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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3407-3417, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495313

RESUMO

Recent compelling evidence showed that innate immune effector cells could recognize allogeneic grafts and prime an adaptive immune response. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily receptor that is expressed on myeloid cells; the interaction between SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 elicits an inhibitory signal that suppresses macrophage phagocytic function. Additional studies showed that donor-recipient mismatch in SIRPα variants might activate monocytic allorecognition, possibly as the result of non-self SIRPα-CD47 interaction. However, the frequency of SIRPα variation and its role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unexplored. We studied 350 patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent HLA-matched related HSCT and found that SIRPα allelic mismatches were present in 39% of transplantation pairs. SIRPα variant mismatch was associated with a significantly higher rate of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; P = .03), especially de novo chronic GVHD (HR, 2.0; P = .01), after adjusting for other predictors. Those with mismatched SIRPα had a lower relapse rate (HR, 0.6; P = .05) and significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS; HR, 0.6; P = .04). Notably, the effect of SIRPα variant mismatch on relapse protection was most pronounced early after HSCT and in patients who were not in remission at HSCT (cumulative incidence, 73% vs 54%; HR, 0.5; P = .01). These findings show that SIRPα variant mismatch is associated with HSCT outcomes, possibly owing to innate allorecognition. SIRPα variant matching could provide valuable information for donor selection and risk stratification in HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
2.
Haematologica ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435482

RESUMO

HLA-DPB1 mismatches between donor and recipient are commonly seen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an unrelated donor. HLA-DPB1 mismatch, conventionally determined by the similarity of the T-cell epitope (TCE), is associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and a decreased risk of disease relapse. We investigated the clinical impact of HLA-DPB1 molecular mismatch quantified by mismatched eplets (ME) and Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes score (PS) in a cohort of 1,514 patients receiving HSCT from unrelated donors matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5, and -DQB1 loci. HLA-DPB1 alloimmunity in the GVH direction determined by high GVH ME/PS was associated with a reduced risk of relapse (HR 0.83, P= .05 for ME) and increased risk of grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.44, P< .001 for ME), whereas high HVG ME/PS was only associated with an increased risk of grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.26, P= .004 for ME). Notably, in the permissive mismatch subgroup classified by TCE grouping, high HVG ME/PS was associated with an increased risk of relapse (HR 1.36, P= .026 for ME) and grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.43, P= .003 for PS-II). Decision curve analysis showed GVH ME outperformed other models and provided the best clinical net benefit for the modification of aGVHD prophylaxis regimen in patients with high risk of developing clinically significant aGVHD. In conclusion, molecular assessment of HLA-DPB1 mismatch enables separate prediction of HVG or GVH alloresponse quantitatively and allows further refinement of HLA-DPB1 permissiveness as defined by conventional TCE grouping.

3.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2799-2806, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264268

RESUMO

The Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) score, defined as [(creatinine × lactate dehydrogenase [LDH])/platelets], is a marker of endothelial activation that has been validated in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Endothelial activation is one of the mechanisms driving immune-mediated toxicities in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T)-cell therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate the association between EASIX and other laboratory parameters collected before lymphodepletion and the subsequent onset of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) those patients. Toxicity data were collected prospectively on 171 patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). CRS grades 2 to 4 were diagnosed in 81 (47%) patients and ICANS grades 2 to 4 in 84 (49%). EASIX combined with ferritin (EASIX-F) identified 3 risk groups with CRS grades 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (hazards ratio [HR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-11; P < .001), 49% (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.02-5; P = .04), and 23% (reference), respectively. EASIX combined with CRP and ferritin (EASIX-FC) identified 3 risk groups with an ICANS grade 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-6.9; P < .001), 51% (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P = .025), and 29% (reference). Our results indicate that common laboratory parameters before lymphodepletion correlate with CAR-T-related toxicities and can help support clinical decisions, such as preemptive toxicity management, hospitalization length, and proper setting for CAR-T administration.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Ferritinas , Humanos
4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 390.e1-390.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965176

