynamic, with incorporation of ectopically expressed centrin-2 and γ-tubulin occurring after nascent ciliogenesis. Importantly, BBS4 loss results in the reduction of basal body numbers separate from cilia loss. Adenoviral expression of BBS4 restored OSN cilia lengths and was sufficient to re-establish odor detection, but failed to rescue ciliary and basal body numbers. Our results yield a model for the plurality of BBS4 functions in OSNs that includes intraciliary and periciliary roles that can explain the loss of cilia and penetrance of ciliopathy phenotypes in olfactory neurons.

2.
J Neurosci ; 38(34): 7462-7475, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061191

RESUMO

Cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are the primary site of odor binding; hence, their loss results in anosmia, a clinical manifestation of pleiotropic ciliopathies for which there are no curative therapies. We used OSN-specific Ift88 knock-out mice (Ift88osnKO) of both sexes to examine the mechanisms of ciliopathy-induced olfactory dysfunction and the potential for gene replacement to rescue odorant detection, restore olfactory circuitry, and restore odor-guided behaviors. Loss of OSN cilia in Ift88osnKO mice resulted in substantially reduced odor detection and odor-driven synaptic activity in the olfactory bulb (OB). Defects in OSN axon targeting to the OB were also observed in parallel with aberrant odor-guided behavior. Intranasal gene delivery of wild-type IFT88 to Ift88osnKO mice rescued OSN ciliation and peripheral olfactory function. Importantly, this recovery of sensory input in a limited number of mature OSNs was sufficient to restore axonal targeting in the OB of juvenile mice, and with delayed onset in adult mice. In addition, restoration of sensory input re-established course odor-guided behaviors. These findings highlight the spare capacity of the olfactory epithelium and the plasticity of primary synaptic input into the central olfactory system. The restoration of peripheral and central neuronal function supports the potential for treatment of ciliopathy-related anosmia using gene therapy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ciliopathies, for which there are no curative therapies, are genetic disorders that alter cilia morphology and/or function in numerous tissue types, including the olfactory system, leading to sensory dysfunction. We show that in vivo intranasal gene delivery restores peripheral olfactory function in a ciliopathy mouse model, including axonal targeting in the juvenile and adult olfactory bulb. Gene therapy also demonstrated restoration of olfactory perception by rescuing odor-guided behaviors. Understanding the therapeutic window and viability for gene therapy to restore odor detection and perception may facilitate translation of therapies to ciliopathy patients with olfactory dysfunctions.

3.
Curr Med Chem ; 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303074

RESUMO

Background: Ciliopathies are a class of inherited pleiotropic genetic disorders in which alterations in cilia assembly, maintenance, and/or function exhibit penetrance in the multiple organ systems. Olfactory dysfunction is one such clinical manifestation that has been shown in both patients and model organisms. Existing therapies for ciliopathies are limited to the treatment or management of symptoms. The last decade has seen an increase in potential curative therapeutic options including small molecules and biologics. Recent work in multiciliated olfactory sensory neurons has demonstrated the capacity of targeted gene therapy to restore ciliation in terminally differentiated cells and rescue olfactory function. This review will discuss the current understanding of the penetrance of ciliopathies in the olfactory system. Importantly, it will highlight both pharmacological and biological approaches, and their potential therapeutic value in the olfactory system and other ciliated tissues. Methods: We undertook a structured and comprehensive search of peer-reviewed research literature encompassing in vitro, in vivo, model organism, and clinical studies. From these publications, we describe the olfactory system, and discuss the penetrance of ciliopathies and impact of cilia loss on olfactory function. In addition, we outlined the developing therapies for ciliopathies across different organ and cell culture systems, and discussed their potential therapeutic application to the mammalian olfactory system. Results: One-hundred sixety-one manuscripts were included in the review, centering on the understanding of olfactory penetrance of ciliopathies, and discussing the potential therapeutic options for ciliopathies in the context of the mammalian olfactory system. Forty-four manuscripts were used to generate a table listing the known congenital causes of olfactory dysfunction, with the first ten listed are linked to ciliopathies. Twenty-three manuscripts were used to outline the potential of small molecules for the olfactory system. Emphasis was placed on HDAC6 inhibitors and lithium, both of which were shown to stabilize microtubule structures, contributing to ciliogenesis and cilia lengthening. Seventy-five manuscripts were used to describe gene therapy and gene therapeutic strategies. Included were the implementation of adenoviral, adeno-associated virus (AAV), and lentiviral vectors to treat ciliopathies across different organ systems and application toward the olfactory system. Thus far, adenoviral and AAV-meditated ciliary restoration demonstrated successful proof-of-principle preclinical studies. In addition, gene editing, ex vivo gene therapy, and transplantation could serve as alternative therapeutic and long-term approaches. But for all approaches, additional assessment of vector immunogenicity, specificity, and efficacy need further investigation. Currently, ciliopathy treatments are limited to symptomatic management with no curative options. However, the accessibility and amenability of the olfactory system to treatment would facilitate development and advancement of a viable therapy. Conclusions: The findings of this review highlight the contribution of ciliopathies to a growing list of congenial olfactory dysfunctions. Promising results from other organ systems imply the feasibility of biologics, with results from gene therapies proving to be a viable therapeutic option for ciliopathies and olfactory dysfunction.

