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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 26-35, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794615

RESUMO

The long-term prognostic significance of a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of 0 is poorly defined in younger adults. We evaluated this among participants aged 45 to 55 years from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and assessed whether additional biomarkers can identify subgroups at increased absolute risk. We included 1,407 participants (61% women) without diabetes or severe hypercholesterolemia, with estimated 10-year risk <20% and CAC = 0. We evaluated all and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, overall and among subjects with each of the following: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels ≥2 mg/L, homocysteine ≥10 µmol/L, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T ≥95th percentile, lipoprotein (a) >50 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥175 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B ≥130 mg/dl, albuminuria, thoracic aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), mitral annular calcium, ankle-brachial index <0.9, any carotid plaque, and maximum internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) ≥1.5 mm. Median follow-up was 16 years, and overall CVD event rates were low (4% at 15 years). For most exposures evaluated, rates of all CVD events were <6 per 1,000 person-years, except for ICA-IMT ≥1.5 mm (6.43) and AVC (13.8). The number needed to screen to detect ICA-IMT ≥1.5 mm was 8, and 84 for AVC. Among participants with borderline/intermediate risk or premature family history, hard CVD event rates were <7 per 1,000 for most exposures, except for ICA-IMT ≥1.5 mm (8.25), albuminuria (8.30), and AVC (13.47). Nonsmokers and those with ICA-IMT <1.5 mm had very low rates. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a favorable long-term prognosis of CAC = 0 among adults aged ≤55 years, particularly among nonsmokers. ICA-IMT testing could be considered for further risk assessment in adults ≤55 years with CAC = 0 and uncertain management.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613362

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend a few different approaches to the use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing as a tool for risk assessment and decision-making regarding drug therapy for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Observations: Coronary artery calcium testing is not recommended for universal screening, particularly in patients at very low or high predicted risk for ASCVD, where its yield and utility for altering clinical decisions are limited. Use of CAC testing appears to be optimal when used in selected patients who are at intermediate or borderline risk of ASCVD as a sequential decision aid after initial quantitative risk assessment and consideration of individual patient risk-enhancing factors (eg, strong family history of premature ASCVD, chronic kidney disease). Although convincing clinical trials have not been completed, observational studies strongly suggest that, in those at intermediate risk, CAC testing can meaningfully reclassify risk and can support improved targeting of drug therapy to patients most likely to benefit. Conclusions and Relevance: This narrative review summarizes the evidence available about the appropriate role of CAC testing for ASCVD risk assessment. Coronary artery calcium testing should be used selectively in patients who are at intermediate risk of ASCVD, when there is persistent uncertainty after performing standard risk assessment using traditional risk factors in a risk score, and after consideration of additional individual risk-enhancing factors. In these situations, the result of the CAC test can be helpful to clarify whether the patient's true risk is high enough to justify initiation of primary prevention medications, such as statins or aspirin.