RESUMO

Databases were searched to identify studies published over the past 10 years that addressed the utility of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. Among 280 records, three articles covering 206 patients were eligible. The data were prospectively collected at multiple time points. The compliance rates were 70% to 94%. There was an inverse relationship between fatigue and social function among adults. The quality of life (QoL) improvement and ability to complete PROs were linked to disease status. About 40% of adults reported at least some cognitive difficulties, with a detrimental impact on mental and physical health status. In adults, the most commonly reported cognitive impairment was memory difficulties. Depression was associated with cognitive difficulties. Younger adults were at higher risk of long-term poor mental health, anxiety, and depression. For pediatric and adolescent patients, emotional dysfunction improves over time. QoL status improved over time; yet, severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity caused delayed improvement. Information regarding whether the PROs were integrated into medical records and clinical guidelines is lacking. Utilizing PROs in patients on CAR T cell therapy seems feasible and informative. Studies utilizing larger sample sizes and using validated PRO tools at different time points remain unmet needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Criança , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(8): 689-695, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023569

RESUMO

Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) leads to poor survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A second HCT (HCT2) may achieve durable remission. To determine the outcomes of patients who received an HCT2 for relapsed AML and to evaluate the predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of adult patients who underwent an HCT2 for relapsed AML at our institution during 2000 to 2019. Ninety-one patients were identified with a median age of 44 years (range 18-73) at HCT2. Donor types were HLA-identical sibling (n = 37 [41%]), HLA-matched-unrelated (n = 34 [37%]), haploidentical (n = 19 [21%]), and cord blood (n=1 [1%]). Donors were different at HCT2 in 53% of patients. The majority of patients received reduced intensity conditioning (n = 71 [78%]) and were in remission (n = 56 [61%]) at HCT2. The median remission duration after HCT1 was 8.4 months (range 1-70) and the median time between transplants was 14 months (range 3-73). The median follow-up of surviving patients after HCT2 was 66 months (range 2-171), with 32% alive at time of analysis. The most common cause of death was disease recurrence (n = 45 [73%]). At 2 years, the rates of OS, PFS, progression, and nonrelapse mortality were 36%, 27%, 42%, and 18%, respectively. The development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after first HCT and HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) ≥2 at HCT2 were associated with inferior PFS and OS after HCT2. A second HCT is feasible in selected patients with AML who have relapsed after HCT1. Long-term survival benefit is possible in patients without chronic GVHD after HCT1 and HCT-CI <2 at HCT2.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995420

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 Convalescent plasma (CCP) is safe and effective, particularly if given at an early stage of the disease. Our study aimed to identify an association between survival and specific antibodies found in CCP. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age who were hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection and received CCP at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between 4/30/2020 and 8/20/2020 were included in the study. We quantified the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as antibodies against antigens of other coronavirus strains, in the CCP units and compared antibody levels with patient outcomes. For each antibody, a Bayesian exponential survival time regression model including prognostic variables was fit, and the posterior probability of a beneficial effect (PBE) of higher antibody level on survival time was computed. Results: CCP was administered to 44 cancer patients. The median age was 60 years (range 37-84) and 19 (43%) were female. Twelve patients (27%) died of COVID-19-related complications. Higher levels of two non-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, anti-HCoV-OC43 spike IgG and anti-HCoV-HKU1 spike IgG, had PBE = 1.00, and 4 SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies had PBEs between 0.90 and 0.95. Other factors associated with better survival were shorter time to CCP administration, younger age, and female sex. Conclusions: Common cold coronavirus spike IgG antibodies anti-HCoV-OC43 and anti-HCoV-HKU1 may target a common domain for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. They provide a promising therapeutic target for monoclonal antibody production.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Convalescença , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(6): 2414-2424, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463929

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy has greatly advanced in recent years, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells emerging as an innovative technology that harnesses the immune system to fight malignant diseases. These genetically engineered T-cells have shown encouraging results for B-cell lymphoid malignancies and are now being explored for other cancer types. However, this novel adoptive cell therapy is associated with a new spectrum of immune-mediated adverse events and toxicities. As CAR T cells recognize and engage tumour cells, cytokines are secreted and activate other immune cells, frequently leading to rapid development of cytokine release syndrome, which can result in acute deterioration of the patient's clinical condition. In many patients, cytokine release syndrome is mild and easy to manage, but others experience persistent fevers accompanied by hypotension and hypoxia, which require management with immune-modulatory agents. Another deleterious effect of cytokines released by effector cells is immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. This syndrome, caused by a disruption of the blood-brain barrier as a consequence of the immune process, can result in rapid deterioration in cognitive function. This is often associated with subtle changes in handwriting, often progressing to loss of memory and concentration and reduced ability to name objects or follow commands. In some cases, the neurological state is further compromised by seizures and in rare instances with fulminant life-threatening cerebral oedema. In this review, we discuss these toxicities, as well as other CAR T-cell-related immune phenomenon, and address their clinical manifestations, grading, and management options.