4.
Mol Ther ; 25(4): 904-916, 2017 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28237838

RESUMO

Olfactory dysfunction is a pervasive but underappreciated health concern that affects personal safety and quality of life. Patients with olfactory dysfunctions have limited therapeutic options, particularly those involving congenital diseases. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is one such disorder, where olfactory loss and other symptoms manifest from defective cilium morphology and/or function in various cell types/tissues. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of BBS mutant mice lack the capacity to build/maintain cilia, rendering the cells incapable of odor detection. Here we examined OSN cilium defects in Bbs1 mutant mice and assessed the utility of gene therapy to restore ciliation and function in young and adult mice. Bbs1 mutant mice possessed short residual OSN cilia in which BBSome protein trafficking and odorant detection were defective. Gene therapy with an adenovirus-delivered wild-type Bbs1 gene restored OSN ciliation, corrected BBSome cilium trafficking defects, and returned acute odor responses. Finally, using clinically approved AAV serotypes, we demonstrate, for the first time, the capacity of AAVs to restore ciliation and odor detection in OSNs of Bbs1 mutants. Together, our data demonstrate that OSN ciliogenesis can be promoted in differentiated cells of young and adult Bbs1 mutants and highlight the potential of gene therapy as a viable restorative treatment for congenital olfactory disorders.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/fisiopatologia , Terapia Genética , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/terapia , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/patologia , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Percepção Olfatória/genética , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico , Transdução Genética
5.
J Exp Biol ; 220(Pt 7): 1350-1359, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183864

RESUMO

Olfactory sensory neurons innervate the olfactory bulb, where responses to different odorants generate a chemotopic map of increased neural activity within different bulbar regions. In this study, insight into the basal pattern of neural organization of the vertebrate olfactory bulb was gained by investigating the lamprey. Retrograde labelling established that lateral and dorsal bulbar territories receive the axons of sensory neurons broadly distributed in the main olfactory epithelium and that the medial region receives sensory neuron input only from neurons projecting from the accessory olfactory organ. The response duration for local field potential recordings was similar in the lateral and dorsal regions, and both were longer than medial responses. All three regions responded to amino acid odorants. The dorsal and medial regions, but not the lateral region, responded to steroids. These findings show evidence for olfactory streams in the sea lamprey olfactory bulb: the lateral region responds to amino acids from sensory input in the main olfactory epithelium, the dorsal region responds to steroids (taurocholic acid and pheromones) and to amino acids from sensory input in the main olfactory epithelium, and the medial bulbar region responds to amino acids and steroids stimulating the accessory olfactory organ. These findings indicate that olfactory subsystems are present at the base of vertebrate evolution and that regionality in the lamprey olfactory bulb has some aspects previously seen in other vertebrate species.