3.
Front Physiol ; 12: 713048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646150

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle quantity and quality decrease with older age, which is partly attributed to ectopic fat infiltration and has negative metabolic consequences. To inform efforts to preserve skeletal muscle with aging, a better understanding of biologic correlates of quantity and quality of muscle and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is needed. We used targeted lipidomics of lipoprotein subfractions among 947 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants to provide a detailed metabolic characterization of area and density of abdominal muscle and IMAT. Serum lipoprotein subfractions were measured at the first visit using 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Muscle and IMAT area (cm2) and density (Hounsfield units) were estimated at visit 2 or 3 using computed tomography of the total abdominal, locomotion (psoas), and stabilization (paraspinal, oblique, rectus abdominis) muscles. We identified lipoprotein subfractions associated with body composition using linear regression adjusting for demographics, lifestyle, and multiple comparisons. Among 105 lipoprotein subfractions, 24 were associated with total muscle area (absolute standardized regression coefficient range: 0.07-0.10, p-values ≤ 0.002), whereas none were associated with total muscle density. When examining muscle subgroups, 25 lipoprotein subfractions were associated with stabilization muscle area, with associations strongest among the obliques. For total IMAT area, there were 27 significant associations with lipoprotein subfractions (absolute standardized regression coefficient range: 0.09-0.13, p-values ≤ 0.002). Specifically, 27 lipoprotein subfractions were associated with stabilization IMAT area, with associations strongest among the oblique and rectus abdominis muscles. For total IMAT density, there were 39 significant associations with lipoprotein subfractions (absolute standardized regression coefficient range: 0.10-0.19, p-values ≤ 0.003). Specifically, 28 and 33 lipoprotein subfractions were associated with IMAT density of locomotion and stabilization (statistically driven by obliques) muscles, respectively. Higher VLDL (cholesterol, unesterified cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B) and lower HDL (cholesterol and unesterified cholesterol) were associated with higher muscle area, higher IMAT area, and lower IMAT density. Several associations between lipoprotein subfractions and abdominal muscle area and IMAT area and density were strongest among the stabilization muscles, particularly the obliques, illustrating the importance of examining muscle groups separately. Future work is needed to determine whether the observed associations indicate a lipoprotein profile contributing to worse skeletal muscle with fat infiltration.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258970, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19 are uncommon. We studied: 1) association of symptoms with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results; and 2) association of initial RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) in relation to duration of RT-PCR positivity in outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cohort study of outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 and at least one symptom. Participants had repeat nasopharyngeal swabs and symptom checklists every 3-5 days until two consecutive RT-PCR tests were negative. RT-PCR tests were used to assess viral load. Antibody tests for COVID-19 were performed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after symptom onset. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (nine females) were enrolled, ranging in age from 19-58 (median age 28 years). All patients reported at least one symptom, with a median of six symptoms per patient. Symptoms persisted for 6-67 days (median duration 18 days). In all 25 patients, blood samples collected a median of 13 days after symptom onset were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 15 (60%). After a median of 28 days following symptom onset, 23/23 patients with available samples tested positive for antibodies. The longest duration of positive RT-PCR test was 49 days from first positive PCR test (Mean = 27.4, SD = 12.5, Median = 24). Initial Ct was significantly associated with longer duration (ß = -1.3, SE = 0.3, p<0.01 per 1 cycle higher) of RT-PCR positivity. CONCLUSIONS: In mildly or moderately ill COVID-19 outpatients, RT-PCT tests remained positive for as long as 49 days and test positivity and symptom duration correlated with initial viral load.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Carga Viral , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both parental and neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES) are linked to poorer health independently of personal SES measures, but the biological mechanisms are unclear. Our objective was to examine these influences via epigenetic age acceleration (EAA)-the discrepancy between chronological and epigenetic ages. METHODS: We examined three USA-based [Coronary Artery Risk Disease in Adults (CARDIA) study, Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) and Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS)] and one Mexico-based (Project Viva) cohort. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina arrays, personal/parental SES by questionnaire and neighbourhood disadvantage from geocoded address. In CARDIA, we examined the most strongly associated personal, parental and neighbourhood SES measures with EAA (Hannum's method) at study years 15 and 20 separately and combined using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) and compared with other EAA measures (Horvath's EAA, PhenoAge and GrimAge calculators, and DunedinPoAm). RESULTS: EAA was associated with paternal education in CARDIA [GEEs: ßsome college = -1.01 years (-1.91, -0.11) and ß

