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1.
Cancer Genet ; 248-249: 49-56, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported conflicting evidence on the inclusion of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the DICER1 tumor-predisposition phenotype. We evaluated the relationship between DICER1 and TGCT by reviewing scrotal ultrasounds of males with pathogenic germline variants in DICER1 and queried exome data from TGCT-affected men for DICER1 variants. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-four male DICER1-carriers and family controls (n=41) enrolled in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DICER1 Natural History Study were offered scrotal ultrasounds. These studies were examined by a single radiologist for abnormalities. In parallel, DICER1 variants from two large exome-sequenced TGCT cohorts were extracted. We used previously published AMG-AMP criteria to characterize rare DICER1 variants. RESULTS: There was no observed difference in frequency of testicular cystic structures in DICER1-carriers versus controls. DICER1 variation was not associated with TGCT in the NCI DICER1-carriers. In 1,264 exome-sequenced men with TGCT, none harbored ClinVar- or InterVar-determined pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in DICER1. Three DICER1 variants of uncertain significance (one case and two controls) were predicted "damaging" based on a priori criteria. CONCLUSION: Using two complementary approaches, we found no evidence of an association between pathogenic DICER1 variants and TGCT.

2.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz075, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337492

RESUMO

Background: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been associated with approximately 50% breast cancer risk reduction among women with a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2), a finding that has recently been questioned. Methods: We estimated incidence rates of breast cancer and all cancers combined during 5 years of follow-up among participants selecting RRSO or ovarian cancer screening (OCS) among women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant or strong breast and/or ovarian cancer family history. Ovarian or fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer incidence rates were estimated for the OCS group. Breast cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for time-dependent RRSO were estimated using Cox regression with age time-scale (4943 and 4990 women-years in RRSO and OCS cohorts, respectively). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The RRSO cohort included 925 participants, and 1453 participants were in the OCS cohort (381 underwent RRSO during follow-up), with 88 incident breast cancers diagnosed. Among BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers, a non-statistically significant lower breast cancer incidence was observed in the RRSO compared with the OCS cohort (HR = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 1.67; P = .67). No difference was observed in the overall population or among subgroups stratified by prior breast cancer history or menopausal status. Seven fallopian tube and four ovarian cancers were prospectively diagnosed in the OCS cohort, and one primary peritoneal carcinoma occurred in the RRSO cohort. Conclusions: These data suggest that RRSO might be associated with reduced breast cancer incidence among women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant, although the effect, if present, is small. This evolving evidence warrants a thorough discussion regarding the impact of RRSO on breast cancer risk with women considering this intervention.

3.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 259-268, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222840

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is characterized by risk of multiple primary malignancies in diverse sites, pediatric onset, near complete penetrance by age 70 years, limited options for prevention, and substantial uncertainty regarding disease manifestation and prognosis. Forty-five families, including 117 individuals aged 13-81 years, enrolled in the US National Cancer Institute's Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Study completed 66 interviews regarding their LFS experiences. An interdisciplinary team used modified grounded theory to examine family distress regarding expectations of loss and change due to likely cancer diagnoses, and the consequences of this likelihood across physical, social, and emotional domains. Disease-free periods were characterized by fearful anticipation of diagnosis or recurrence, uncertainty regarding post-treatment quality of life, and planning for shifts in family dynamics to enable caregiving. The chronicity of waiting for these changes incited dread and inhibited effective coping with the pragmatic, emotional, and existential challenges of the syndrome. Consequently, families reported high burden on roles and resources and limited guidance to prepare for, or achieve resolution with, grief. Anticipatory loss, the experience of bereavement prior to an expected change, distinguishes hereditary cancer risk from a sporadic diagnosis. Such grief is often incomplete in impact or meaning, subjected to rapid or profound change as conditions worsen, and poorly understood. In this study, losses were compounded by profound uncertainty, a chronic feature of LFS, which compromised mourning. Long-term engagement of mental health providers with bereavement training, in partnership with genetics providers, can provide invaluable educational and psychological support to families as they navigate these implacable challenges.

