Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 139
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1510-1518, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence showed that myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) patients are at increased risk of certain cancers, but the risk of benign tumors is unknown. We compared the risk of benign tumors in DM1 patients with matched DM1-free individuals and assessed the association between benign tumors and subsequent cancers. METHODS: We identified 927 DM1 patients and 13,085 DM1-free individuals matched on gender, birth-year, clinic, and clinic-registration year from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care records database. We used Cox regression models for statistical analyses. RESULTS: DM1 patients had elevated risks of thyroid nodules (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 10.4; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 3.91-27.52; P < 0.001), benign tumors of the brain or nervous system (HR = 8.4; 95% CI = 2.48-28.47; P < 0.001), colorectal polyps (HR = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.76-10.41; P = 0.001), and possibly uterine fibroids (HR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.22-5.88; P = 0.01). Pilomatricomas and salivary gland adenomas occurred almost exclusively in DM1 patients (Fisher's exact P < 0.001). The HR for colorectal polyps was elevated in DM1 males but not in females (HR = 8.2 vs. 1.3, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.001), whereas endocrine and brain tumors occurred exclusively in females. The data suggested an association between benign tumors and subsequent cancer in classic DM1 patients (HR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.93-7.59; P = 0.07). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed a similar site-specific benign tumor profile to that previously reported for DM1-associated cancers. The possible association between benign tumors and subsequent cancer in classic DM1 patients warrants further investigation as it may guide identifying patients at elevated risk of cancer. Our findings underscore the importance of following population-based screening recommendations in DM1 patients, for example, for colorectal cancer.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 293-302, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eligibility guidelines for genetic testing may be revisited, given technological advances, plummeting costs, and proposals for population mutation screening. A key property of eligibility criteria is the tradeoff between the number of mutation carriers identified versus population members tested. We assess the fractions of mutation carriers identified, versus women undergoing mutation testing, for BRCA1/2 founder mutation screening in U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women. METHODS: BRCA1/2 carrier probabilities, based on personal/family history, were calculated using the risk-prediction tool BRCAPRO for 4,589 volunteers (102 mutation carriers) in the population-based Washington Ashkenazi Study. For each carrier-probability threshold between 0% and 10%, we compared the percentage of founder mutations detected versus the percentage of women requiring mutation testing. PCR mutation testing was conducted at the NIH for the 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish founder mutations (5382insC and 185delAG in BRCA1, and 6174delT in BRCA2). RESULTS: Identifying 90% of BRCA1/2 founder mutations required testing the 60% of Ashkenazi-Jewish women with carrier probabilities exceeding 0.56%, potentially avoiding mutation testing for approximately 0.7 to 1.1 million U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women. Alternatively, testing the 44% whose carrier probability exceeded 0.78% identified 80% of mutation carriers, increasing to 89% of mutation carriers when accounting for cascade testing triggered after mutation-positive daughters were identified by screening. We present data on all carrier-probability thresholds, e.g., a 5% threshold identified 46% of mutation carriers while testing 10% of women. CONCLUSIONS: Different carrier-probability thresholds offered diverse tradeoffs between numbers of identified mutation carriers versus women tested. Low carrier-probability thresholds identified 90% of BRCA1/2 founder mutation carriers, without testing approximately 1 million U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women with lowest carrier probabilities. IMPACT: In general, this risk-based framework could provide useful new options to consider during eligibility-criteria development for population mutation screening.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(4): 514-522, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676620