8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984022

RESUMO

Use of adoptive T-cell therapy modified with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) has revolutionized treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). CAR-T cells directed against CD19 antigen have produced response rates as high as 90% in clinical trials for r/r B-ALL. Despite high rates of complete remissions, the durability of responses has been sub-optimal with frequent relapses, especially in adult B-ALL population. Systemic toxicities from CAR-T therapy and standardization of toxicities grading and management is another major hurdle in the development of CAR-T field. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence of CAR-T therapy in B-ALL, potential mechanisms of relapse and barriers to CAR-T cell therapy in B-ALL. We also debate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) post CAR-T therapy.

9.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(5): 782-791, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632931

RESUMO

We reviewed pre-diagnosis clinical data of 420 patients with pathologically confirmed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) presenting with anemia. In 232 patients with yearly pre-diagnosis complete blood counts (CBCs), we also analyzed CBC kinetics in respects to a standardized timepoint in which all patients had similar levels of hemoglobin (Hgb). At the standardized timepoint (last documented 12 > Hgb ≥ 11 g/dL), occurring months-years before diagnosis, median CBC values were Hgb 11.4 g/dL, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 2.7 × 103 (k)/mcl, and platelets (PLTs) 181 k/mcl. Gradual changes in CBC could be observed years prior to this timepoint, for the most part while within normal/near-normal limits. During this time, most patients had a coexisting alternative etiology for anemia. Patients with high-risk cytogenetic/blast features had a rapid and steeper decrease in counts in the last year before developing a concerning anemia (decrease in: Hgb 0.75 g/dL vs 0.55 g/dL; PLT 29.5 vs 4.5 k/mcl; ANC 0.86 vs 0.4 k/mcl, P = .03). Low-risk patients had a high rate of longstanding mild anemia (31% vs 16%, P = .05). Rate of development of cytopenia and number of involved hematopoietic lines were prognostic. In 65% of patients, with near normal CBC at the standardized timepoint, but in whom there was a decrease in multiple hematopoietic lines over the preceding year, the 5-year overall survival (5yOS) was 53% compared to 71% in patients with isolated slowly progressing anemia (20% of patients). In 15% of patients with mild cytopenia developing after both a rapid decrease and multiple involved lines, prognosis was dismal (5yOS 34%). In conclusion, kinetics of pre-MDS CBC values correlate with disease risk and survival.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/sangue , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(10): 1759-1769, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623078

RESUMO

Immune effector cell (IEC) therapy is emerging as a promising approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Clinical IEC trials, predominantly using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, have shown excellent responses in CD19+ B cell malignancies and multiple myeloma. In solid tumors, preclinical data are encouraging, but clinical data are in their infancy, and there are challenges in using CAR T therapy in this setting, including (1) on-target off-tumor toxicity, (2) optimal target identification, (3) effective trafficking into bulky tumor tissue, and (4) resistance to tumor immune evasion mechanisms. Novel techniques and modifications are being explored in both the preclinical and clinical settings, aiming to improve treatment efficacy and address the aforementioned obstacles to successful CAR T therapy in solid tumors. Here we review these challenges in a clinically oriented approach and summarize published clinical trials using CAR T therapy in a variety of solid tumors.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias , Antígenos CD19 , Humanos , Linfócitos , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Am J Hematol ; 95(6): 604-611, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096887