5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 131-139, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) and ovarian cancer screening (OCS) are management options for women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. Long-term effects of these interventions on quality of life (QOL) are not well understood. METHODS: GOG-0199 is a prospective cohort study of women at increased ovarian cancer risk who chose either RRSO or OCS as their risk management intervention. At study entry, 6, 12, 24 and 60 months of follow-up, participants completed the QOL questionnaire, which included the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36, the Impact of Events Scales, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Endocrine Subscale, and the Sexual Activity Questionnaire. QOL measures were compared between the RRSO and OCS cohort at baseline and over time. RESULTS: Five-hundred-sixty-two participants in the RRSO cohort and 1,010 in the OCS completed the baseline and at least one follow-up questionnaire. At baseline, participants selecting RRSO reported lower health-related QOL (HRQOL), greater ovarian cancer-related stress, greater anxiety, and more depressive symptomatology, which improved during follow-up, especially for ovarian cancer-related stress. Screening was not found to adversely impact HRQOL. Hormone-related menopausal symptoms worsened and sexual functioning declined during follow-up in both cohorts, but more so among participants who underwent RRSO. CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL improved after surgery among women who chose RRSO and remained stable among participants undergoing screening. The adverse effects of RRSO and screening on short-term and long-term sexual activity and sexual functioning warrant consideration in the decision-making process for high-risk women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/psicologia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 785-792, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749144

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by myotonia and muscle weakness. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cancer have been shown to be part of the DM1 phenotype. Metformin, a well-established agent for the management of T2D, is thought to have cancer-preventive effects in the general population. In our study, we aimed to assess the association between T2D, metformin use and the risk of cancer in DM1 patients. We identified a cohort of 913 DM1 patients and an age-, sex- and clinic-matched cohort of 12,318 DM1-free controls from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a large primary care records database. We used Cox regression models to assess cancer risk in T2D patients who were metformin users or nonusers compared to patients without T2D. Separate analyses were conducted for DM1 patients and controls. T2D was more prevalent in DM1 than in controls (8% vs. 3%, p < 0.0001). DM1 patients with T2D, compared to those without T2D, were more likely to develop cancer (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-10.97; p = 0.02), but not if they were treated with metformin (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.06-3.35; p = 0.42). Among controls, we observed no significant associations between T2D and cancer risk in either users or nonusers of Metformin (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.91-1.79; p = 0.16 and HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.72-1.79; p = 0.59, respectively). These results show an association between T2D and cancer risk in DM1 patients and may provide new insights into the possible benefits of Metformin use in DM1.

7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(1): 126-131, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808320

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is an autosomal dominant disease of which clinical manifestations resemble premature aging. We evaluated the contribution of telomere length in pathogenesis in 361 DM1 patients (12 with serial measurements) and 223 unaffected relative controls using qPCR assay. While no differences in baseline leukocyte relative telomere length (RTL) was noted, the data suggested an accelerated RTL attrition in DM1 (discovery cohort: T/S change/year = -0.013 in DM1 vs. -0.005 in controls, P = 0.04); similar trend was noted in validation cohort. Further investigations are needed to examine the role of TL in the pathophysiology of DM1.

8.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1071, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681146

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent evidence demonstrates that women with myotonic dystrophy type 1 are at increased risk of reproductive organ tumors. However, studies of reproductive cancer risk factors in those patients are lacking. Methods: Using questionnaires, we collected and analyzed personal history information related to cancer risk factors from women enrolled in a UK and US registry for myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica; DM) patients. Results: The survey was completed by 242 DM type 1 (DM1) and 44 DM type 2 (DM2) women enrolled in the UK Registry (N = 124) and the US National Registry (N = 162). The mean age at DM1 diagnosis was 33.8 years (standard deviation, SD = 13.2) and for DM2 was 49.2 (SD = 13.0). Mean age at survey was 48.7 (SD = 12.8) and 59.1 years (SD = 12.8) for DM1 and DM2, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between DM1 and DM2 regarding menstrual history or fertility-related factors. Yet, women with DM2 were more likely to have used menopausal hormone therapy (HT) than women with DM1 (52.3 vs. 22.1%, p < 0.0001), and more women with DM2 had a hysterectomy (53.5 vs. 29.5%, p < 0.01). These differences were not statistically significant after age adjustment (OR = 2.00, p = 0.08, and OR = 1.40, p = 0.38, respectively). The frequency of self-reported reproductive organ tumors was not significantly different comparing DM1 to DM2 (p = 0.28). However, the data suggested that women with DM2 appear to have a lower risk of malignant tumors compared to those with DM1 (OR = 0.72, p = 0.69). Discussion: Our study is the first to characterize a wide range of reproductive risk factors in women with DM. We observed no significant differences between DM1 and DM2 in the factors that were evaluated, which suggests that the known excesses of ovarian and endometrial cancer previously reported in women with DM1 cannot be attributed to greater prevalence of standard cancer-related reproductive risk factors. Larger studies evaluating the possible link between reproductive cancer risk factors and risk of tumors in women with DM are needed.