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(9): e007183, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite using identical evidence to support practice guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is unclear to what extent the 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multisociety, 2016 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), 2020 Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense, 2021 Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and 2019 European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society guidelines differ in grading and assigning levels of evidence and classes of recommendations (LOE/class) at a population level. METHODS: We included 7262 participants, aged 45 to 75 years, without history of CVD from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. Per guideline, proportions of the population recommended statin therapy by LOE/class, sensitivity and specificity for CVD events, and numbers needed to treat at 10 years were calculated. RESULTS: Mean age was 61.1 (SD 6.9) years; 58.2% were women. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multisociety, USPSTF, Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society strongly recommended statin initiation in respective 59.4%, 40.2%, 45.2%, 73.7%, and 42.1% of the eligible population based on high-quality evidence. Sensitivity for CVD events for treatment recommendations supported with strong LOE/class was 86.3% for American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multisociety (IA or IB), 69.4% for USPSTF (USPSTF-B), 74.5% for Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (strong for), 93.3% for Canadian Cardiovascular Society (strong), and 66.6% for European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (IA). Specificity was highest for the USPSTF at 45.3% and lowest for European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society at 10.0%. Estimated numbers needed to treat at 10 years for those with the strongest LOE/class were ranging from 20 to 26 for moderate-intensity and 12 to 16 for high-intensity statins. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity, specificity, and numbers needed to treat at 10 years for assigned LOE/class varied greatly among 5 CVD prevention guidelines. The level of variability seems to be driven by differences in how the evidence is graded and translated into LOE/class underlying the treatment recommendations by different professional societies. Efforts towards harmonizing evidence grading systems for clinical guidelines in primary prevention of CVD may reduce ambiguity and reinforce updated evidence-based recommendations.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Veteranos , American Heart Association , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Canadá , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97007, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Short-term exposures to air pollution have been associated with AF triggering; less is known regarding associations between long-term air pollution exposures and AF incidence. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the association between long-term exposures to air pollution and distance to road on incidence of AF in a cohort of U.S. women. METHODS: We assessed the association of high resolution spatiotemporal model predictions of long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and distance to major roads with incidence of AF diagnosis, identified through Medicare linkage, among 83,117 women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative cohort, followed from enrollment in Medicare through December 2012, incidence of AF, or death. Using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, study component, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal hormone therapy, smoking, diet quality, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, we estimated the relative risk of incident AF in association with each pollutant. RESULTS: A total of 16,348 incident AF cases were observed over 660,236 person-years of follow-up. Most exposure-response associations were nonlinear. NO2 was associated with risk of AF in multivariable adjusted models [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.24, comparing the top to bottom quartile, p-for-trend=<0.0001]. Women living closer to roadways were at higher risk of AF (e.g., HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13 for living within 50m of A3 roads, compared with ≥1,000 m, p-for-trend=0.02), but we did not observe adverse associations with exposures to PM10, PM2.5, or SO2. There were adverse associations with PM10 (top quartile HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16, p-for-trend=<0.0001) and PM2.5 (top quartile HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14, p-for-trend=0.002) in sensitivity models adjusting for census region. DISCUSSION: In this study of postmenopausal women, NO2 and distance to road were consistently associated with higher risk of AF. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7683.

8.
J Cardiol ; 78(5): 471-472, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334267
9.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 7: 100229, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401862

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate contemporary patterns in prepregnancy cardiovascular health (CVH) in the United States (US). Methods: We conducted a serial, cross-sectional study of National Center for Health Statistics Natality Data representing all live births in the US from 2011 to 2019. We assigned 1 point for each of four ideal prepregnancy metrics (nonsmoking and ideal body mass index [18.5-24.9 kg/m2] provided by maternal self-report, and absence of hypertension and diabetes ascertained by the healthcare professional at delivery) to construct a prepregnancy clinical CVH score ranging from 0 to 4. We described the distribution of prepregnancy CVH, overall and stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity, age, insurance status, and receipt of the Women, Infants, and Children program (WIC) for supplemental nutrition. We examined trends by calculating average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in optimal prepregnancy CVH (score of 4). Results: Of 31,643,982 live births analyzed between 2011 and 2019, 53.6% were to non-Hispanic White, 14.5% non-Hispanic Black, 23.3% Hispanic, and 6.6% non-Hispanic Asian women. The mean age (SD) was 28.5 (5.8) years. The prevalence (per 100 live births) of optimal prepregnancy CVH score of 4 declined from 42.1 to 37.7 from 2011 to 2019, with an AAPC (95% CI) of -1.4% per year (-1.3,-1.5). While the relative decline was observed across all race/ethnicity, insurance, and WIC subgroups, significant disparities persisted by race, insurance status, and receipt of WIC. In 2019, non-Hispanic Black women (28.7 per 100 live births), those on Medicaid (30.4), and those receiving WIC (29.1) had the lowest prevalence of optimal CVH. Conclusions: Overall, less than half of pregnant women had optimal prepregnancy CVH, and optimal prepregnancy CVH declined in each race/ethnicity, age, insurance, and WIC subgroup between 2011-2019 in the US. However, there were persistent disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e020717, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431359