RESUMO

In recent years, considerable progress has been made in frontline therapy for elderly/physically unfit patients with CLL. The combination of obinutuzumab and chlorambucil (O-Clb) has been shown to prolong progression free survival (PFS, median PFS-31.5 months) and overall survival (OS) compared to chlorambucil alone. More recently, obinutuzumab given in combination with either ibrutinib or venetoclax improved PFS but not OS when compared to O-Clb. In this retrospective multinational, multicenter co-operative study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of frontline treatment with O ± Clb in unfit patients with CLL, in a "real-world" setting. Patients with documented del (17p13.1)/TP53 mutation were excluded. A total of 437 patients (median age, 75.9 years; median CIRS score, 8; median creatinine clearance, 61.1 mL/min) were included. The clinical overall response rate was 80.3% (clinical complete and partial responses in 38.7% and 41.6% of patients, respectively). Median observation time was 14.1 months and estimated median PFS was 27.6 months (95% CI, 24.2-31.0). In a multivariate analysis, high-risk disease [del (11q22.3) and/or IGHV-unmutated], lymph nodes of diameter > 5 cm, obinutuzumab monotherapy and reduced cumulative dose of obinutuzumab, were all independently associated with shorter PFS. The median OS has not yet been reached and estimated 2-year OS is 88%. In conclusion, in a "real-world" setting, frontline treatment with O-Clb achieves PFS comparable to that reported in clinical trials. Inferior outcomes were noted in patients with del (11q22.3) and/or unmutated IGHV and those treated with obinutuzumab-monotherapy. Thus, O-Clb can be still considered as legitimate frontline therapy for unfit CLL patients with low-risk disease.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Clorambucila/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(5): 569-574, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: After the rise of lymphoma incidence in the 1990's, there is a paucity of epidemiologic studies describing the characteristics of primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PGIL). This epidemiologic survey aims to identify recent trends in PGIL. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based study describing adult patients with PGIL in the Israeli Negev region between 1998 and 2013. RESULTS: 131 patients were diagnosed with PGIL, representing an annual incidence rate of 22.42/100,000, compared to 35.87/100,000 in the overall Israeli population. Both incidence rates did not significantly change during the study period. The median age was 66 years, and the most common presentation was in the stomach (49.6%) and oral cavity (18.3%). Histologically, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was predominant (55.0%). Most patients (66.4%) had early stage disease. Only T-cell lymphoma showed a male predominance (14.7% versus 5.4%, P=0.008). Fifty patients (44.2%) had H. pylori testing, and 35 (70.0%) were positive. Of these, 91.4% received eradication treatment, and 57.1% were negative thereafter.Most patients received CHOP or RCHOP protocols (16.0% and 48.1%, respectively). Complete response was achieved in 53.4%. Median follow-up was 48 months, and 62 patients (47.3%) died during the study period. Liver involvement had a worse prognosis, (33.0% 5-year survival) compared to upper and lower GI disease(70.5% and 46.8% respectively, P=0.003 for the comparison between liver and other locations). T-cell lymphoma had worse survival (11 months vs. not reached, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the incidence, and clinical characteristics of PGIL in the Negev region. It is important to identify disease characteristics, thus facilitating better disease detection and prognostication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Leuk Res ; 82: 24-28, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major advances in the treatment of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) have been made following the introduction of purine analogues. The major significant short-term toxicity of cladribine therapy are neutropenia and neutropenic fever (NF) which may be life-threatening. AIM: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence and duration of neutropenia and hospitalization in patients with HCL treated with cladribine followed by peg-filgrastim as primary prophylaxis versus daily filgrastim given "on demand" according to absolute neutrophil count (ANC). METHODS: Medical records of patients with HCL diagnosed and followed in 12 medical centers in Israel during 1985-2015 were examined for details of disease at diagnosis. The efficacy of peg-filgrastim and filgrastim was assessed by evaluating the incidence of neutropenia (ANC < 1.0 × 10 [9]/L), number and length of hospitalizations, and number of days from the last day of therapy to recovery of ANC to >1.0 × 10 [9]/L. RESULTS: The study population included 202 patients with HCL, 159 of whom (80.7%) were treated with cladribine; 78 patients (49%) required hospitalization for the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics due to NF. Twenty-eight (19%) patients were treated with peg-filgrastim as primary prophylaxis, while 74 (64%) received filgrastim "on demand" due to neutropenia. Median length of hospitalization, and nadir duration were 8 and 18 days respectively (p = 0.71, p = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Infectious complications post-cladribine treatment remain high. No difference was found in terms of incidence of NF, number of febrile days, and nadir duration in patients receiving primary peg-filgrastim prophylaxis compared to filgrastim given on demand. Both approaches are justifiable, and the choice remains at the physician's discretion.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/prevenção & controle , Cladribina/efeitos adversos , Filgrastim/uso terapêutico , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/etiologia , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/mortalidade , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/patologia , Cladribina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/mortalidade , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/patologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(10): 2477-2482, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014136