9.
Fam Process ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647118

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary disorder that confers an approximately 90% lifetime risk of cancer and requires comprehensive lifetime cancer screening. We explored healthcare roles for managing LFS-related cancer risks and treatments that were assumed by parents, adolescents, and adult children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 families. Family groupings were comprised of 2-5 members, with the younger generation in each family ranging in age from 7 to 40 years. Using grounded theory methods, we conducted open and focused coding of interview transcript content. Family members described how the role of health leader was implemented in their family, as well as factors such as maturation of a child or death of a member that determined who assumed particular roles and how these roles shifted over time. They often expressed collective responsibility for helping relatives understand LFS and implement appropriate cancer risk management. Members demonstrated their health role by attending others' medical appointments for support or information gathering. The health leader role was intergenerational and provided the family necessary support in navigating complicated healthcare decisions. Our findings provide insight into healthcare providers regarding how LFS patients and their relatives develop unique medical decision-making and caring roles influenced by the hereditary nature of LFS, and how these roles change over time. Providers who are attuned to family role dynamics may be better able to meet relatives' psychosocial and medical needs by understanding how living with LFS influences the family system's functioning and facilitating members' support for each other.

10.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1510-1518, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence showed that myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) patients are at increased risk of certain cancers, but the risk of benign tumors is unknown. We compared the risk of benign tumors in DM1 patients with matched DM1-free individuals and assessed the association between benign tumors and subsequent cancers. METHODS: We identified 927 DM1 patients and 13,085 DM1-free individuals matched on gender, birth-year, clinic, and clinic-registration year from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care records database. We used Cox regression models for statistical analyses. RESULTS: DM1 patients had elevated risks of thyroid nodules (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 10.4; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 3.91-27.52; P < 0.001), benign tumors of the brain or nervous system (HR = 8.4; 95% CI = 2.48-28.47; P < 0.001), colorectal polyps (HR = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.76-10.41; P = 0.001), and possibly uterine fibroids (HR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.22-5.88; P = 0.01). Pilomatricomas and salivary gland adenomas occurred almost exclusively in DM1 patients (Fisher's exact P < 0.001). The HR for colorectal polyps was elevated in DM1 males but not in females (HR = 8.2 vs. 1.3, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.001), whereas endocrine and brain tumors occurred exclusively in females. The data suggested an association between benign tumors and subsequent cancer in classic DM1 patients (HR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.93-7.59; P = 0.07). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed a similar site-specific benign tumor profile to that previously reported for DM1-associated cancers. The possible association between benign tumors and subsequent cancer in classic DM1 patients warrants further investigation as it may guide identifying patients at elevated risk of cancer. Our findings underscore the importance of following population-based screening recommendations in DM1 patients, for example, for colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Distrofia Miotônica/complicações , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
12.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Vigilância da População
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(4): 514-522, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676620

