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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retrospective studies have reported an association between a single episode of significantly increased fetal movements (IFMs) and stillbirth after 28 weeks' gestation. This prospective study aimed to report the outcome of pregnancies associated with maternal perception of IFMs and determine whether this symptom is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, a pathological intrauterine environment or placental dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women reporting IFMs after 28 weeks' gestation were recruited from St Mary's Hospital, Manchester and Liverpool Women's Hospital, UK, between 1 November 2017 and 1 May 2019. Demographic and clinical information were obtained and an ultrasound scan was performed to assess fetal biometry, liquor volume and umbilical artery Doppler. Maternal serum samples were collected for analysis of placentally derived biomarkers using ELISA. After delivery, maternal and fetal outcome data were collected and placentas and umbilical cord blood were obtained for analysis using immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. Placental and serum samples were matched by gestation and maternal characteristics to participants with normal fetal activity. RESULTS: Seventy-seven women presented with IFM, representing 0.45% of the maternity population; 64 women consented to participate in the study, of which 7 (10.9%) experienced adverse pregnancy outcome: birthweight <3rd centile, 2 (3.1%); pH ≤7.10, 1 (1.6%); neonatal intensive care unit admission, 4 (6.3%). Women had IFM for varying lengths of time before presenting: 17.2% had IFM for less than 1 hour and 29.7% reported IFM lasting longer than 24 hours. Four women (6.3%) had abnormalities of the fetal heart rate trace on assessment. Women with IFM had similar modes of birth to women giving birth in participating maternity units. There was no evidence of macroscopic placental or umbilical cord abnormalities, alterations in microscopic placental structure, placental endocrine dysfunction or intrauterine hypoxia or infection in women with IFM compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study did not find evidence of an association between IFM and adverse pregnancy outcome. It also did not find evidence of underlying placental dysfunction, cord anomalies, intrauterine hypoxia or infection in pregnancies with IFM. Further work is required to determine the strength of association between IFM and adverse pregnancy outcome and its origins. At present, IFM cannot be used to identify fetuses at increased risk of adverse outcome.

2.
J Physiol ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368787

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Maternal hypertension is associated with increased rates of pregnancy pathologies, including fetal growth restriction, due at least in part to reductions in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and associated vascular dysfunction. Dietary nitrate supplementation, from beetroot juice (BRJ), has been shown to increase NO bioavailability and improve cardiovascular function in both preclinical and clinical studies. This study is the first to investigate effects of dietary nitrate supplementation in a pregnant animal model. Importantly, the effects of nitrate-containing BRJ were compared with both 'placebo' (nitrate-depleted) BRJ as well as water to control for potential nitrate-independent effects. Our data show novel, nitrate-independent effects of BRJ to lower blood pressure and improve vascular function in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-/- ) mice. These findings suggest potential beneficial effects of BRJ supplementation in pregnancy, and emphasize the importance of accounting for nitrate-independent effects of BRJ in study design and interpretation. ABSTRACT: Maternal hypertension is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), due in part to reductions in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. We hypothesized that maternal dietary nitrate administration would increase NO bioavailability to reduce systolic blood pressure (SBP), improve vascular function and increase fetal growth in pregnant endothelial NO synthase knockout (eNOS-/- ) mice, which exhibit hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and FGR. Pregnant wildtype (WT) and eNOS-/- mice were supplemented with nitrate-containing beetroot juice (BRJ+) from gestational day (GD) 12.5. Control mice received an equivalent dose of nitrate-depleted BRJ (BRJ-) or normal drinking water. At GD17.5, maternal SBP was measured; at GD18.5, maternal nitrate/nitrite concentrations, uterine artery (UtA) blood flow and endothelial function were assessed, and pregnancy outcomes were determined. Plasma nitrate concentrations were increased in both WT and eNOS-/- mice supplemented with BRJ+ (P < 0.001), whereas nitrite concentrations were increased only in eNOS-/- mice (P < 0.001). BRJ- did not alter nitrate/nitrite concentrations. SBP was lowered and UtA endothelial function was enhanced in eNOS-/- mice supplemented with either BRJ+ or BRJ-, indicating nitrate-independent effects of BRJ. Improvements in endothelial function in eNOS-/- mice were abrogated in the presence of 25 mm KCl, implicating enhanced EDH signalling in BRJ- treated animals. At GD18.5, eNOS-/- fetuses were significantly smaller than WT animals (P < 0.001), but BRJ supplementation did not affect fetal weight. BRJ may be a beneficial intervention in pregnancies associated with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and reduced NO bioavailability. Our data showing biological effects of non-nitrate components of BRJ have implications for both interpretation of previous findings and in the design of future clinical trials.

