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2.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the associations between cancer causal attributions (divine providence, chance or luck, environmental or genetic factors, weak personal resilience), cancer fatalistic beliefs (cancer occurrence and outcome beliefs), and benefits of and barriers to screening for early detection of colorectal cancer. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study of 252 individuals (46% men and 54% women) aged 50-75. Participants completed measures of cancer causal attributions, Powe's cancer fatalism questionnaire, and the benefits and barriers to colorectal cancer screening subscales of the health belief model. The study model was assessed using path analysis and mediation tests. RESULTS: Participants expressed moderate levels of occurrence and outcome of fatalistic beliefs, moderate levels of causal attributions, a high level of perception of the benefits of screening, and a moderate level of barriers to screening. The path model showed good fit measures (χ2 = 17.38, df = 14, p = .24; χ2/df = 1.24; NFI = .98; TLI = .99; CFI = .99; RMSEA = .03, 90% CI = .01, .07). Outcome fatalism mediated the relationship between each causal attribution and perceived barriers, whereas occurrence fatalism mediated only the relationship between the causal attribution of divine providence and the perceived benefits of screening. CONCLUSIONS: The results add to our understanding of the effects of causal attributions and fatalistic beliefs on perceptions of benefits and barriers to screening; hence, these factors should be the focus of change to reduce barriers to screening for early detection of cancer.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574776

RESUMO

Death anxiety and loneliness are major issues for older people. The present study aimed to broaden the understanding of factors that are linked with increased loneliness in old age by examining the association between death anxiety and loneliness, and the role of an unexplored variable among older adults, namely, parental self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 362 Israeli parents over the age of 65 was recruited through means of social media. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires, which included background characteristics, death anxiety, parental self-efficacy, and loneliness measures. The findings showed that death anxiety was positively associated with loneliness among older adults. The findings also confirmed that parental self-efficacy moderated this association in this population. We concluded that the combination of death anxiety and low parental self-efficacy identified a group of older adults that are at higher risk of developing increased loneliness levels. Mental health professionals should consider intergenerational relationships as a fundamental component of older adults' daily lives, focusing on parental self-efficacy in old age, as this appears to be a resilience resource.

4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
5.
Exp Aging Res ; : 1-14, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested as an indicator of capacity to adapt effectively to physiological or environmental challenges and of physical and psychological health in old age. AIMS: The study assessed levels of high-frequency HRV (HF-HRV) among older adults in relation to positive and negative affect and the mediating role of positive and negative affect in the association between coping resources (perceived social support and sense of mastery) and HF-HRV. METHOD: Participants were 187 men and women in three assisted-living residences who were independent in activities of daily living (93.4% participation rate). The participants completed sense of mastery, multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and positive and negative affect questionnaires. HF-HRV was derived from electrocardiography data measured by a Holter monitoring device for 15 minutes. RESULTS: The empirical model showed good fit indices indicating that higher HF-HRV was associated with lower negative affect, and negative affect mediated the association between perceived social support and HF-HRV. In addition, perceived social support and sense of mastery were associated with higher positive affect and lower negative affect. CONCLUSIONS: Although this was a cross-sectional study, it suggests that HF-HRV may be a link between affect and health in old age. It also suggests the importance of identification and intervention with older adults and their support systems to reduce negative affect.

6.
J Anxiety Disord ; 81: 102401, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932631

RESUMO

The present study examined the intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma in relation to levels of secondary traumatization and event centrality across three generations in a cross-sectional survey. Participants included 92 Holocaust survivor-offspring-grandchild triads (Holocaust G1-G2-G3) and 67 comparison triads (Comparison G1-G2-G3). Holocaust G1 reported higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms relative to Comparison G1. Holocaust G2 and G3 reported significantly higher secondary traumatization relative to Comparison G2 and G3, respectively. Holocaust G3 also reported significantly higher scores in event centrality relative to Comparison G3. In survivor families, the indirect effect of PTSD symptoms in Holocaust G1 predicted Holocaust G2's secondary traumatization, which subsequently predicted Holocaust G3's secondary traumatization. Moreover, PTSD symptoms in Holocaust G1 predicted Holocaust G3's event centrality through secondary traumatization in both Holocaust G2 and G3 and event centrality in Holocaust G2. In the comparison groups, trauma transmission was not observed in three generations. Findings elucidate unique intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma in survivor families, which comprise both personal and societal constituents. Moreover, the findings show that event centrality is a distinctive mechanism in intergenerational transmission in survivor families.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão , Holocausto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobreviventes
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917327