RESUMO

The significance of minimal bone marrow (BM) involvement in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), as determined by flow cytometry (FC), is unclear. Patient outcomes were retrospectively analyzed based on their BM biopsy and FC involvement. Eighty-one patients were included, 21 and 51 were positive for biopsy(B+) and FC(FC+) respectively. B+ FC+ patients had a 52.3%CR rate, the B- FC+ group had 76.7%, and the B- FC- had 73.3%. Mean time to progression (TTP) was 67.45, 76.8, and 79.3 months and median Overall survival(OS) was 54.4, 76.6 and 69.5 months for the B+ FC+, B- FC+, and B- FC- groups respectively. A cutoff of 1% pathologic cells was an independent risk factor for TTP. In a multivariable analysis including International Prognostic Index (IPI), sex and HB, FC+ was independently associated with TTP (but not OS) at 5 years (HR 2.64, 95%CI 1.03-6.77) and at 7 years(HR 2.83, 95%CI 1.08-7.39). In summary, FC determined minimal involvement may suggest an intermediate risk group of DLBCL patients.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Anticancer Res ; 38(11): 6423-6429, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In this retrospective study, we summarized the national Israeli experience with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) in a large cohort of patients with a long follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Demographic data, and relevant laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed, emphasizing the outcome after first-line treatment with cladribine. RESULTS: Data on 203 patients was collected from 12 medical centers during 1985-2015. Mean and median follow-up were 7.5 years and 5.18 years (interquartile range=0.1-40 years), and 5- and 10-year survival were 96% and 90.62%, respectively. The median age of diagnosis was 55.5 years for Jews and 49 years for Arabs (p=0.021), and most patients were males (81.77%); 52.2% were Ashkenazi Jews, 36.1% Sephardic Jews and 11.7% were Arab, Druze or other ethnicity. Cladribine was given to 159 patients (80.7%%) and most (62%) received intravenous (i.v.) and 38% received subcutaneous (s.c.) therapy. Overall survival and time to next treatment were not significantly different between the two schedules (i.v., s.c.). In univariate analysis of a variety of factors, only age >65 years had a negative impact on outcome, with shorter overall survival. It is of interest that Arab patients with HCL were diagnosed at an earlier age, but had a similar clinical course and outcome to both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Cladribina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/etnologia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cladribina/uso terapêutico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Israel/etnologia , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Haematol ; 101(4): 502-507, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the relevance of bone marrow cellularity (BMC) to the interpretation of blast percentage (blast%) in MDS prognostication. METHODS: We compared survival prediction based on blast% adjusted to different levels of cellularity, compared to the survival based on the original IPSS-R blast% grouping. RESULTS: We analyzed 355 consecutive MDS patients. Cellularity, in and of itself or its interaction with blast%, was not associated with overall survival (OS). In a small subset of patients with a hypercellular marrow (15%; n = 26), dismal prognosis was observed at lower levels of blast%. For these cases OS was similar to higher IPSS-R blast groups. For example, within the Intermediate group (blast% 5%-10%), those with a hypercellular marrow and >6% blasts had an OS of 10 m similar to 16 m in the High (blast% 10%-19%) blast group. These changes did not translate into a significant improvement in overall prognostic power of a cellularity-adjusted IPSS-R (C index 0.71 vs. 0.70). CONCLUSION: Adjusting blast% to cellularity did not improve prognostication. However, within IPSS-R-defined blast groups, a small subset of patients with relatively higher blast% and hypercellularity may have a worse prognosis than expected.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Eur J Haematol ; 101(3): 399-406, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate disease characteristics and long-term outcomes in patients requiring second-line treatment following fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR), for relapsed/refractory disease (R/R), or following discontinuation due to toxicities. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of 126 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with frontline FCR: 63 received second-line treatment (41 relapsed, nine refractory [SD/PD], 13 prior toxicity). Time to next treatment (TTNT) was calculated from beginning FCR to initiation of second-line therapy. Overall and event-free survival was calculated from initiation of salvage treatment (OS2/EFS2). RESULTS: Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 67 and 37 months from second-line therapy. TTNT < 24 months was associated with shorter OS2 and EFS2 similar to those observed with primary refractory disease (OS2 19 and 23 months; EFS2 12 and 9 months for TTNT < 24 months and SD/PD, respectively). TTNT ≥ 24 months (71% chemotherapy-based second-line), had longer OS2 and EFS2 (48 and 20 months). Among the 13 patients receiving second-line therapy after discontinuing FCR due to toxicity EFS2 was 41 months (59 months from initiation of FCR). CONCLUSION: With limitations of sample size and treatment heterogeneity, patients progressing <24 months following FCR have poor outcomes, similar to refractory patients, while longer remissions are indicative of a chemoimmunotherapy sensitive disease. Patients who discontinue FCR for toxicities may achieve excellent outcomes with subsequent treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem
18.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(9): 2227-2232, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295649