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 50% of the risk for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is estimated to be heritable, but no mendelian TGCT predisposition genes have yet been identified. It is hypothesized that inherited pathogenic DNA repair gene (DRG) alterations may drive susceptibility to TGCTs. Objective: To systematically evaluate the enrichment of germline pathogenic variants in the mendelian cancer predisposition DRGs in patients with TGCTs vs healthy controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: A case-control enrichment analysis was performed from January 2016 to May 2018 to screen for 48 DRGs in 205 unselected men with TGCT and 27 173 ancestry-matched cancer-free individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort in the discovery stage. Significant findings were selectively replicated in independent cohorts of 448 unselected men with TGCTs and 442 population-matched controls, as well as 231 high-risk men with TGCTs and 3090 ancestry-matched controls. Statistical analysis took place from January to May 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gene-level enrichment analysis of germline pathogenic variants in individuals with TGCTs relative to cancer-free controls. Results: Among 205 unselected men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 33.04 [9.67] years), 22 pathogenic germline DRG variants, one-third of which were in CHEK2 (OMIM 604373), were identified in 20 men (9.8%; 95% CI, 6.1%-14.7%). Unselected men with TGCTs were approximately 4 times more likely to carry germline loss-of-function CHEK2 variants compared with cancer-free individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% CI, 1.65-8.86; nominal P = .006; q = 0.018). Similar enrichment was also seen in an independent cohort of 448 unselected Croatian men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 31.98 [8.11] years) vs 442 unselected Croatian men without TGCTs (at least 50 years of age at time of sample collection) (OR, >1.4; P = .03) and 231 high-risk men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 31.54 [9.24] years) vs 3090 men (all older than 50 years) from the Penn Medicine Biobank (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 2.34-17.31; P = .001). The low-penetrance CHEK2 variant (p.Ile157Thr) was found to be a Croatian founder TGCT risk variant (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.53-9.95; P = .002). Individuals with the pathogenic CHEK2 loss-of-function variants developed TGCTs 6 years earlier than individuals with CHEK2 wild-type alleles (5.95 years; 95% CI, 1.48-10.42; P = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: This multicenter case-control analysis of men with or without TGCTs provides evidence for CHEK2 as a novel moderate-penetrance TGCT susceptibility gene, with potential clinical utility. In addition to highlighting DNA-repair deficiency as a potential mechanism driving TGCT susceptibility, this analysis also provides new avenues to explore management strategies and biological investigations for high-risk individuals.

6.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 37(2): 178-193, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome with lifetime cancer risks approaching 100% and evolving risk-management strategies. This study evaluated couples' coping with LFS-related burdens. RESEARCH APPROACH: Constructivist grounded theory and anticipatory loss frameworks guided design and analysis. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Twenty-six individuals enrolled in the NCI LFS Family Study completed semi-structured interviews with their partner during annual screening visits. An interdisciplinary team completed open and focused coding to identify patterns of coping and adaptation. FINDINGS: Couples described living with ambiguous danger, a state of chronic apprehension resulting from LFS-associated uncertainties. Most couples communicated openly and alternated shouldering the burden, while others engaged in protective buffering to shield each other from distress and sustain the appearance of normalcy. INTERPRETATION: Optimally, coping reduces shared psychosocial distress, yet some strategies may inadvertently increase disconnection. IMPLICATIONS: Mental health support is critical for both partners coping with LFS, together and separately.

7.
J Fam Nurs ; 25(1): 28-53, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537877

RESUMO

In families with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, complex disease histories challenge established patterns of family communication and influence decision-making for clinical surveillance, genetic testing, and risk management. An interdisciplinary team examined longitudinal interview data from women with identified BRCA1/2 mutations to assess interactions within family and social networks about risk information communication and management. We used interpretive description to identify motivation, content, and derived benefit of these interactions. Participants discussed risk information and management strategies with biological and nonbiological network members for multiple purposes: discharging responsibility for risk information dissemination, protecting important relationships, and navigating decision trajectories. Evolving interactions with loved ones balanced long-standing family communication patterns with differing personal preferences for privacy or open sharing, whereas interactions with nonbiological network members expanded participants' range of choices for sources of risk management information. Ongoing assessment of social networks may help support engagement with risk management by aligning with patient social needs.

8.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 99, 2018 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has established that the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants across all of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Secondary Findings (SF) genes is approximately 0.8-5%. We investigated the prevalence of P/LP variants in the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes in a family-based cancer research cohort (n = 1173) and in cancer-free ethnicity-matched controls (n = 982). METHODS: We used InterVar to classify variants and subsequently conducted a manual review to further examine variants of unknown significance (VUS). RESULTS: In the 24 genes on the ACMG SF v2.0 list associated with a cancer phenotype, we observed 8 P/LP unique variants (8 individuals; 0.8%) in controls and 11 P/LP unique variants (14 individuals; 1.2%) in cases, a non-significant difference. We reviewed 115 VUS. The median estimated per-variant review time required was 30 min; the first variant within a gene took significantly (p = 0.0009) longer to review (median = 60 min) compared with subsequent variants (median = 30 min). The concordance rate was 83.3% for the variants examined by two reviewers. CONCLUSION: The 115 VUS required database and literature review, a time- and labor-intensive process hampered by the difficulty in interpreting conflicting P/LP determinations. By rigorously investigating the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes, our work establishes a benchmark P/LP variant prevalence rate in a familial cancer cohort and controls.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Nat Rev Urol ; 15(11): 665-666, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250305
10.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