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 50% of the risk for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is estimated to be heritable, but no mendelian TGCT predisposition genes have yet been identified. It is hypothesized that inherited pathogenic DNA repair gene (DRG) alterations may drive susceptibility to TGCTs. Objective: To systematically evaluate the enrichment of germline pathogenic variants in the mendelian cancer predisposition DRGs in patients with TGCTs vs healthy controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: A case-control enrichment analysis was performed from January 2016 to May 2018 to screen for 48 DRGs in 205 unselected men with TGCT and 27 173 ancestry-matched cancer-free individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort in the discovery stage. Significant findings were selectively replicated in independent cohorts of 448 unselected men with TGCTs and 442 population-matched controls, as well as 231 high-risk men with TGCTs and 3090 ancestry-matched controls. Statistical analysis took place from January to May 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gene-level enrichment analysis of germline pathogenic variants in individuals with TGCTs relative to cancer-free controls. Results: Among 205 unselected men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 33.04 [9.67] years), 22 pathogenic germline DRG variants, one-third of which were in CHEK2 (OMIM 604373), were identified in 20 men (9.8%; 95% CI, 6.1%-14.7%). Unselected men with TGCTs were approximately 4 times more likely to carry germline loss-of-function CHEK2 variants compared with cancer-free individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% CI, 1.65-8.86; nominal P = .006; q = 0.018). Similar enrichment was also seen in an independent cohort of 448 unselected Croatian men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 31.98 [8.11] years) vs 442 unselected Croatian men without TGCTs (at least 50 years of age at time of sample collection) (OR, >1.4; P = .03) and 231 high-risk men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 31.54 [9.24] years) vs 3090 men (all older than 50 years) from the Penn Medicine Biobank (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 2.34-17.31; P = .001). The low-penetrance CHEK2 variant (p.Ile157Thr) was found to be a Croatian founder TGCT risk variant (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.53-9.95; P = .002). Individuals with the pathogenic CHEK2 loss-of-function variants developed TGCTs 6 years earlier than individuals with CHEK2 wild-type alleles (5.95 years; 95% CI, 1.48-10.42; P = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: This multicenter case-control analysis of men with or without TGCTs provides evidence for CHEK2 as a novel moderate-penetrance TGCT susceptibility gene, with potential clinical utility. In addition to highlighting DNA-repair deficiency as a potential mechanism driving TGCT susceptibility, this analysis also provides new avenues to explore management strategies and biological investigations for high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 293-302, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eligibility guidelines for genetic testing may be revisited, given technological advances, plummeting costs, and proposals for population mutation screening. A key property of eligibility criteria is the tradeoff between the number of mutation carriers identified versus population members tested. We assess the fractions of mutation carriers identified, versus women undergoing mutation testing, for BRCA1/2 founder mutation screening in U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women. METHODS: BRCA1/2 carrier probabilities, based on personal/family history, were calculated using the risk-prediction tool BRCAPRO for 4,589 volunteers (102 mutation carriers) in the population-based Washington Ashkenazi Study. For each carrier-probability threshold between 0% and 10%, we compared the percentage of founder mutations detected versus the percentage of women requiring mutation testing. PCR mutation testing was conducted at the NIH for the 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish founder mutations (5382insC and 185delAG in BRCA1, and 6174delT in BRCA2). RESULTS: Identifying 90% of BRCA1/2 founder mutations required testing the 60% of Ashkenazi-Jewish women with carrier probabilities exceeding 0.56%, potentially avoiding mutation testing for approximately 0.7 to 1.1 million U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women. Alternatively, testing the 44% whose carrier probability exceeded 0.78% identified 80% of mutation carriers, increasing to 89% of mutation carriers when accounting for cascade testing triggered after mutation-positive daughters were identified by screening. We present data on all carrier-probability thresholds, e.g., a 5% threshold identified 46% of mutation carriers while testing 10% of women. CONCLUSIONS: Different carrier-probability thresholds offered diverse tradeoffs between numbers of identified mutation carriers versus women tested. Low carrier-probability thresholds identified 90% of BRCA1/2 founder mutation carriers, without testing approximately 1 million U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women with lowest carrier probabilities. IMPACT: In general, this risk-based framework could provide useful new options to consider during eligibility-criteria development for population mutation screening.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos
15.
J Fam Nurs ; 25(1): 28-53, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537877