RESUMO

In January 2021, Israel started vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) and individuals older than 65 years with COVID-19 vaccines. Scientific literature points to vaccine hesitancy as being a major health concern. During time of pandemics, increased consciousness of health behaviors may be encountered. The current study aimed to assess attitudes to general vaccines and to COVID-19 vaccines in particular among adult (>18) Israeli general public, and among Israeli dentists and dental hygienists. Cross-sectional surveys were filled out by a total of 501 participants (361 Israeli adults >18 years, 73 dental hygienists, and 67 dentists). Along with basic demographics, participants responded to the Hebrew VAX, COVID-VAX and HCS scales. Group comparisons were analyzed using t tests and ANOVAs with Scheffe's test used for post hoc comparisons. Dental hygienists demonstrated significantly higher anti-vaccinations approaches than both dentists (p < 0.01) and the general public (p < 0.05). In all groups, attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccines were more negative compared to attitudes towards general vaccines, with hygienists demonstrating significant negative attitudes compared to dentists (p < 0.05). The general public (p = 0.56) and hygienists demonstrated increased health awareness compared to dentists (p < 0.05). As health awareness has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic primary strategies to combat vaccine hesitancy should be implemented in the general public, and in particular, an dental teams.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
8.
Psychooncology ; 30(1): 35-43, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tools have been developed to assess the existence and intensity of fatalistic beliefs. Causal attributions of cancer, referring to the foundation for fatalistic views of cancer as being predetermined or reflecting an unavoidable death, are lacking. The aim was to develop and validate the Fatalistic Causal Attributions of Cancer Questionnaire, a measurement tool for studying the causal attributions of cancer. METHODS: Three-phase study. Phase I: Item extraction and development based on focus groups (N = 30) and assessment of content validity. Phase II: Assessment of quality of items and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity) of data from 252 participants (aged 50-75). Phase III: Confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of the discriminant validity and reliability of the questionnaire with 127 online respondents (aged 20-70). RESULTS: In Phase I, an initial questionnaire was constructed. In Phase II, four factors were identified: Belief in divine providence, belief in personal resilience as a protective factor, belief in chance or luck, and belief in inevitable environmental or genetic factors. The factorial structure of an 18-item version that emerged in the confirmatory factor analysis had good fit indexes and reliability measures. In Phase III, the 18-item questionnaire and its factorial structure and reliability were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The findings show acceptable psychometric properties for the questionnaire. We suggest that this questionnaire should be used with an existing questionnaire that assesses the intensity of fatalistic perceptions for a more comprehensive assessment of fatalism in research and in promoting adherence to screening.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Judeus , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Psico-Oncologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
Stress Health ; 37(2): 353-363, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098210

RESUMO

Traumatic events may lead to post-traumatic growth (PTG). Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms leading to PTG, especially among older adults. This study sought to examine the direct relationship between world assumptions and PTG and the indirect relationship between them via two possible mediation pathways: post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and meaning in life. One hundred fifty-nine Holocaust survivors participated in the study (mean age = 82.34, SD = 5.81). Participants completed questionnaires of world assumptions, meaning in life, PTSS and PTG. The findings showed that world assumptions were positive and were positively associated with meaning in life and PTG and negatively associated with PTSS. The results of the multiple mediation model suggest that meaning in life and PTSS partially mediated the relations between world assumptions and PTG. Positive world assumptions were associated with higher meaning in life, which was associated with higher PTG. In contrast, despite the direct association between PTSS and PTG, the mediating effect of PTSS was negative, thus the more positive the world assumptions, the higher the PTG mediated by lower PTSS. The results suggest that the relationship between world assumptions and PTG may be direct and indirect. These findings suggest possible mechanisms underlying PTG, especially in old age.

10.
Death Stud ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960745

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine whether subjective nearness-to-death moderated the association between health worries and death anxiety due to the COVID-19 outbreak among older adults in Israel. Using an online survey, 277 participants were recruited and completed self-reported questionnaires, which included background characteristics, exposure to COVID-19 risk experiences, self-rated health, subjective nearness-to-death, health worries regarding COVID-19, and death anxiety. Findings revealed that subjective nearness-to-death moderated the association between health worries and death anxiety. The importance and significance of subjective perceptions concerning the distance from death as far, which may serve as a resilient resource, is discussed.

11.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 33(1): 59-74, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550924

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Trauma often affects cognitive processes; however, little is known about their role in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression among traumatized people. This study aimed to examine three cognitive processes (intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and looming cognitive style) and the moderated-mediation effect of these processes in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression.Design: The study design was multiple-group cross-sectional.Methods: Participants included 159 Holocaust survivors and 87 matched participants without Holocaust experience. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed levels of rumination, looming cognitive style, posttraumatic stress, and depression.Results: Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of intrusive and deliberate rumination and looming, as well as higher levels of posttraumatic stress and depression than the non-exposed participants. Structural equation modeling revealed a direct association between posttraumatic stress and depression among the non-exposed group. Among the Holocaust survivors, higher levels of posttraumatic stress were related to more depression through the mediators of looming and intrusive rumination, and lower levels of posttraumatic stress were related to lower levels of depression through deliberate rumination.Conclusion: Findings suggest that trauma influences unique cognitive processes that affect the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Holocausto/psicologia , Ruminação Cognitiva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Holocausto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Psych J ; 8(3): 378-385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983131

RESUMO

In line with the new conceptualization of adjustment disorder (AjD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), a new 20-item self-report questionnaire was developed and validated - the Adjustment Disorder-New Module (ADNM). However, such a long research tool has the potential to become problematic for use in epidemiological and clinical settings. Therefore, an ultra-brief measure for AjD (ADNM-4) was established and validated in a recent study conducted with a representative national sample. The aim of the present study was to revalidate the ultra-brief ADNM-4 Scale, as well as to reestablish cutoff scores for clinical use. An online survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 484 Israelis aged 18-65 years, who were recruited via social media. Participants filled out self-report questionnaires dealing with diagnostic criteria of stress-related disorders, that is, AjD (the original and ultra-brief modules), prolonged grief disorder, depression, anxiety, and hypochondriasis. Construct, discriminant, and convergent validity were assessed via confirmatory factor analysis and correlation coefficients, while cutoff scores were established through receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The findings confirmed the ultra-brief module's validity. The high fit indices indicated construct validity, and the correlations with the various stress-related disorders indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. Cutoff scores resembled earlier cutoff scores calculated with a representative national sample, indicating a consistent and accurate diagnostic ability. These findings provide additional evidence for the psychometric characteristics of the ADNM-4, which seems to be a suitable brief screening tool for assessing AjD symptoms according to the ICD-11 definition. Therefore, the ADNM-4 is recommended in cases where prompt screening is required, as well as for research purposes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Programas de Rastreamento , Psicometria , Adulto , Ansiedade , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Israel , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 121-126, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641341

RESUMO

The Subjective Traumatic Outlook (STO) deals with changes in individuals' perception, following a traumatic event and the difficulties of integrating pre-trauma past memories, inner traumatic memories, and current daily life. Although this short scale has excellent psychometric properties its cut-off scores for potential clinical use have yet to be established. In addition, due to the discrepancy between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the meaurement of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the present study aimed at revalidating the STO and establishing cut-off scores for potential clinical use, based on both approaches to measure PTSD and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). Three hundred forty-three adults who were recruited through social media apps filled in self-report online questionnaires dealing with subjective perception of psychological trauma, PTSD and CPTSD. Results revalidate the STO as a screening tool for PTSD and CPTSD. We recommend a STO cut-off score of 13 and above when using the ICD-11 PTSD proposed algorithm along the PCL-5 cutoff score and a STO cut-off score of 15 when using the ICD-11 CPTSD proposed algorithm. In light of the present findings, the integration of DSM and ICD approaches is discussed.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Autorrelato/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
14.
Aging Ment Health ; 23(10): 1340-1349, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621428

RESUMO

Objectives: To study post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth and heart rate variability among elderly Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group and the mediational effect of post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth on the association between Holocaust experience and heart rate variability. Method: 159 Holocaust survivors and 87 matched participants without Holocaust experience answered post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth questionnaires. Heart rate variability time and frequency parameters were measured for a subsample of N = 133. Results: Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth. Most heart rate variability measures were similar in the two groups, except for better heart rate variability measured by the ratio of low frequency/high frequency among Holocaust survivors. Structural equation modeling showed that belonging to the Holocaust survivor group was associated with higher post-traumatic stress symptoms and higher post-traumatic growth, as well as better heart rate variability scores (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals, high frequency and the ratio of low frequency/high frequency) through the mediation of post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions: The study emphasized the duality of the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth and their integrated effect on heart rate variability.


Assuntos
Holocausto/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
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