11.
Muscle Nerve ; 58(4): 517-522, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have provided evidence that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) are at excess risk of cancer. However, inconsistencies regarding affected anatomic sites persist. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of cancer risk in DM, searching among studies published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2016. Eligible studies were full reports of DM cohorts with site-specific risks. RESULTS: The analysis included 5 studies, comprising 2,779 patients. Risk estimates for cancers of the endometrium and cutaneous melanoma were reported in all studies. The pooled standardized incidence ratio (pSIRs) for endometrial cancer was 7.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.72-11.8) and for cutaneous melanoma was 2.45 (95% CI 1.31-4.58). Among cancers reported in 4 of 5 studies, elevated risks were observed for thyroid (pSIR = 8.52, 95% CI 3.62-20.1), ovarian (pSIR = 5.56, 95% CI 2.99-10.3), testicular (pSIR = 5.95, 95% CI 2.34-15.1), and colorectal (pSIR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.39-3.49) cancers. DISCUSSION: Our data refine the DM cancer phenotype, which may guide patient clinical management and inform plans for molecular investigations to understand DM-related carcinogenesis. Muscle Nerve 58: 517-522, 2018.

12.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; : 1-16, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863445

RESUMO

Deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Risk management guidelines endorse early detection and prevention behaviors. Despite expressed intent, uptake of these measures remains low. This longitudinal, qualitative study integrated retrospective and prospective data to distinguish factors shaping intent to act from those that are catalysts to taking action to reduce cancer risk. Twelve BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women participating in the National Cancer Institute's Breast Imaging Study aged 18-35 completed two semi-structured interviews three years apart. Researchers completed focused coding to identify points of behavioral intent and action and contextual factors acting as catalysts upon participant narratives. All women shared only two action steps: seeking information about cancer risk and completing genetic testing. The constellation of action steps created a unique action trajectory that was defined, with precise ideas about risk perception and clear behavioral response, or iterative, in which unanticipated life events shifted the speed, accessibility, or order in which risk management and family planning goals were prioritized, planned, or executed. Factors shifting action steps included salient, unanticipated life events, such as infertility, insurance/financial constraints, birth of the last child, or a relative's cancer diagnosis. Focus on cancer morbidity may obfuscate how women prioritize actions, and ignore varied pragmatic, relational, and social factors affecting how intended actions are completed, particularly during the reproductive years. We recommend providers update patients' risk management plans at each visit to assess readiness for next steps and reduce reluctance to discuss, or guilt associated with, change.