Assuntos
Petromyzon/anatomia & histologia , Petromyzon/fisiologia , Olfato , Animais , Odorantes/análise , Bulbo Olfatório/anatomia & histologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/ultraestrutura , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/citologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/ultraestrutura
6.
Front Neural Circuits ; 10: 18, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27047342

RESUMO

Sensorimotor transformation is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous functions of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the general organization of the locomotor neural circuitry is relatively well understood, less is known about its activation by sensory inputs and its modulation. Utilizing the lamprey model, a detailed understanding of sensorimotor integration in vertebrates is emerging. In this article, we explore how the vertebrate CNS integrates sensory signals to generate motor behavior by examining the pathways and neural mechanisms involved in the transformation of cutaneous and olfactory inputs into motor output in the lamprey. We then review how 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) acts on these systems by modulating both sensory inputs and motor output. A comprehensive review of this fundamental topic should provide a useful framework in the fields of motor control, sensorimotor integration and neuromodulation.


Assuntos
Locomoção/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/citologia , Animais , Lampreias , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/farmacologia
7.
J Neurosci ; 35(40): 13761-72, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446227

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88(fl/fl)) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory neurons and may include alterations in OE maintenance and regeneration.


Assuntos
Cílios/genética , Mucosa Olfatória/lesões , Regeneração/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Embrião de Mamíferos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Melfalan/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteína de Marcador Olfatório/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatória/citologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , gama-Globulinas/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e69525, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23922730

RESUMO

Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs) of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb). While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.


Assuntos
Neurônios/citologia , Bulbo Olfatório/anatomia & histologia , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Condutos Olfatórios/anatomia & histologia , Condutos Olfatórios/citologia , Petromyzon/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Modelos Biológicos
9.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 22(2): 223-30, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22054925

RESUMO

Chemical sensory signals play a crucial role in eliciting motor behaviors. We now review the different motor behaviors induced by chemosensory stimuli in fish as well as their neural substrate. A great deal of research has focused on migratory, reproductive, foraging, and escape behaviors but it is only recently that the molecules mediating these chemotactic responses have become well-characterized. Chemotactic responses are mediated by three sensory systems: olfactory, gustatory, and diffuse chemosensory. The olfactory sensory neuron responses to chemicals are now better understood. In addition, the olfactory projections to the central nervous system were recently shown to display an odotopic organization in the forebrain. Moreover, a specific downward projection underlying motor responses to olfactory inputs was recently described.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Animais , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(4): 1431-7, 2010 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20102182

RESUMO

When fish are exposed to sublethal, environmentally relevant Cu concentrations, olfactory acuity is impaired. The goals of the present study were to investigate the binding dynamics of waterborne Cu in the olfactory epithelium (OE), to examine the influence of calcium (Ca(2+)) on Cu binding, and to link Cu-OE binding to changes in olfactory acuity. Using short-term in vivo waterborne exposures to (64)Cu, we found that Cu accumulates rapidly in the OE, reaching a plateau by 3 h. The binding affinity (log K(Cu-OE)) and binding capacity (B(max)) of (64)Cu in the OE were 6.7 and 10.0 nmol Cu g(-1), respectively. As waterborne Ca(2+) was increased from 50 to 1000 microM L(-1), the B(max) of Cu decreased by approximately 50% while the log K(Cu-OE) remained constant, indicative of noncompetitive inhibition. Using electro-olfactograms (EOG), short-term exposures to 160 and 240 nmol Cu L(-1) were found to reduce olfactory responses to 10(-5) M l-arginine by 72 and 79%, respectively. Short-term exposure to 160 nmol Cu L(-1) also caused a 15-fold reduction in behavioral responses to a food stimulus. Interestingly, increasing waterborne Ca(2+) did not reduce the effects of Cu on EOG or behavioral responses. These results demonstrate that short-term, environmentally realistic concentrations of Cu not only bind to the OE of fathead minnows but also impair their olfactory sensitivity and behavioral responses to olfactory stimuli. Waterborne Ca(2+) reduces Cu-OE binding but does not protect against olfactory impairment.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental
11.
Naturwissenschaften ; 95(3): 269-72, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17994208

RESUMO

Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Óvulo , Recognição (Psicologia) , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Masculino
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