RESUMO

Background The prevalence of obesity in the population has increased in parallel with increasing rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). Quantifying contemporary trends in prepregnancy obesity and associations with interrelated APOs (preterm birth, low birth weight, and pregnancy-associated hypertension) together and individually can inform prevention strategies to optimize cardiometabolic health in women and offspring. Methods and Results We performed a serial, cross-sectional study using National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data including women aged 15 to 44 years with live singleton births between 2013 and 2018, stratified by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian). We quantified the annual prevalence of prepregnancy obesity (body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2; body mass index ≥27.5 kg/m2 if non-Hispanic Asian). We then estimated adjusted associations using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratios and population attributable fractions) for obesity-related APOs compared with normal body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m2; 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 if non-Hispanic Asian). Among 20 139 891 women, the prevalence of prepregnancy obesity increased between 2013 and 2018: non-Hispanic White (21.6%-24.8%), non-Hispanic Black (32.5%-36.2%), Hispanic (26.0%-30.5%), and non-Hispanic Asian (15.3%-18.6%) women (P-trend < 0.001 for all). Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for APOs associated with obesity increased between 2013 and 2018, and by 2018, ranged from 1.27 (1.25-1.29) in non-Hispanic Black to 1.94 (1.92-1.96) in non-Hispanic White women. Obesity was most strongly associated with pregnancy-associated hypertension and inconsistently associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. Population attributable fractions of obesity-related APOs increased over the study period: non-Hispanic White (10.6%-14.7%), non-Hispanic Black (3.7%-6.9%), Hispanic (7.0%-10.4%), and non-Hispanic Asian (7.4%-9.7%) women (P-trend < 0.01 for all). Conclusions The prevalence of prepregnancy obesity and burden of obesity-related APOs have increased, driven primarily by pregnancy-associated hypertension, and vary across racial/ethnic subgroups.

12.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e003341, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) may enhance risk stratification for coronary heart disease among young adults. Whether a coronary heart disease PRS improves prediction beyond modifiable risk factors in this population is not known. METHODS: Genotyped adults aged 18 to 35 years were selected from the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; n=1132) and FOS (Framingham Offspring Study; n=663). Systolic blood pressure, total and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking, and waist circumference or body mass index were measured at the visit 1 exam of each study, and coronary artery calcium, a measure of coronary atherosclerosis, was assessed at year 15 (CARDIA) or year 30 (FOS). A previously validated PRS for coronary heart disease was computed for each subject. The C statistic and integrated discrimination improvement were used to compare improvements in prediction of elevated coronary artery calcium between models containing the PRS, risk factors, or both. RESULTS: There were 62 (5%) and 93 (14%) participants with a coronary artery calcium score >20 (CARDIA) and >300 (FOS), respectively. At these thresholds, the C statistic changes of adding the PRS to a risk factor-based model were 0.015 (0.004-0.028) and 0.020 (0.001-0.039) in CARDIA and FOS, respectively. When adding risk factors to a PRS-based model, the respective changes were 0.070 (0.033-0.109) and 0.051 (0.017-0.079). The integrated discrimination improvement, when adding the PRS to a risk factor model, was 0.027 (-0.006 to 0.054) in CARDIA and 0.039 (0.0005-0.072) in FOS. CONCLUSIONS: Among young adults, a PRS improved model discrimination for coronary atherosclerosis, but improvements were smaller than those associated with modifiable risk factors.

13.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(4): 545-553, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238623

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood declines in cardiovascular health have been linked to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis; however, less is known about the timing and sequence of the decline of the specific cardiovascular health components. The study objective is to identify the patterns of decline and associations with adulthood subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Data were pooled from 5 cardiovascular cohorts. Clinical components of cardiovascular health (BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose) were categorized as ideal or nonideal using American Heart Association definitions. Multitrajectory models simultaneously fitted the probability ideal for each factor. Adjusted associations between trajectory groups and carotid intima-media thickness were modeled. Data were pooled from December 1, 2015 to June 1, 2019; statistical analysis occurred between June 1, 2019 and June 1, 2020. RESULTS: This study included 9,388 individuals (55% female, 66% White). A total of 5 distinct trajectory groups were created: 1 maintained the ideal levels of all the 4 health factors, 2 had risk onset of a single factor in childhood, 1 had risk onset of multiple factors in childhood, and 1 had risk onset in adulthood. Those with childhood multiple risk onset had 8.1% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.067, 0.095) than those in the ideal group, childhood cholesterol risk onset had 5.9% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.045, 0.072), childhood BMI risk onset had 5.5% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.041, 0.069), and early adulthood multiple risk onset had 2.7% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.013, 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Those who lost the ideal status of cardiovascular health in childhood and early adulthood had more subclinical atherosclerosis than those who retained the ideal cardiovascular health across the life course, underscoring the importance of preserving the ideal cardiovascular health beginning in childhood and continued into adulthood.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(10): 1161-1170, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259820