13.
Hum Reprod ; 33(5): 967-977, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618007

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can subphenotype analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from subjects with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) provide insight into cryptorchidism (undescended testis, UDT) susceptibility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Suggestive intragenic GWAS signals common to UDT, TGCT case-case and TGCT case-control analyses occur in genes encoding RBFOX RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their neurodevelopmental targets. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: UDT is a strong risk factor for TGCT, but while genetic risk factors for TGCT are well-known, genetic susceptibility to UDT is poorly understood and appears to be more complex. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We performed a secondary subphenotype analysis of existing GWAS data from the Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC) and compared these results with our previously published UDT GWAS data, and with data previously acquired from studies of the fetal rat gubernaculum. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Studies from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), United Kingdom (UK) and University of Pennsylvania (Penn) that enrolled white subjects were the source of the TGCT GWAS data. We completed UDT subphenotype case-case (TGCT/UDT vs TGCT/non-UDT) and case-control (TGCT/UDT vs control), collectively referred to as 'TECAC' analyses, followed by a meta-analysis comprising 129 TGCT/UDT cases, 1771 TGCT/non-UDT cases, and 3967 unaffected controls. We reanalyzed our UDT GWAS results comprising 844 cases and 2718 controls by mapping suggestive UDT and TECAC signals (defined as P < 0.001) to genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA®). We compared associated pathways and enriched gene categories common to all analyses after Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction, and analyzed transcript levels and protein expression using qRT-PCR and rat fetal gubernaculum confocal imaging, respectively. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We found suggestive signals within 19 genes common to all three analyses, including RBFOX1 and RBFOX3, neurodevelopmental paralogs that encode RBPs targeting (U)GCATG-containing transcripts. Ten of the 19 genes participate in neurodevelopment and/or contribute to risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Experimentally predicted RBFOX gene targets were strongly overrepresented among suggestive intragenic signals for the UDT (117 of 628 (19%), P = 3.5 × 10-24), TECAC case-case (129 of 711 (18%), P = 2.5 × 10-27) and TECAC case-control (117 of 679 (17%), P = 2 × 10-21) analyses, and a majority of the genes common to all three analyses (12 of 19 (63%), P = 3 × 10-9) are predicted RBFOX targets. Rbfox1, Rbfox2 and their encoded proteins are expressed in the rat fetal gubernaculum. Predicted RBFOX targets are also enriched among transcripts differentially regulated in the fetal gubernaculum during normal development (P = 3 × 10-31), in response to in vitro hormonal stimulation (P = 5 × 10-45) and in the cryptorchid LE/orl rat (P = 2 × 10-42). LARGE SCALE DATA: GWAS data included in this study are available in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP accession numbers phs000986.v1.p1 and phs001349.v1p1). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: These GWAS data did not reach genome-wide significance for any individual analysis. UDT appears to have a complex etiology that also includes environmental factors, and such complexity may require much larger sample sizes than are currently available. The current methodology may also introduce bias that favors false discovery of larger genes. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Common suggestive intragenic GWAS signals suggest that RBFOX paralogs and other neurodevelopmental genes are potential UDT risk candidates, and potential TGCT susceptibility modifiers. Enrichment of predicted RBFOX targets among differentially expressed transcripts in the fetal gubernaculum additionally suggests a role for this RBP family in regulation of testicular descent. As RBFOX proteins regulate alternative splicing of Calca to generate calcitonin gene-related peptide, a protein linked to development and function of the gubernaculum, additional studies that address the role of these proteins in UDT are warranted. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (R01HD060769); National Center for Research Resources (P20RR20173), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (P20GM103464), Nemours Biomedical Research, the Testicular Cancer Consortium (U01CA164947), the Intramural Research Program of the NCI, a support services contract HHSN26120130003C with IMS, Inc., the Abramson Cancer Center at Penn, National Cancer Institute (CA114478), the Institute of Cancer Research, UK and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) 2. None of the authors reports a conflict of interest.

15.
Cancer ; 124(5): 952-959, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is recommended for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers because of their increased risk of ovarian carcinoma. Despite RRSO, metachronous peritoneal carcinomatosis occasionally is diagnosed. METHODS: The literature was searched for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with peritoneal carcinomatosis after risk-reducing surgery. The authors were asked for additional data. Clinical and histopathological data were descriptively analyzed. Cases were compared with a single-institution control cohort. RESULTS: Of 36 cases, 86.1% concerned BRCA1 mutation carriers. The median age of the patients was 52 years (range, 30-71 years) at the time of risk-reducing surgery and 60 years (range, 37-75 years) at the time of diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The median interval between the 2 events was 54.5 months (range, 11-292 months). Peritoneal carcinomatosis was mostly high-grade serous carcinoma. Histopathological details of the RRSO specimens were retrieved in 8 cases; 5 (62.5%) were found to have serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and 1 had epithelial atypia. Cases were older (P = .025) at the time of risk-reducing surgery and harbored more serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (P<.001) compared with women from the control cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Metachronous peritoneal carcinomatosis after risk-reducing surgery occurs predominantly in BRCA1 mutation carriers, usually within 5 years. Data have suggested that surgery at a younger age lowers the rates of peritoneal carcinomatosis. These data can be used in the gynecologic counseling of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. RRSO should include complete salpingectomy. Detailed histopathological examination of specimens removed during RRSO is essential. Cancer 2018;124:952-9. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 142(6): 1174-1181, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114849