RESUMO

A non-invasive myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) diagnostic model would allow for care while avoiding invasive bone marrow examinations (BME). BME-established MDS patients were compared to non-MDS (BME-excluded) patients. Variables (gender, age, hemoglobin (Hb), mean red blood cell corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet (PLT), and white blood cell (WBC)) were combined with multivariate logistic regression; a probability score (Y) was calculated. MDS (n = 48) and non-MDS (n = 63) patients were used to establish the model. The ROC was drawn, giving an AUC of 0.748 (95% CI: 0.656-0.84). Two cutoff values were used for Y. Y ≥ 0.633: high likelihood (positive predictive value (PPV) = 85%); Y ≤ 0.288: low likelihood (negative predictive value (NPV) = 81%) of MDS. The first group is defined as probable MDS (pMDS); the second, probably not MDS (pnMDS). The model was validated with 40 additional patients (20 with and 20 without MDS). Using clinical and lab data, we could diagnose or exclude MDS in about half of the patients, avoiding BME. Future work will use larger cohorts of patients to improve and further validate the model.


Assuntos
Exame de Medula Óssea/métodos , Índices de Eritrócitos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/sangue , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Contagem de Plaquetas , Curva ROC
19.
Hematol Oncol ; 36(1): 128-135, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639416

RESUMO

Decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) following frontline therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia may be associated with disease control, even in patients without evidence of minimal residual disease. We studied the prognostic significance of ALCs during the first year following treatment with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). We evaluated 99 patients who achieved a partial response without lymphocytosis (<4.0 × 103 cells/µL) or better after FCR. Absolute lymphocyte counts were recorded at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month posttreatment and correlated with overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). For each time point, analyses were limited to patients without lymphocytosis, so as to avoid possible biases from undocumented disease progressions. Lymphopenia (ALC < 1.0 × 103 cells/µL) at 3 m after FCR (69% of patients n = 68), was associated with a longer OS (5y OS 91% vs 64%, P = .001), as were ALC ≤ 2 × 103 cells/µL at 6 m (5y OS 85% vs 48%, P = .004) and ALC ≤ 1.8 × 103 cells/µL at 9 m (5y OS 93% vs 54%, P = .009). A normal-range ALC (≤4 × 103 cells/µL) at 12 m was also associated with a 91% 5y OS. Higher ALCs (but without lymphocytosis) were associated with shorter EFS (median EFS 27 months for ALC > 1.8 vs not reached for ALC ≤ 0.7 at 9 months, P < .0001). In conclusion, lower ALC levels in the first few months following frontline FCR therapy were associated with longer OS and EFS. Possible explanations may be that lower ALCs reflect deeper clonal suppression or protracted Treg depletion. Absolute lymphocyte count levels may be a cheap and widely available prognostic marker, though the added value for clinical practice is the minimal residual disease era needs to be explored.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócitos/métodos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Vidarabina/farmacologia , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
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