3.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13267, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421915

RESUMO

PROBLEM: There is growing evidence for the role of placental inflammation in the pathophysiology of pregnancy complications including fetal growth restriction (FGR). This study aimed to characterize the inflammatory profile in the maternal circulation and the placenta of infants who were growth restricted and those that were small for gestational age (SGA). METHOD OF STUDY: Placental villous tissue and maternal serum were obtained from pregnancies where infants were SGA at birth or who had a decreasing growth rate (≥25 centiles) across the third trimester. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses of placental samples were conducted for macrophage number, alongside vascular and cell turnover analysis. Inflammatory profile was analyzed in maternal and placental compartments via ELISAs and multiplex assays. RESULTS: There were significantly more CD163+ macrophages in placentas of infants with a decreased growth rate compared to controls, but not in SGA infants (median 8.6/ nuclei vs 3.8 and 2.9, P = .008 and P = .003, respectively). Uric acid (P = .0007) and IL-8 (P = .0008) were increased in placentas, and S100A8 (P < .0002) was increased in maternal serum of infants with decreased growth rate. No changes in the maternal serum or placental lysates of SGA infants were observed. CONCLUSION: The evidence of an altered inflammatory profile in infants with a decreasing growth rate, but not in those that were born SGA, provides further evidence that inflammation plays a role in true FGR. It remains unclear whether the increased placental macrophages occur as a direct result, or as a consequence of the pro-inflammatory environment observed in fetal growth restriction.

4.
J Physiol ; 597(19): 4975-4990, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400764

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major risk factor for stillbirth and has significant impact upon lifelong health. A small, poorly functioning placenta, as evidenced by reduced transport of nutrients to the baby, underpins FGR. It remains unclear how a small but normal placenta differs from the small FGR placenta in terms of ability to transfer nutrients to the fetus. Placental transport of glutamine and glutamate, key amino acids for fetal growth, was assessed in normal mice and those with FGR. Glutamine and glutamate transport was greater in the lightest versus heaviest placenta in a litter of normally grown mice. Placentas of mice with FGR had increased transport capacity in mid-pregnancy, but this adaptation was insufficient in late pregnancy. Placental adaptations, in terms of increased nutrient transport (per gram) to compensate for small size, appear to achieve appropriate fetal growth in normal pregnancy. Failure of this adaptation might contribute to FGR. ABSTRACT: Fetal growth restriction (FGR), a major risk factor for stillbirth, and neonatal and adulthood morbidity, is associated with reduced placental size and decreased placental nutrient transport. In mice, a small, normal placenta increases its nutrient transport, thus compensating for its reduced size and maintaining normal fetal growth. Whether this adaptation occurs for glutamine and glutamate, two key amino acids for placental metabolism and fetal growth, is unknown. Additionally, an assessment of placental transport of glutamine and glutamate between FGR and normal pregnancy is currently lacking. We thus tested the hypothesis that the transport of glutamine and glutamate would be increased (per gram of tissue) in a small normal placenta [C57BL6/J (wild-type, WT) mice], but that this adaptation fails in the small dysfunctional placenta in FGR [insulin-like growth factor 2 knockout (P0) mouse model of FGR]. In WT mice, comparing the lightest versus heaviest placenta in a litter, unidirectional maternofetal clearance (Kmf ) of 14 C-glutamine and 14 C-glutamate (glutamine Kmf and glutamate Kmf ) was significantly higher at embryonic day (E) 18.5, in line with increased expression of LAT1, a glutamine transporter protein. In P0 mice, glutamine Kmf and glutamate Kmf were higher (P0 versus wild-type littermates, WTL) at E15.5. At E18.5, glutamine Kmf remained elevated whereas glutamate Kmf was similar between groups. In summary, we provide evidence that glutamine Kmf and glutamate Kmf adapt according to placental size in WT mice. The placenta of the growth-restricted P0 fetus also elevates transport capacity to compensate for size at E15.5, but this adaptation is insufficient at E18.5; this may contribute to decreased fetal growth.