RESUMO

In families with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, complex disease histories challenge established patterns of family communication and influence decision-making for clinical surveillance, genetic testing, and risk management. An interdisciplinary team examined longitudinal interview data from women with identified BRCA1/2 mutations to assess interactions within family and social networks about risk information communication and management. We used interpretive description to identify motivation, content, and derived benefit of these interactions. Participants discussed risk information and management strategies with biological and nonbiological network members for multiple purposes: discharging responsibility for risk information dissemination, protecting important relationships, and navigating decision trajectories. Evolving interactions with loved ones balanced long-standing family communication patterns with differing personal preferences for privacy or open sharing, whereas interactions with nonbiological network members expanded participants' range of choices for sources of risk management information. Ongoing assessment of social networks may help support engagement with risk management by aligning with patient social needs.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Família/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Gestão de Riscos , Rede Social , Adulto , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem
16.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 37(2): 178-193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome with lifetime cancer risks approaching 100% and evolving risk-management strategies. This study evaluated couples' coping with LFS-related burdens. RESEARCH APPROACH: Constructivist grounded theory and anticipatory loss frameworks guided design and analysis. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Twenty-six individuals enrolled in the NCI LFS Family Study completed semi-structured interviews with their partner during annual screening visits. An interdisciplinary team completed open and focused coding to identify patterns of coping and adaptation. FINDINGS: Couples described living with ambiguous danger, a state of chronic apprehension resulting from LFS-associated uncertainties. Most couples communicated openly and alternated shouldering the burden, while others engaged in protective buffering to shield each other from distress and sustain the appearance of normalcy. INTERPRETATION: Optimally, coping reduces shared psychosocial distress, yet some strategies may inadvertently increase disconnection. IMPLICATIONS: Mental health support is critical for both partners coping with LFS, together and separately.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Angústia Psicológica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 99, 2018 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has established that the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants across all of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Secondary Findings (SF) genes is approximately 0.8-5%. We investigated the prevalence of P/LP variants in the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes in a family-based cancer research cohort (n = 1173) and in cancer-free ethnicity-matched controls (n = 982). METHODS: We used InterVar to classify variants and subsequently conducted a manual review to further examine variants of unknown significance (VUS). RESULTS: In the 24 genes on the ACMG SF v2.0 list associated with a cancer phenotype, we observed 8 P/LP unique variants (8 individuals; 0.8%) in controls and 11 P/LP unique variants (14 individuals; 1.2%) in cases, a non-significant difference. We reviewed 115 VUS. The median estimated per-variant review time required was 30 min; the first variant within a gene took significantly (p = 0.0009) longer to review (median = 60 min) compared with subsequent variants (median = 30 min). The concordance rate was 83.3% for the variants examined by two reviewers. CONCLUSION: The 115 VUS required database and literature review, a time- and labor-intensive process hampered by the difficulty in interpreting conflicting P/LP determinations. By rigorously investigating the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes, our work establishes a benchmark P/LP variant prevalence rate in a familial cancer cohort and controls.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(4): pky052, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556050

RESUMO

Background: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited trinucleotide repeat disorder in which specific cancers have been implicated as part of the disease phenotype. This study aimed to assess whether cancer risk in DM1 patients is modified by disease severity. Methods: Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (primary care electronic medical records), we identified a cohort of 927 DM1 and a matched cohort of 13 085 DM1-free individuals between January 1, 1988 and February 29, 2016. We used Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of organ-specific cancer risks. Analyses were stratified by age at DM1 diagnosis as a surrogate for disease severity. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Patients with classic DM1 (age at diagnosis: 11-40 years) were at elevated risk of cancer overall (HR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.93); cancers of the thyroid (HR = 15.93; 95% CI = 2.45 to 103.64), uterus (HR = 26.76; 95% CI = 2.32 to 309.26), and cutaneous melanoma (HR = 5.98; 95% CI = 1.24 to 28.79) accounted for the excess. In late-onset DM1 patients (age at diagnosis >40 years), a reduced overall cancer risk was observed (HR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.32 to 0.85), possibly driven by the deficit in hematological malignancies (DM1 = 0 cases, DM1-free = 54 cases; P = .02). The difference between the observed HR for classic and late-onset DM1 was statistically significant (P < .001). Conclusions: The observed difference in relative cancer risk between classic and late-onset DM1 patients compared with their DM1-free counterparts provides the first evidence that disease severity modifies DM1-related cancer susceptibility. This novel finding may guide clinical management and scientific investigations for the underlying molecular mechanisms in DM-related carcinogenesis.

19.
Nat Rev Urol ; 15(11): 665-666, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250305
20.
Muscle Nerve ; 58(4): 517-522, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have provided evidence that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) are at excess risk of cancer. However, inconsistencies regarding affected anatomic sites persist. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of cancer risk in DM, searching among studies published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2016. Eligible studies were full reports of DM cohorts with site-specific risks. RESULTS: The analysis included 5 studies, comprising 2,779 patients. Risk estimates for cancers of the endometrium and cutaneous melanoma were reported in all studies. The pooled standardized incidence ratio (pSIRs) for endometrial cancer was 7.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.72-11.8) and for cutaneous melanoma was 2.45 (95% CI 1.31-4.58). Among cancers reported in 4 of 5 studies, elevated risks were observed for thyroid (pSIR = 8.52, 95% CI 3.62-20.1), ovarian (pSIR = 5.56, 95% CI 2.99-10.3), testicular (pSIR = 5.95, 95% CI 2.34-15.1), and colorectal (pSIR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.39-3.49) cancers. DISCUSSION: Our data refine the DM cancer phenotype, which may guide patient clinical management and inform plans for molecular investigations to understand DM-related carcinogenesis. Muscle Nerve 58: 517-522, 2018.


Assuntos
Distrofia Miotônica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
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