RESUMO

Importance: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol recommends the use of risk-enhancing factor assessment and the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring to guide the allocation of statin therapy among individuals with an intermediate risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Objective: To examine the association between risk-enhancing factors and incident ASCVD by CAC burden among those at intermediate risk of ASCVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multicenter population-based prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the US. Baseline data for the present study were collected between July 15, 2000, and July 14, 2002, and follow-up for incident ASCVD events was ascertained through August 20, 2015. Participants were aged 45 to 75 years with no clinical ASCVD or diabetes at baseline, were at intermediate risk of ASCVD (≥7.5% to <20.0%), and had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 70 to 189 mg/dL. Exposures: Family history of premature ASCVD, premature menopause, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers, and low ankle-brachial index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident ASCVD over a median follow-up of 12.0 years. Results: A total of 1688 participants (mean [SD] age, 65 [6] years; 976 men [57.8%]). Of those, 648 individuals (38.4%) were White, 562 (33.3%) were Black, 305 (18.1%) were Hispanic, and 173 (10.2%) were Chinese American. A total of 722 participants (42.8%) had a CAC score of 0. Among those with 1 to 2 risk-enhancing factors vs those with 3 or more risk-enhancing factors, the prevalence of a CAC score of 0 was 45.7% vs 40.3%, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 12.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 11.5-12.6 years), the unadjusted incidence rate of ASCVD among those with a CAC score of 0 was less than 7.5 events per 1000 person-years for all individual risk-enhancing factors (with the exception of ankle-brachial index, for which the incidence rate was 10.4 events per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 1.5-73.5]) and combinations of risk-enhancing factors, including participants with 3 or more risk-enhancing factors. Although the individual and composite addition of risk-enhancing factors to the traditional risk factors was associated with improvement in the area under the receiver operating curve, the use of CAC scoring was associated with the greatest improvement in the C statistic (0.633 vs 0.678) for ASCVD events. For incident ASCVD, the net reclassification improvement for CAC was 0.067. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, among participants with CAC scores of 0, the presence of risk-enhancing factors was generally not associated with an overall ASCVD risk that was higher than the recommended treatment threshold for the initiation of statin therapy. The use of CAC scoring was associated with significant improvements in the reclassification and discrimination of incident ASCVD. The results of this study support the utility of CAC scoring as an adjunct to risk-enhancing factor assessment to more accurately classify individuals with an intermediate risk of ASCVD who might benefit from statin therapy.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e020163, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320819

RESUMO

Background Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) continues to increase and is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To inform prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of AF, we sought to quantify trends in cardiovascular mortality related to AF in the United States. Methods and Results We performed serial cross-sectional analyses of national death certificate data for cardiovascular mortality related to AF, whereby cardiovascular disease was listed as underlying cause of death and AF as multiple cause of death among adults aged 35 to 84 years using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research. We calculated age-adjusted mortality rates per 100 000 population and examined trends over time, estimating average annual percentage change using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Subgroup analyses were performed by race-sex and across 2 age groups (younger: 35-64 years; older: 65-84 years). A total of 276 373 cardiovascular deaths related to AF were identified in the United States between 2011 and 2018 in decedents aged 35 to 84 years. Age-adjusted mortality rate increased from 18.0 (95% CI, 17.8-18.2) to 22.3 (95% CI, 22.0-22.4) per 100 000 population between 2011 and 2018. The increase in age-adjusted mortality rate (average annual percentage change) between 2011 and 2018 was greater among younger decedents (7.4% per year [95% CI, 6.8%-8.0%]) compared with older decedents (3.0% per year [95% CI, 2.6%-3.4%]). Conclusions Cardiovascular deaths related to AF are increasing, especially among younger adults, and warrant greater attention to prevention earlier in the life course.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Causas de Morte/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circ J ; 85(11): 2092-2099, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because it is unclear whether lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Japanese population, we explored the association in general Japanese men aged 55-75 years.Methods and Results:The cross-sectional study included male participants who had both national health checkup data and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in the same calendar year between 2009 and 2017. LUTS severity was evaluated by IPSS. A robust Poisson regression model was used to assess the association between LUTS severity and the composite CVD outcome [coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, or atrial fibrillation (AF)] and each component of the composite outcome. Prevalence ratio (PR) was adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Of 16,781 male participants (mean age, 67±5 years), mild LUTS were observed in 9,243 (55.1%); moderate, 6,445 (38.4%); and severe, 1,093 (6.5%). Compared with the mild LUTS group, moderate LUTS [PR 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.25, P<0.001] and severe LUTS (PR 1.38, 95% CI 1.24-1.53, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of CVD. LUTS severity was associated with higher prevalence of CAD and stroke, but not AF. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of LUTS was associated with a higher prevalence of CVD, especially CAD and stroke, independent of conventional CVD risk factors.

18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(9): 1258-1259, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096981
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e017609, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075780

RESUMO

Background In people with lower-extremity peripheral artery disease, the effects of exercise on patient-reported outcomes remain unclear. Methods and Results Four hundred four people with peripheral artery disease in 3 clinical trials were randomized to exercise (N=205) or a control group (N=199) and completed the 6-minute walk and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire distance score (score 0-100, 100=best) at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Compared with the control group, exercise improved 6-minute walk distance by +39.8 m (95% CI, 26.8-52.8, P<0.001) and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire distance score by +7.3 (95% CI, 2.4-12.1, P=0.003). In all, 2828 individual Walking Impairment Questionnaire distance score questions were completed at baseline and follow-up. Among participants who perceived no change in ability to walk 1 or more distances between baseline and follow-up, 6-minute walk improved in the exercise group and declined in the control group (+26.8 versus -6.5 m, P<0.001). Among participants who perceived that their walking ability worsened for 1 or more distances between baseline and follow-up, the 6-minute walk improved in the exercise group and declined in the control group (+18.4 versus -27.3 m, P<0.001). Among participants who reported worsening calf symptoms at follow-up, the exercise group improved and the control group declined (+28.9 versus -12.5 m, P<0.01). Conclusions In 3 randomized trials, exercise significantly improved the 6-minute walk distance in people with peripheral artery disease, but many participants randomized to exercise reported no change or decline in walking ability. These findings suggest a significant discrepancy in objectively measured walking improvement relative to perceived walking improvement in people with peripheral artery disease. Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifiers: NCT00106327, NCT01408901.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Teste de Caminhada , Caminhada , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JAMA ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170288

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding population-wide trends in prevalence and control of diabetes is critical to planning public health approaches for prevention and management of the disease. Objective: To determine trends in prevalence of diabetes and control of risk factors in diabetes among US adults between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018. Design, Setting, and Participants: Ten cycles of cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018 were included. The study samples were weighted to be representative of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident US population. Adults aged 18 years or older were included, except pregnant women. Exposures: Survey cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diabetes was defined by self-report of diabetes diagnosis, fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL or more, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% or more. Three risk factor control goals were individualized HbA1c targets, blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL. Prevalence of diabetes and proportion of adults with diagnosed diabetes who achieved risk factor control goals, overall and by sociodemographic variables, were estimated. Results: Among the 28 143 participants included (weighted mean age, 48.2 years; 49.3% men), the estimated age-standardized prevalence of diabetes increased significantly from 9.8% (95% CI, 8.6%-11.1%) in 1999-2000 to 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9%-15.8%) in 2017-2018 (P for trend < .001). From 1999-2002 to 2015-2018, the estimated age-standardized proportion of adults with diagnosed diabetes who achieved blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg (P for trend = .007) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL (P for trend < .001) increased significantly, but not individualized HbA1c targets (P for trend = .51). In 2015-2018, 66.8% (95% CI, 63.2%-70.4%), 48.2% (95% CI, 44.6%-51.8%), and 59.7% (95% CI, 54.2%-65.2%) of adults with diagnosed diabetes achieved individualized HbA1c targets, blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL, respectively. Only 21.2% of these adults (95% CI, 15.5%-26.8%) achieved all 3. During the entire study period, these 3 goals were significantly less likely to be achieved among young adults aged 18 to 44 years (vs older adults ≥65 years: estimated proportion, 7.4% vs 21.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.16-0.63]), non-Hispanic Black adults (vs non-Hispanic White adults: estimated age-standardized proportion, 12.5% vs 20.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.40-0.90]), and Mexican American adults (vs non-Hispanic White adults: estimated age-standardized proportion, 10.9% vs 20.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.31-0.77]). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on NHANES data from US adults, the estimated prevalence of diabetes increased significantly between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018. Only an estimated 21% of adults with diagnosed diabetes achieved all 3 risk factor control goals in 2015-2018.

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