5.
Reprod Toxicol ; 87: 50-59, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082466

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a toll like receptor (TLR) 7 and 9 antagonist, is used during pregnancy for inflammatory conditions with limited understanding of its placental toxicology. We hypothesized that HCQ does not have toxic effects on the placenta and can modulate cytokine release in response to TLR7/9 activation. A systematic review was conducted and no studies of HCQ on multicellular human placental tissue were identified. Accordingly, placental villous explants were cultured for 7 days with HCQ +/- TLR7/9 agonists. HCQ did not affect cell turnover, nutrient transport or cytokine release but increased IL-10 (anti-inflammatory) secretion and promoted syncytiotrophoblast regeneration. Cytokine release stimulated by TLR7/9 agonists was unaffected by HCQ. In conclusion, HCQ did not adversely affect placental tissue and may have a protective anti-inflammatory function. Further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of HCQ actions on human placenta and whether they could be utilized to improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
6.
Placenta ; 84: 44-49, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076094

RESUMO

In preeclampsia, vasospasm, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and immune dysregulation are key mediators of maternal disease. A new time-of-disease treatment is needed with the potential to treat these areas of pathophysiology. A review of the literature has indicated that metabolites of the kynurenine pathway have the potential to; (i) induce vasorelaxation of resistance arteries and reduce blood pressure; (ii) exert antioxidant effects and reduce the effects of poly-ADP ribose polymerase activation (iii) prevent endothelial dysfunction and promote endothelial nitric oxide production; (iv) cause T cell differentiation into tolerogenic regulatory T cells and induce apoptosis of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. This has led to the hypothesis that increasing Kynurenine pathway activity may offer a new treatment strategy for preeclampsia.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515131

RESUMO

Fetal delivery of calcium, via the placenta, is crucial for appropriate skeletal mineralization. We have previously demonstrated that maternofetal calcium transport, per gram placenta, is increased in the placental specific insulin-like growth factor 2 knockout mouse (P0) model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared to wild type littermates (WTL). This effect was mirrored in wild-type (WT) mice comparing lightest vs. heaviest (LvH) placentas in a litter. In both models increased placental calcium transport was associated with normalization of fetal calcium content. Despite this adaptation being observed in small normal (WT), and small dysfunctional (P0) placentas, mechanisms underpinning these changes remain unknown. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), elevated in cord blood in FGR and known to stimulate plasma membrane calcium ATPase, might be important. We hypothesized that PTHrP expression would be increased in LvH WT placentas, and in P0 vs. WTL. We used calcium pathway-focused PCR arrays to assess whether mechanisms underpinning these adaptations in LvH WT placentas, and in P0 vs. WTL, were similar. PTHrP protein expression was not different between LvH WT placentas at E18.5 but trended toward increased expression (139%; P = 0.06) in P0 vs. WTL. PCR arrays demonstrated that four genes were differentially expressed in LvH WT placentas including increased expression of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin 1 (1.6-fold; P < 0.05). Twenty-four genes were differentially expressed in placentas of P0 vs. WTL; significant reductions were observed in expression of S100 calcium binding protein G (2-fold; P < 0.01), parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (1.7-fold; P < 0.01) and PTHrP (2-fold; P < 0.05), whilst serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), a regulator of nutrient transporters, was increased (1.4 fold; P < 0.05). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5 (TRAP5 encoded by Acp5) was reduced in placentas of both LvH WT and P0 vs. WTL (1.6- and 1.7-fold, respectively; P < 0.05). Signaling events underpinning adaptations in calcium transport are distinct between LvH placentas of WT mice and those in P0 vs. WTL. Calcium binding proteins appear important in functional adaptations in the former whilst PTHrP and SGK1 are also implicated in the latter. These data facilitate understanding of mechanisms underpinning placental calcium transport adaptation in normal and growth restricted fetuses.

9.
Nitric Oxide ; 80: 82-88, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179715

RESUMO

Adequate perfusion of the placental vasculature is essential to meet the metabolic demands of fetal growth and development. Lacking neural control, local tissue metabolites, circulating and physical factors contribute significantly to blood flow regulation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of fetoplacental vascular tone. Nitrite, previously considered an inert end-product of NO oxidation, has been shown to provide an important source of NO. Reduction of nitrite to NO may be particularly relevant in tissue when the oxygen-dependent NO synthase (NOS) activity is compromised, e.g. in hypoxia. The contribution of this pathway in the placenta is currently unknown. We hypothesised that nitrite vasodilates human placental blood vessels, with enhanced efficacy under hypoxia. Placentas were collected from uncomplicated pregnancies and the vasorelaxant effect of nitrite (10-6-5x10-3 M) was assessed using wire myography on isolated pre-constricted chorionic plate arteries (CPAs) and veins (CPVs) under normoxic (pO2 ∼5%) and hypoxic (pO2 ∼1%) conditions. The dependency on the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway and known nitrite reductase (NiR) activities was also investigated. Nitrite caused concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in both arteries and veins, and this effect was enhanced by hypoxia, significantly in CPVs (P < 0.01) and with a trend in CPAs (P = 0.054). Pre-incubation with NO scavengers (cPTIO and oxyhemoglobin) attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively), and the sGC inhibitor ODQ completely abolished nitrite-mediated vasorelaxation, confirming the involvement of NO and sGC. Inhibition of potential NiR enzymes xanthine oxidoreductase, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and mitochondrial bc1 complex did not attenuate vasorelaxation. This data suggests that nitrite may provide an important reservoir of NO bioactivity within the placenta to enhance blood flow when fetoplacental oxygenation is impaired, as occurring in pregnancy diseases such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiologia , Córion/irrigação sanguínea , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Veias/fisiologia , Adulto , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/farmacologia , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Nitritos/farmacologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez , Nitrito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Nitrito de Sódio/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Veias/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Nitric Oxide ; 80: 37-44, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099096

RESUMO

Chronic hypertension in pregnancy is associated with significant adverse pregnancy outcomes, increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Dietary nitrate, abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, is reduced in vivo to nitrite and subsequently nitric oxide, and has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure, improve vascular compliance and enhance blood flow in non-pregnant humans and animals. The primary aims of this study were to determine the acceptability and efficacy of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, to lower blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant women. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial, 40 pregnant women received either daily nitrate supplementation (70 mL beetroot juice, n = 20) or placebo (70 mL nitrate-depleted beetroot juice, n = 20) for 8 days. Blood pressure, cardiovascular function and uteroplacental blood flow was assessed at baseline and following acute (3 h) and prolonged (8 days) supplementation. Plasma and salivary samples were collected for analysis of nitrate and nitrite concentrations and acceptability of this dietary intervention was assessed based on questionnaire feedback. Dietary nitrate significantly increased plasma and salivary nitrate/nitrite concentrations compared with placebo juice (p < 0.001), with marked variation between women. Compared with placebo, there was no overall reduction in blood pressure in the nitrate-treated group; however there was a highly significant correlation between changes in plasma nitrite concentrations and changes in diastolic blood pressure in the nitrate-treated arm only (r = -0.6481; p = 0.0042). Beetroot juice supplementation was an acceptable dietary intervention to 97% of women. This trial confirms acceptability and potential efficacy of dietary nitrate supplementation in pregnant women. Conversion of nitrate to nitrite critically involves oral bacterial nitrate reductase activities. We speculate that differences in efficacy of nitrate supplementation relate to differences in the oral microbiome, which will be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/dietoterapia , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nitratos/sangue , Placebos , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(11): 1817-1826, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097436

RESUMO

Abacavir is a preferred antiretroviral drug for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission; however, mechanisms of its placental transfer have not been satisfactorily described to date. Because abacavir is a nucleoside-derived drug, we hypothesized that the nucleoside transporters, equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs, SLC29A) and/or Na+-dependent concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs, SLC28A), may play a role in its passage across the placenta. To test this hypothesis, we performed uptake experiments using the choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cell line, human fresh villous fragments, and microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. Using endogenous substrates of nucleoside transporters, [3H]-adenosine (ENTs, CNT2, and CNT3) and [3H]-thymidine (ENTs, CNT1, and CNT3), we showed significant activity of ENT1 and CNT2 in BeWo cells, whereas experiments in the villous fragments and MVM vesicles, representing a model of the apical membrane of a syncytiotrophoblast, revealed only ENT1 activity. When testing [3H]-abacavir uptakes, we showed that of the nucleoside transporters, ENT1 plays the dominant role in abacavir uptake into placental tissues, whereas contribution of Na+-dependent transport, most likely mediated by CNTs, was observed only in BeWo cells. Subsequent experiments with dually perfused rat term placentas showed that Ent1 contributes significantly to overall [3H]-abacavir placental transport. Finally, we quantified the expression of SLC29A in first- and third-trimester placentas, revealing that SLC29A1 is the dominant isoform. Neither SLC29A1 nor SLC29A2 expression changed over the course of placental development, but there was considerable interindividual variability in their expression. Therefore, drug-drug interactions and the effect of interindividual variability in placental ENT1 expression on abacavir disposition into fetal circulation should be further investigated to guarantee safe and effective abacavir-based combination therapies in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Didesoxinucleosídeos/metabolismo , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transportador Equilibrativo 2 de Nucleosídeo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1145, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154737

RESUMO

The eNOS-/- mouse provides a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) with altered uterine and umbilical artery function and reduced utero- and feto-placental blood flow. Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is rich in antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols, has been posited as a beneficial dietary supplement to promote cardiovascular health. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with PJ will improve uterine and umbilical artery function and thereby enhance fetal growth in the eNOS-/- mouse model of FGR. Wild type (WT, C57Bl/6J) and eNOS-/- mice were supplemented from E12.5-18.5 with either PJ in their drinking water or water alone. At E18.5 uterine (UtA) and umbilical (UmbA) arteries were isolated for study of vascular function, fetuses and placentas were weighed and fetal biometric measurements taken. PJ supplementation significantly increased UtA basal tone (both genotypes) and enhanced phenylephrine-induced contraction in eNOS-/- but not WT mice. Conversely PJ significantly reduced UtA relaxation in response to both acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), endothelium dependent and independent vasodilators respectively from WT but not eNOS-/- mice. UmbA sensitivity to U46619-mediated contraction was increased by PJ supplementation in WT mice; PJ enhanced contraction and relaxation of UmbA to Ach and SNP respectively in both genotypes. Contrary to our hypothesis, the changes in artery function induced by PJ were not associated with an increase in fetal weight. However, PJ supplementation reduced litter size and fetal abdominal and head circumference in both genotypes. Collectively the data do not support maternal PJ supplementation as a safe or effective treatment for FGR.

13.
Placenta ; 68: 52-58, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055670

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ratio of birthweight to placental weight (BW:PW) is often used as a measure of placental efficiency in humans and animals. However, ratios have properties that are known to lead to spurious results. An alternative approach is the use of residuals from regression, which reflect whether birthweight is higher or lower than expected for a given placental weight, given the population pattern. We hypothesized that biologically meaningful measures of placental efficiency would differ between placentas with and without pathology, and between adverse and normal perinatal and postnatal outcomes. METHODS: We examined associations between measures of placental efficiency (BW:PW ratio or residuals) and placental pathology, Apgar scores and infant death using National Collaborative Perinatal Project data (4645 preterm births and 28497 term births). RESULTS: BW:PW ratios and residuals were significantly lower in placentas showing pathologies including signs of large infarcts or hemorrhage, although many of these differences were small. Low BW:PW ratios and residuals were also associated with low Apgar scores and increased risk of postnatal death. Whereas residuals were lower in term placentas that appeared immature by microscopic examination, the opposite was true for BW:PW ratios. CONCLUSION: The BW:PW ratio produced an artefact whereby histologically less mature placentas at term appeared to be more "efficient" than mature placentas, illustrating a known problem with the use of ratios. For other traits, residuals generally showed differences between placentas with and without pathology that were as great as those seen with BW:PW ratios, and often showed stronger associations with adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Nascimento a Termo/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez
14.
FASEB J ; 32(10): 5436-5446, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723064

RESUMO

Cell free hemoglobin impairs vascular function and blood flow in adult cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that free fetal hemoglobin (fHbF) compromises vascular integrity and function in the fetoplacental circulation, contributing to the increased vascular resistance associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Women with normal and FGR pregnancies were recruited and their placentas collected freshly postpartum. FGR fetal capillaries showed evidence of erythrocyte vascular packing and extravasation. Fetal cord blood fHbF levels were higher in FGR than in normal pregnancies ( P < 0.05) and the elevation of fHbF in relation to heme oxygenase-1 suggests a failure of expected catabolic compensation, which occurs in adults. During ex vivo placental perfusion, pathophysiological fHbF concentrations significantly increased fetal-side microcirculatory resistance ( P < 0.05). fHbF sequestered NO in acute and chronic exposure models ( P < 0.001), and fHbF-primed placental endothelial cells developed a proinflammatory phenotype, demonstrated by activation of NF-κB pathway, generation of IL-1α and TNF-α (both P < 0.05), uncontrolled angiogenesis, and disruption of endothelial cell flow alignment. Elevated fHbF contributes to increased fetoplacental vascular resistance and impaired endothelial protection. This unrecognized mechanism for fetal compromise offers a novel insight into FGR as well as a potential explanation for associated poor fetal outcomes such as fetal demise and stillbirth.-Brook, A., Hoaksey, A., Gurung, R., Yoong, E. E. C., Sneyd, R., Baynes, G. C., Bischof, H., Jones, S., Higgins, L. E., Jones, C., Greenwood, S. L., Jones, R. L., Gram, M., Lang, I., Desoye, G., Myers, J., Schneider, H., Hansson, S. R., Crocker, I. P., Brownbill, P. Cell free hemoglobin in the fetoplacental circulation: a novel cause of fetal growth restriction?


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Placenta , Circulação Placentária , Resistência Vascular , Adulto , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/sangue , Humanos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Gravidez
15.
Placenta ; 64 Suppl 1: S9-S15, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370939

RESUMO

There is now a basic understanding of the driving forces and mechanisms underlying rates of solute exchange across the placenta but there are still major gaps in knowledge. Here we summarise this basic understanding, whilst highlighting gaps in knowledge. We then focus on two particular areas where more knowledge is needed: (1) the electrical potential difference (PD) across the placenta and (2) the paracellular permeability of the placenta to hydrophilic solutes. In many species a PD has been recorded between a catheter in a maternal blood vessel and one in a fetal vessel. However, the key question is whether this PD is the same as that across the placental exchange barrier. We addressed this in the human placenta using microelectrodes to measure the PD in isolated villi in vitro; the transtrophoblast PD so measured had a median value of -3 mV (range 0-15 mV). There have been no subsequent studies to validate this measurement. The syncytiotrophoblast of haemochorial placentas lacks any obvious extracellular water filled paracellular space between the syncytial nuclei. However, in mouse, rat, guinea pig and human there is an inverse relationship between the rate of diffusion of inert hydrophilic solutes across the placenta and their molecular size. The simplest explanation is that a paracellular route exists but its morphological identity is still uncertain. Areas of syncytial denudation could provide a paracellular route but this has not been proven. Answers to these and similar questions are required to fully understand the exchange physiology of the normal placenta and how this is affected in pathology.


Assuntos
Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Gravidez
16.
Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev ; 29(1): 10-23, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228803

RESUMO

Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 1 in 500 pregnancies, is untreatable, and causes serious neonatal morbidity and death. Reduced uterine blood flow (UBF) is one cause. Transduction of uterine arteries in normal and FGR animal models using an adenovirus (Ad) encoding VEGF isoforms increases UBF and improves fetal growth in utero. Understanding potential adverse consequences of this therapy before first-in-woman clinical application is essential. The aims of this study were to determine whether Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC (1) transfers across the human placental barrier and (2) affects human placental morphology, permeability and primary indicators of placental function, and trophoblast integrity. Villous explants from normal term human placentas were treated with Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC (5 × 107-10 virus particles [vp]/mL), or virus formulation buffer (FB). Villous structural integrity (hematoxylin and eosin staining) and tissue accessibility (LacZ immunostaining) were determined. Markers of endocrine function (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] secretion) and cell death (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] release) were assayed. Lobules from normal and FGR pregnancies underwent ex vivo dual perfusion with exposure to 5 × 1010 vp/mL Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC or FB. Perfusion resistance, para-cellular permeability, hCG, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH release were measured. Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC transfer across the placental barrier was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in DNA extracted from fetal-side venous perfusate, and by immunohistochemistry in fixed tissue. Villous explant structural integrity and hCG secretion was maintained at all Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC doses. Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC perfusion revealed no effect on placental permeability, fetoplacental vascular resistance, hCG secretion, or alkaline phosphatase release, but there was a minor elevation in maternal-side LDH release. Viral vector tissue access in both explant and perfused models was minimal, and the vector was rarely detected in the fetal venous perfusate and at low titer. Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC did not markedly affect human placental integrity and function in vitro. There was limited tissue access and transfer of vector across the placental barrier. Except for a minor elevation in LDH release, these test data did not reveal any toxic effects of Ad.VEGF-DΔNΔC on the human placenta.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/terapia , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Placenta/metabolismo , Fator D de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adenoviridae/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Fator D de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
17.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 78(5)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28681959

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Placental dysfunction is present over 50% of cases of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), an inflammatory condition of the placenta characterized by maternal T cell infiltrates in the villous stroma and dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, is more frequent in FGR and stillbirth. METHOD OF STUDY: A novel in vitro model of placental inflammation was developed to test the hypothesis that inflammatory cells seen in VUE and/or cytokines impair placental function. RESULTS: Coculture of placental explants with maternal leukocytes resulted in increased leukocytes in villous tissue and elevated concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ (P≤.05). Human chorionic gonadotrophin secretion was reduced following coculture with leukocytes (P≤.01) and cytokines (P≤.05). CONCLUSION: These observations support the hypothesis that altered placental inflammation has deleterious effects on placental function. This model could be used to further understanding about the pathophysiology of VUE and to test potential therapies.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/imunologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/metabolismo , Vilosidades Coriônicas/imunologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/imunologia , Placenta/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Natimorto , Transcriptoma
18.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(8)2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105727

RESUMO

SCOPE: Low maternal folate status during pregnancy increases the risk of delivering small for gestational age (SGA) infants, but the mechanistic link between maternal folate status, SGA, and placental dysfunction is unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are altered in pregnancy pathologies and by folate in other systems. We hypothesized that low maternal folate status causes placental dysfunction, mediated by altered miRNA expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective observational study recruited pregnant adolescents and assessed third trimester folate status and placental function. miRNA array, QPCR, and bioinformatics identified placental miRNAs and target genes. Low maternal folate status is associated with higher incidence of SGA infants (28% versus 13%, p < 0.05) and placental dysfunction, including elevated trophoblast proliferation and apoptosis (p < 0.001), reduced amino acid transport (p < 0.01), and altered placental hormones (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, progesterone, and human placental lactogen). miR-222-3p, miR-141-3p, and miR-34b-5p were upregulated by low folate status (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics predicted a gene network regulating cell turnover. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that key genes in this network (zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2, v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) were reduced (p < 0.05) in placentas with low maternal folate status. CONCLUSION: This study supports that placental dysfunction contributes to impaired fetal growth in women with low folate status and suggests altered placental expression of folate-sensitive miRNAs and target genes as a mechanistic link.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
19.
Front Physiol ; 8: 1050, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311979

RESUMO

Appropriate placental transport of calcium is essential for normal fetal skeletal mineralization. In fetal growth restriction (FGR), the failure of a fetus to achieve its growth potential, a number of placental nutrient transport systems show reduced activity but, in the case of calcium, placental transport is increased. In a genetic mouse model of FGR this increase, or adaptation, maintains appropriate fetal calcium content, relative to the size of the fetus, despite a small, dysfunctional placenta. It is unknown whether such an adaptation is also apparent in small, but normally functioning placentas. We tested the hypothesis that calcium transfer would be up-regulated in the lightest vs. heaviest placentas in the same C57Bl/6J wild-type (WT) mouse litter. Since lightest placentas are often from females, we also assessed whether fetal sex influenced placental calcium transfer. Placentas and fetuses were collected at embryonic day (E)16.5 and 18.5; the lightest and heaviest placentas, and female and male fetuses, were identified. Unidirectional maternofetal calcium clearance (CaKmf) was assessed following 45Ca administration to the dam and subsequent radiolabel counts within the fetuses. Placental expression of calcium pathway components was measured by Western blot. Data (median) are lightest placenta expressed as percentage of the heaviest within a litter and analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In WT mice having normally grown fetuses, CaKmf, per gram placenta near term, in the lightest placentas was increased (126%; P < 0.05) in association with reduced fetal calcium accretion earlier in gestation (92%; P < 0.05), that was subsequently normalized near term. Increased placental expression of calbindin-D9K, an important calcium binding protein, was observed in the lightest placentas near term (122%; P < 0.01). There was no difference in fetal calcium accretion between male and female littermates but a trend toward higher CaKmf in females (P = 0.055). These data suggest a small, normal placenta adapts calcium transfer according to its size, as previously demonstrated in a mouse model of FGR. Fetal sex had limited influence on this adaptive increase. These adaptations are potentially driven by fetal nutrient demand, as evidenced by the normalization of fetal calcium content. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved may provide novel avenues for treating placental dysfunction.

20.
Placenta ; 42: 25-7, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238710

RESUMO

The ANP knockout mouse is reported to exhibit pregnancy-associated hypertension, proteinuria and impaired placental trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, key features of pre-eclampsia (PE). We hypothesized that these mice may provide a relevant model of human PE with associated fetal growth restriction (FGR). Here, we investigated pregnancies of ANP wild type (ANP(+/+)), heterozygous (ANP(+/-)) and knockout (ANP(-/-)) mice. Maternal blood pressure did not differ between genotypes (E12.5, E17.5), and fetal weight (E18.5) was unaffected. Placental weight was greater in ANP(-/-) versus ANP(+/+) mice. Therefore, in our hands, the ANP model does not express phenotypic features of PE with FGR.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Animais , Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez
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