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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114801

RESUMO

Background: Serum anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA) and anti-intercalated disk autoantibodies (AIDA) are autoimmune markers in myocarditis. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) myocarditis has been reported. To provide evidence for autoimmunity, we searched for AHA and AIDA in ARVC. Methods: We studied: 42 ARVC probands, 23 male, aged 42, interquartile range (IQR) 33;49, 20 from familial and 22 non-familial pedigrees; 37 clinically affected relatives (AR), 24 male aged 35, IQR 18;46; 96 healthy relatives (HR), 49 male, aged 27, IQR 17;45. Serum AHA and AIDA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence on human myocardium and skeletal muscle in 171 of the 175 ARVC individuals and in controls with: non-inflammatory cardiac disease (NICD) (n=160), ischemic heart failure (IHF) (n=141), normal blood donors (NBD) (n=270). Screening of five desmosomal genes was performed in probands; when a sequence variant was identified, cascade family screening followed, blind to immunological results. Results: AHA frequency was higher (36.8%) in probands, AR (37.8%) and HR (25%) than in NICD (1%), IHF (1%) or NBD (2.5%) (p=0.0001). AIDA frequency was higher in probands (8%, p=0.006), in AR (21.6%, p=0.00001) and in HR (14.6% p=0.00001) than in NICD (3.75%), IHF (2%) or NBD (0.3%). AHA positive status was associated with higher frequency of palpitation (p=0.004), ICD implantation (p=0.021), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p=0.004), AIDA positive status with both lower RV and LVEF (p=0.027 and p=0.027 respectively). AHA and/or AIDA positive status in the proband and/or at least one of the respective relatives was more common in familial (17/20, 85%) than in sporadic (10/22, 45%) pedigrees (p=0.007). Conclusions: Presence of AHA and AIDA provides evidence of autoimmunity in the majority of familial and in almost half of sporadic ARVC. In probands and in AR these antibodies were associated with disease severity features; longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether they may predict ARVC development in HR or if they be a result of manifest ARVC.

2.
Biomolecules ; 10(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121155

RESUMO

Xenogeneic pericardium-based substitutes are employed for several surgical indications after chemical shielding, limiting their biocompatibility and therapeutic durability. Adverse responses to these replacements might be prevented by tissue decellularization, ideally removing cells and preserving the original extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of this study was to compare the mostly applied pericardia in clinics, i.e. bovine and porcine tissues, after their decellularization, and obtain new insights for their possible surgical use. Bovine and porcine pericardia were submitted to TRICOL decellularization, based on osmotic shock, detergents and nuclease treatment. TRICOL procedure resulted in being effective in cell removal and preservation of ECM architecture of both species' scaffolds. Collagen and elastin were retained but glycosaminoglycans were reduced, significantly for bovine scaffolds. Tissue hydration was varied by decellularization, with a rise for bovine pericardia and a decrease for porcine ones. TRICOL significantly increased porcine pericardial thickness, while a non-significant reduction was observed for the bovine counterpart. The protein secondary structure and thermal denaturation profile of both species' scaffolds were unaltered. Both pericardial tissues showed augmented biomechanical compliance after decellularization. The ECM bioactivity of bovine and porcine pericardia was unaffected by decellularization, sustaining viability and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells. In conclusion, decellularized bovine and porcine pericardia demonstrate possessing the characteristics that are suitable for the creation of novel scaffolds for reconstruction or replacement: differences in water content, thickness and glycosaminoglycans might influence some of their biomechanical properties and, hence, their indication for surgical use.

3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(2): 157-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) Registry of the Italian Association of Arrhythmology and Cardiac Pacing (AIAC) monitors the main epidemiological data in real-world practice. The survey for the 2018 activity collects information about demographics, clinical characteristics, main indications for PM/ICD therapy and device types from the Italian collaborating centers. METHODS: The Registry collects prospectively national PM and ICD implantation activity on the basis of European cards. RESULTS: PM Registry: data about 23 912 PM implantations were collected (20 084 first implants and 3828 replacements). The number of collaborating centers was 180. Median age of treated patients was 81 years (75 quartile I; 86 quartile III). ECG indications included atrioventricular conduction disorders in 34.5% of first PM implants, sick sinus syndrome in 18.3%, atrial fibrillation plus bradycardia in 13.0%, other in 34.2%. Among atrioventricular conduction defects, third-degree atrioventricular block was the most common type (19.2% of first implants). Use of single-chamber PMs was reported in 24.9% of first implants, of dual-chamber PMs in 67.6%, of PMs with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in 1.6%, and of single lead atrial-synchronized ventricular stimulation (VDD/R PMs) in 5.9%. ICD Registry: data about 18 353 ICD implantations were collected (13 944 first implants and 4359 replacements). The number of collaborating centers was 433. Median age of treated patients was 71 years (63 quartile I; 78 quartile III). Primary prevention indication was reported in 84.3% of first implants, secondary prevention in 15.7% (cardiac arrest in 5.3%). A single-chamber ICD was used in 27.9% of first implants, dual-chamber ICD in 31.9% and biventricular ICD in 40.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The PM and ICD Registry appears fundamental for monitoring PM and ICD utilization on a large national scale with rigorous examination of demographics and clinical indications. The PM Registry showed stable electrocardiographic and symptom indications, with an important prevalence of dual-chamber pacing. The use of CRT-PM regards a very limited number of patients. The ICD Registry documented a large use of prophylactic and biventricular ICD, reflecting a favorable adherence to trials and guidelines in clinical practice. In order to increase and optimize the cooperation of Italian implanting centers, online data entry (http://www.aiac.it/riprid) should be adopted at large scale.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a relatively high risk for allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, schools are not sufficiently trained and confident in handling children suffering from food allergy. This study aimed to measure the improvement of school personnel's self-efficacy in managing food allergy and anaphylaxis at school after a specific multidisciplinary training course. METHODS: A total of 592 teachers and school caretakers completed the School Personnel Self-Efficacy-Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Questionnaire (S.PER.SE-FAAQ) before and after the course. The median difference, along with I quartile and III quartile, in scores between baseline and post-intervention assessment was calculated. A conditional regression tree was fitted for each outcome measured after the educational intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, school personnel reported low self-efficacy in anaphylaxis management (AM), especially in recognizing anaphylaxis symptoms and administering proper drugs. After the specific multidisciplinary training course, all scores improved. AM scores particularly showed a significant increase. School personnel's post-training self-efficacy was found to be related to initial levels. Some indicative threshold values emerged. Remarkably, participants with a low self-efficacy at baseline seemed to particularly benefit from the training. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlighted the effectiveness of specific multidisciplinary training courses in improving teachers' and school caretakers' self-efficacy in managing food allergy and anaphylaxis. The S.PER.SE-FAAQ is confirmed to be an easy and helpful tool to assess the level of food allergy and anaphylaxis management in the school staff and training effectiveness.

5.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(3): 565-573, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) has currently excellent results with either transventricular or transatrial approach. However, it is unclear as to which has better late outcomes and what role of residual pulmonary valve (PV) regurgitation in the long term is. We report on late clinical outcomes after repair in a large series of patients with TOF, focusing on the type of surgical technique. METHODS: This analysis is a retrospective multicentre study on patients undergoing TOF repair in infancy. The exclusion criteria of the study were TOF with pulmonary atresia or absent PV. RESULTS: We selected 720 patients who had undergone TOF repair (median age 5.7 months, interquartile range 3.7-11.7). Preoperative cyanotic spells occurred in 18%. A transatrial repair was performed in 433 (60.1%) patients. The PV was preserved in 249 (35%) patients, while the right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed with a transannular patch (60.4%) or a conduit (4.6%) in the rest of the patients. At a median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-21, 86% complete), 10 (1.6%) patients died, while 39 (6.3%) patients required surgical reoperation and 72 (11.7%) patients required an interventional procedure. The propensity match analysis showed that the incidence of postoperative complications and adverse events at follow-up were significantly increased in patients undergoing transventricular approach repair with transannular patch (P = 0.006) and PV preservation was a significant protective factor against postoperative complications (P = 0.009, odds ratio 0.5) and late adverse events (P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical repair of TOF in infancy is a safe procedure, with good late clinical outcomes. However, transatrial approach and PV preservation at repair are associated with lower early and late morbidity.

6.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 21(1): 77-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848776

RESUMO

Blood banking is a long and complex process requiring an accurate screening of potential donors and high-quality control systems. Previous studies in literature investigated factors potentially determining a higher cell levels with the aim of optimizing donors' selection and improving banking process. This study aims to identify factors associated with the concentration of stem cells in umbilical cord blood, so increasing the probability of bankability, focusing on the possible implications in terms of obstetric and resources management. This is a retrospective study conducted in the Obstetric Units of two Italian Hospitals in Montebelluna and Castelfranco Veneto. Study has been conducted on cord blood units banked between 1999 and 2015. Data on medical histories and clinical characteristics of mother and baby have been retrieved via a retrospective examination of medical records. A total of 869 cord blood units were studied. At multivariable analysis, in agreement with literature, birthweight and placental weight have been found to be associated with higher concentration of total nucleated cells. As additional factor, amount of fluid infused was associated with cord blood units' count. This study is the first one to clearly identify the role of fluid infusion on cord blood units' counts in addition to placental weight and delivery. Some non-modifiable features can help in predicting bankability from pre-natal aspects to factors more related with obstetric management is suggested.

7.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 317, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing number of medical literature and textual data in online repositories led to an exponential increase in the workload of researchers involved in citation screening for systematic reviews. This work aims to combine machine learning techniques and data preprocessing for class imbalance to identify the outperforming strategy to screen articles in PubMed for inclusion in systematic reviews. METHODS: We trained four binary text classifiers (support vector machines, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and elastic-net regularized generalized linear models) in combination with four techniques for class imbalance: random undersampling and oversampling with 50:50 and 35:65 positive to negative class ratios and none as a benchmark. We used textual data of 14 systematic reviews as case studies. Difference between cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for machine learning techniques with and without preprocessing (delta AUC) was estimated within each systematic review, separately for each classifier. Meta-analytic fixed-effect models were used to pool delta AUCs separately by classifier and strategy. RESULTS: Cross-validated AUC-ROC for machine learning techniques (excluding k-nearest neighbor) without preprocessing was prevalently above 90%. Except for k-nearest neighbor, machine learning techniques achieved the best improvement in conjunction with random oversampling 50:50 and random undersampling 35:65. CONCLUSIONS: Resampling techniques slightly improved the performance of the investigated machine learning techniques. From a computational perspective, random undersampling 35:65 may be preferred.

8.
Trials ; 20(1): 710, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with analgesic and sedative drugs in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) may lead to undesirable effects such as dependence and tolerance. Moreover, during analgosedation weaning, patients may develop clinical signs of withdrawal, known as withdrawal syndrome (WS). Some studies indicate that dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, may be useful to prevent WS, but no clear evidence supports these data. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in reducing the occurrence of WS during analgosedation weaning, and to clearly assess its safety. METHODS: We will perform an adaptive, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients aged < 18 years receiving continuous intravenous analgosedation treatment for at least 5 days and presenting with clinical conditions that allow analgosedation weaning will be randomly assigned to treatment A (dexmedetomidine) or treatment B (placebo). The treatment will be started 24 h before the analgosedation weaning at 0.4 µg/kg/h, increased by 0.2 µg/kg/h per hour up to 0.8 µg/kg/h (neonate: 0.2 µg/kg/h, increased by 0.1 µg/kg/h per hour up to 0.4 µg/kg/h) and continued throughout the whole weaning time. The primary endpoint is the efficacy of the treatment, defined by the reduction in the WS rate among patients treated with dexmedetomidine compared with patients treated with placebo. Safety will be assessed by collecting any potentially related adverse event. The sample size assuring a power of 90% is 77 patients for each group (total N = 154 patients). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University-Hospital S.Orsola-Malpighi of Bologna on 22 March 2017. DISCUSSION: The present trial will allow us to clearly assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in reducing the occurrence of WS during weaning from analgosedation drugs. In addition, the study will provide a unique insight into the safety profile of dexmedetomidine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03645603. Registered on 24 August 2018. EudraCT, 2015-002114-80. Retrospectively registered on 2 January 2019.

9.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717327

RESUMO

Fruits and vegetables (FV) are very important for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), but it has been demonstrated that FV consumption is below that recommended. Several companies have worked to offer FV concentrates, but it remains unclear whether they represent a potentially effective means of reducing the burden of NCDs. The present study provides a systematic review aimed at assessing the effect of FV concentrate supplementation on select parameters that are known to be risk factors for NCDs. The systematic review was done according to the PRISMA guidelines. Relevant studies were identified through the online databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase. The physiological parameters of interest were total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, plasmatic homocysteine, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. Data extraction was performed in duplicate. The results of the systematic review provided input for a Markov chain simulation model aimed at estimating the public health consequences of various scenarios of FV concentrate utilization on NCDs burden. The present results suggest a positive and significant role of FV concentrate supplementation on select parameters known to affect the risk of NCDs. Such an effect might be hypothesized to turn into mitigation of the burden of those NCDs modulated by the physiological parameters analyzed in the present systematic review.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(18): 2278-2291, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) expands the risk stratification potential of stress echocardiography (SE) based on stress-induced regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of CFVR. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study initially screened 3,410 patients (2,061 [60%] male; age 63 ± 11 years; ejection fraction 61 ± 9%) with known or suspected coronary artery disease and/or heart failure. All patients underwent SE (exercise, n = 1,288; vasodilator, n = 1,860; dobutamine, n = 262) based on new or worsening RWMA in 20 accredited laboratories of 8 countries. CFVR was calculated as the stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity pulsed-Doppler assessment of LAD flow. A subset of 1,867 patients was followed up. RESULTS: The success rate for CFVR on LAD was 3,002 of 3,410 (feasibility = 88%). Reduced (≤2.0) CFVR was found in 896 of 3,002 (30%) patients. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, inducible RWMA (odds ratio [OR]: 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9 to 8.5; p < 0.01), abnormal left ventricular contractile reserve (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.7 to 4.2; p < 0.01), and B-lines (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; p = 0.01) were associated with reduced CFVR. During a median follow-up time of 16 months, 218 events occurred. RWMA (hazard ratio: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.3; p < 0.001) and reduced CFVR (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.009) were independently associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: CFVR is feasible with all SE protocols. Reduced CFVR is often accompanied by RWMA, abnormal LVCR, and pulmonary congestion during stress, and shows independent value over RWMA in predicting an adverse outcome.

11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(4 Suppl 2): 8-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: there has been a long-standing, consistent use worldwide of Healthcare Administrative Databases (HADs) for epidemiological purposes, especially to identify acute and chronic health conditions. These databases are able to reflect health-related conditions at a population level through disease-specific case-identification algorithms that combine information coded in multiple HADs. In Italy, in the past 10 years, HAD-based case-identification algorithms have experienced a constant increase, with a significant extension of the spectrum of identifiable diseases. Besides estimating incidence and/or prevalence of diseases, these algorithms have been used to enroll cohorts, monitor quality of care, assess the effect of environmental exposure, and identify health outcomes in analytic studies. Despite the rapid increase in the use of case-identification algorithms, information on their accuracy and misclassification rate is currently unavailable for most conditions. OBJECTIVES: to define a protocol to systematically review algorithms used in Italy in the past 10 years for the identification of several chronic and acute diseases, providing an accessible overview to future users in the Italian and international context. METHODS: PubMed will be searched for original research articles, published between 2007 and 2017, in Italian or English. The search string consists of a combination of free text and MeSH terms with a common part on HADs and a disease-specific part. All identified papers will be screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. All articles that used/defined an algorithm for the identification of each disease of interest using Italian HADs will be included. Algorithms with exclusive use of death certificates, pathology register, general practitioner or pediatrician data will be excluded. Pertinent papers will be classified according to the objective for which the algorithm was used, and only articles that used algorithms with "primary objectives" (I disease occurrence; II population/cohort selection; III outcome identification) will be considered for algorithm extraction. The HADs used (hospital discharge records, drug prescriptions, etc.), ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes, ATC classification of drugs, follow-back periods, and age ranges applied by the algorithms will be collected. Further information on specific accuracy measures from external validations, sensitivity analyses, and the contribution of each source will be recorded. This protocol will be applied for 16 different systematic reviews concerning eighteen diseases (Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Diabetes mellitus, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Acute myocardial infarction, Ischemic heart disease, Stroke, Hypertension, Heart failure, Congenital heart anomalies, Parkinson's disease, Multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Asthma, Inflammatory bowel disease, Celiac disease, Chronic kidney failure). CONCLUSION: this protocol defines a standardized approach to extensively examine and compare all experiences of case identification algorithms in Italy, on the 18 abovementioned diseases. The methodology proposed may be applied to other systematic reviews concerning diseases not included in this project, as well as other settings, including international ones. Considering the increasing availability of healthcare data, developing standard criteria to describe and update characteristics of published algorithms would be of great use to enhance awareness in the choice of algorithms and provide a greater comparability of results.

12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(4 Suppl 2): 51-61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to identify and describe all hypertension, heart failure (HF), and congenital heart disease case-identification algorithms by means of Italian Healthcare Administrative Databases (HADs), through the review of papers published in the past 10 years. METHODS: this study is part of a project that systematically reviewed case-identification algorithms for 18 acute and chronic conditions by means of HADs in Italy. PubMed was searched for original articles, published between 2007 and 2017, in Italian or English. The search string consisted of a combination of free text and MeSH terms with a common part that focused on HADs and a disease-specific part. All identified papers were screened by two independent reviewers. Pertinent papers were classified according to the objective for which the algorithm had been used, and only articles that used algorithms for primary objectives (I disease occurrence; II population/cohort selection; III outcome identification) were considered for algorithm extraction. The HADs used (hospital discharge records, drug prescriptions, etc.), ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes, ATC classification of drugs, follow-back periods, and age ranges applied by the algorithms have been reported. Further information on specific objective(s), accuracy measures, sensitivity analyses, and the contribution of each HAD have also been recorded. RESULTS: the search strategy identified 429 papers for hypertension, 479 for HF, and 138 for congenital heart diseases. After title/abstract and full-text screening, the review led to the inclusion of 21 articles for hypertension, 24 for HF, and only 1 for congenital heart diseases. Eighteen algorithms had a primary objective (5 hypertension, 12 HF, 1 congenital heart diseases). All the hypertension algorithms were based on the drug prescription database, except for one algorithm that also used the hospital discharge records and the exemption from co-payment database. As for HF, all the algorithms employed the hospital discharge record database and only two algorithms used another information source. The only algorithm identified for congenital heart diseases was based on the hospital discharge database. The algorithm identified for congenital heart diseases was validated, showing excellent performance. Conversely, only one hypertension algorithm was validated, and none of the HF algorithms were validated - even though 5 out of 12 algorithms were based on previous algorithms used at both national and international level. CONCLUSION: the findings of the present study showed wide use of Italian administrative databases for the detection of hypertension and heart failure cases. However, the validity of the algorithms in most cases has not been tested, highlighting the need for introducing stricter requirements to enforce the assessment of the validity of the algorithms used.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1156, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choking is one of the leading causes of death among unintentional injuries in young children. Food choking represents a considerable public health burden, which might be reduced through increased effective preventative education programs. We present a protocol for a community intervention trial termed CHOP (CHOking Prevention project) that aimed to teach Italian families how to prevent food choking injuries and increase knowledge relating to nutrition. METHODS: Italian educational facilities were enrolled. Stratified randomization blocked by geographical area was performed. Each stratum was randomized to one of three different intervention strategies or to a control group. Educational intervention was delivered in the schools by experts and certified trainers as per the following three intervention strategies: directly to families (Strategy A); to teaching staff only, who subsequently delivered the same educational intervention to families (Strategy B); to health service staff only, who then delivered the educational intervention to teaching staff, who subsequently delivered the intervention to families (Strategy C). Participants completed a questionnaire about their knowledge on the topics presented during the educational interventions (pre-, post-, and follow-up of intervention). Information from the questionnaires was synthetized into 6 indicators in order to measure how effective each intervention strategy was. DISCUSSION: The issue of food choking injuries in children is relevant to public health. The protocol we present provides an opportunity to progress towards overcoming such challenges through a working model that can be implemented also in other countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03218618. The study was registered on 14 July 2017.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidadores/educação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Corpos Estranhos/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Perinat Med ; 47(8): 885-893, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421044

RESUMO

Background Preterm newborns may be discharged when clinical conditions are stable. Several criteria for early discharge have been proposed in the literature. This study carried out the first quantitative comparison of their impact in terms of hospitalization savings, safety and costs. Methods This study was based on the clinical histories of 213 premature infants born in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Padova University Hospital between 2013 and 2014. Seventeen early discharge criteria were drawn from the literature and retrospectively applied to these data, and computation of hospitalization savings, safety and costs implied by each criterion was carried out. Results Among the criteria considered, average gains ranged from 1.1 to 10.3 hospital days and between 0.3 and 1.1 fewer infections per discharged infant. Criteria that led to saving more hospital days had higher cost-effectiveness in terms of crisis and infection, and they spared infants from more infections. However, episodes of apnea and bradycardia were detected after the potential early discharge date for all criteria, with a mean number of episodes numbering between 0.3 and 1.4. Conclusion The results highlight a clear trade-off between days saved and health risks for infants, with potential consequences for health care costs.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450546

RESUMO

The present study aims to compare the performance of eight Machine Learning Techniques (MLTs) in the prediction of hospitalization among patients with heart failure, using data from the Gestione Integrata dello Scompenso Cardiaco (GISC) study. The GISC project is an ongoing study that takes place in the region of Puglia, Southern Italy. Patients with a diagnosis of heart failure are enrolled in a long-term assistance program that includes the adoption of an online platform for data sharing between general practitioners and cardiologists working in hospitals and community health districts. Logistic regression, generalized linear model net (GLMN), classification and regression tree, random forest, adaboost, logitboost, support vector machine, and neural networks were applied to evaluate the feasibility of such techniques in predicting hospitalization of 380 patients enrolled in the GISC study, using data about demographic characteristics, medical history, and clinical characteristics of each patient. The MLTs were compared both without and with missing data imputation. Overall, models trained without missing data imputation showed higher predictive performances. The GLMN showed better performance in predicting hospitalization than the other MLTs, with an average accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 81.2%, 87.5%, and 75%, respectively. Present findings suggest that MLTs may represent a promising opportunity to predict hospital admission of heart failure patients by exploiting health care information generated by the contact of such patients with the health care system.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450560

RESUMO

The massive use of web marketing makes the monitoring of nutrition and health claims used in advertising campaigns much more difficult. The present study aimed at reviewing the website content for bottled waters produced in Italy to assess (i) if nutrition and health claims are reported, (ii) what types of nutrition and health claims are reported most frequently, and (iii) if the nutrition and health claims could be considered appropriate according to the current regulation in the field. A review of the website content of the 253 bottled waters produced in Italy and reported in the annual report of Bevitalia 2016-2017 was conducted. For each brand, indications related to the preventive, curative or therapeutic properties of the water reported were examined. Bottled waters that included potentially misleading information apparently not consistent with the European Directive on the exploitation and marketing of natural mineral waters were identified. Forty bottled waters with uncertain website content were identified. The information reported in the websites referred most often to beneficial effects for urinary tract and cardiovascular systems. Present results highlight, using the bottled water case study, that website content sometimes happens to deliver misleading information to consumers, also thanks to uncertain regulation in this sensitive field.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Promoção da Saúde , Internet , Marketing , Águas Minerais/normas , Humanos , Itália , Valor Nutritivo
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012759, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340695

RESUMO

Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are widely employed for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Despite technological improvements, patients often need to undergo generator replacement, which entails the risk of periprocedural complications. Our aim was to estimate the service life of ICDs over a 10-year interval and to assess the main causes of replacement on the basis of data from the National ICD Registry of the Italian Society of Arrhythmology and Cardiac Pacing (AIAC). Methods and Results The registry includes data from over 400 hospitals in Italy. We included all patients who underwent device replacement from calendar years 2007 to 2016. The median service life of the ICDs and its trend over the years was estimated across the 3 types of devices (single-chamber, dual-chamber, cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator) and the indication to implantation. The causes of replacement were also analyzed. We included 29 158 records from 27 676 patients (80.9% men; mean age at device replacement 65.8±12.0 years). The median service life was 57.3 months (interquartile range 27.8 months). Over the years, service life showed an increasing trend. The majority of patients underwent elective replacement because of battery end of life, and over the years there was a significant reduction of replacement for recalls, erosion/infections, and cardiac resynchronization therapy upgrading. Conclusions Our data from a large single-nation population showed that the trend of ICD service life, independently from ICD type, indication, and settings, significantly improved over time. Moreover, there was a striking reduction of interventions for upgrading and infection/erosion. This favorable trend has important clinical, organizational, and financial implications.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212952

RESUMO

(1) Background: The high heterogeneity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) makes the study of this condition challenging. In subjects affected by Crohn's disease (CD), extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) have a remarkable potential impact on health status. Increasing numbers of patient characteristics and the small size of analyzed samples make EIMs prediction very difficult. Under such constraints, Bayesian machine learning techniques (BMLTs) have been proposed as a robust alternative to classical models for outcome prediction. This study aims to determine whether BMLT could improve EIM prediction and statistical support for the decision-making process of clinicians. (2) Methods: Three of the most popular BMLTs were employed in this study: Naϊve Bayes (NB), Bayesian Network (BN) and Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART). They were applied to a retrospective observational Italian study of IBD genetics. (3) Results: The performance of the model is strongly affected by the features of the dataset, and BMLTs poorly classify EIM appearance. (4) Conclusions: This study shows that BMLTs perform worse than expected in classifying the presence of EIMs compared to classical statistical tools in a context where mixed genetic and clinical data are available but relevant data are also missing, as often occurs in clinical practice.

19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered serum magnesium (Mg) level in the human body has been hypothesized to have a role in the prediction of hospitalization and mortality; however, the reported outcomes are not conclusive. AIMS: The present study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum Mg and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients admitted to the medical ward of two hospitals in the Veneto region (Italy). METHODS: Patients > 18 years hospitalized in the medical wards of the hospitals of Vittorio Veneto and Conegliano, Italy (from January 12, 2011, through December 27, 2016) with at least one measurement of serum Mg were included in the study. A logistic regression model was used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted (by age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity index, discharge diagnosis' class) association of serum Mg and IHM. RESULTS: In total 5024 patients were analyzed, corresponding to 6980 total admissions. The unadjusted analysis showed that IHM risk was significantly higher with 0.2 mg/dl incremental serum Mg level change from 2.4 mg/dl to 2.6, (OR 1.71 95% CI 1.55-1.89) and with 0.2 mg/dl change from serum Mg level of 1.4 mg/dl to 1.2 mg/dl, (OR 1.28 95% CI 1.17-1.40). Such results were confirmed at adjusted analysis. DISCUSSION: Present findings have relevant implications for the clinical management of patients suffering from medical conditions, highlighting the need for analyzing Mg concentration carefully. CONCLUSIONS: Serum Mg levels seem to be a good predictor of IHM.

20.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(7): 868-874, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163110

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to understand how the attitudes towards food labelling in the Chilean population have changed after the introduction of the Chilean law on food labelling and advertising. A computer-assisted telephone interview was conducted in 2012 and 2016, employing the same procedures. The difference in outcomes between 2012 and 2016 was assessed using a logistic regression model. One hundred and sixty-seven subjects responded to both the 2012 and 2016 survey editions (respondents). For both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses, the respondents in 2016 were more likely to be involved in a programme to lose weight and to consider food labelling the most effective intervention introduced to date to promote healthy nutrition. However, no significant differences were reported in both self-reported and objectively assessed understandings of front-of-pack-labelling. Evidence suggests a positive perception among Chileans regarding the effectiveness of the new law.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Adulto , Feminino , Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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