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited multisystem neuromuscular disorder caused by a CTG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. Recent evidence documents that DM1 patients have an increased risk of certain cancers, but whether skin cancer risks are elevated is unclear. Using the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we identified 1,061 DM1 patients and 15,119 DM1-free individuals matched on gender, birth year (±2 years), attending practice and registration year (±1 year). We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of DM1 diagnosis with skin cancer risk using Cox proportional hazards models, for all skin cancers combined and by histological subtype. Follow-up started at the latest of the age at practice registration, DM1 diagnosis/control selection or January 1st 1988, and ended at the earliest of the age at first skin cancer diagnosis, death, transfer out of the practice, last date of data collection or the end of the CPRD record (October 31, 2016). During a median follow-up of 3.6 years, 35 DM1 patients and 108 matched DM1-free individuals developed a skin cancer. DM1 patients had an increased risk of skin cancer overall (HR = 5.44, 95% CI = 3.33-8.89, p < 0.0001), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 5.78, 95% CI = 3.36-9.92, p < 0.0001). Risks did not differ by gender, or age at DM1 diagnosis (p-heterogeneity > 0.5). Our data confirm suggested associations between DM1 and skin neoplasms with the highest risk seen for BCC. Patients are advised to minimize ultraviolet light exposure and seek medical advice for suspicious lesions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Distrofia Miotônica/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Miotonina Proteína Quinase/genética , Medição de Risco , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Muscle Nerve ; 57(2): 316-320, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In light of recent evidence indicating that cancer is part of the myotonic dystrophy (DM) phenotype, we assessed the prevalence of benign and malignant tumors among 220 patients enrolled in the UK Myotonic Dystrophy Patient Registry and evaluated factors associated with their development. METHODS: A survey was distributed to collect tumor history and lifestyle information. We used multinomial logistic regression for the analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-nine benign (30 patients), and 16 malignant (15 patients) tumors were reported. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.21, P = 0.001) and earlier age at DM diagnosis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13, P = 0.04) were associated with benign and malignant tumors (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.10-1.30, P < 0.001 and OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.15, P = 0.02, respectively). Female gender was associated with benign tumors only (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 1.79-23.04, P = 0.004). No associations were observed between tumors and smoking (P = 0.24), alcohol consumption (P = 0.50), or body mass index (P = 0.21). DISCUSSION: Our results confirm previous findings suggesting a limited role for common lifestyle factors and a potential genetic contribution in DM tumor predisposition. Muscle Nerve 57: 316-320, 2018.

18.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1141-1147, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604732

RESUMO

The international Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC) combined five published genome-wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT; 3,558 cases and 13,970 controls) to identify new susceptibility loci. We conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis, including, to our knowledge, the first analysis of the X chromosome. Eight new loci mapping to 2q14.2, 3q26.2, 4q35.2, 7q36.3, 10q26.13, 15q21.3, 15q22.31, and Xq28 achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8). Most loci harbor biologically plausible candidate genes. We refined previously reported associations at 9p24.3 and 19p12 by identifying one and three additional independent SNPs, respectively. In aggregate, the 39 independent markers identified to date explain 37% of father-to-son familial risk, 8% of which can be attributed to the 12 new signals reported here. Our findings substantially increase the number of known TGCT susceptibility alleles, move the field closer to a comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of TGCT, and provide further clues to the etiology of TGCT.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adulto , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Saúde da Família , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Hum Genet ; 62(6): 637-640, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275244

RESUMO

Studies have suggested mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) in blood-derived DNA is common in older men. Cohort studies investigating mLOY and mortality have reported contradictory results. Previous work found that a 1.6 Mb deletion of the AZFc region on the Y chromosome (the 'gr/gr' deletion) is associated with both male infertility and increased risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). We investigated whether mosaic loss across the entire Y chromosome was associated with TGCT. We obtained blood- and buccal-derived DNA from two case-control studies: the NCI Familial Testicular Cancer Study (cases=172; controls=163) and the NCI US Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants Study (cases=506; controls=611). We used 15 quantitative polymerase chain reactions spanning the Y chromosome to assess mLOY. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for study batch effects detected no significant overall relationship between mean chromosome Y target-to-reference (T/R) ratio and TGCT (odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval=0.10-1.17, P=0.09). When restricted to familial TGCT cases, a significantly lower T/R ratio was observed in cases compared with controls (0.993 vs 1.014, P-value=0.01). Our study suggests that mLOY, as measured by 15 probes spanning the Y chromosome, could be associated with familial TGCT, but larger studies are required to confirm this observation.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
20.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 35(4): 393-408, 2017 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332940

RESUMO

Young women with BRCA1/2 mutations face difficult health-care decisions regarding family formation, fertility, breastfeeding, and whether/when to undergo cancer risk-reducing surgery. This longitudinal qualitative study investigated these life choices during the reproductive years. We conducted two semistructured interviews over three years with 12 reproductive-age BRCA1/2-positive women. Researchers coded transcripts to examine the evolution of risk perceptions, risk management, and family planning decisions. To cope with the conflict between cancer risk reduction versus plans for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and child rearing, participants deliberately prioritized either risk reducing surgery or family formation goals. Implications for mutation carriers and health-care providers are outlined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisões , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA