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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only few studies compared the surgical morbidity and mortality of thoracoscopic segmentectomy versus lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer, in particular, by relating the segmental resections with the corresponding anatomical lobes. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 7487 patients who underwent VATS lobectomy (7269) or segmentectomy (218) from January 2014 to July 2019. A propensity score matching approach was used to account for potential confounding factors between the 2 groups. After matching, 349 lobectomies and 208 segmentectomies were included in the analysis. We analysed the operative and postoperative outcomes of video-assisted anatomical segmentectomy compared with video-assisted lobectomy and, in details, the results of segmentectomy with its corresponding lobectomy in a large cohort of patients from the Italian VATS Group Registry. RESULTS: The overall conversion rate to thoracotomy was not statistically different between the groups (27 patients 8% vs 7 patients 3%, P = 0.1). The lobectomy group had a greater number of resected lymph nodes (median 11 vs 8, P = 0.006). No significant differences were detected in 30-day mortality (1.4%, 5 patients vs 0.9%, 2 patients), overall complications (18%, 62 patients vs 14%, 29 patients) and prolonged air leakage (31 patients, 9% vs 12 patients, 6%) between lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. No statistical differences were found regarding the median duration of drainage (3.2 days, P = 1) and the overall median length of hospital stay (6.4 days, P = 0.1) between the 2 groups. In the context of segmentectomy versus corresponding lobectomy, the right upper lobectomy compared with right upper segmentectomy showed a higher number of resected lymph nodes (P = 0.027). No statistical differences were reported in terms of conversion rate and postoperative complication and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Segmentectomy could be considered a safe procedure without significant differences compared to thoracoscopic lobectomy in terms of postoperative morbidity and mortality.

2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-15, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to explore if a relationship exists between the immediate sharp increase in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions and the mortality rates in Italy. METHODS: Official epidemiological data on COVID-19 were employed. The forward lagged (0, 3, 7, 14 days) daily variations in the number of deaths according to the number of days after the outbreak started and the daily increases in ICU admissions were estimated. RESULTS: A direct relationship between the sharp increase of ICU admissions and mortality rates has been shown. Furthermore, the analysis of the forward lagged daily variations in the number of deaths showed that an increase in the daily number of ICU admissions resulted in significantly higher mortality after 3, 7, and 14 days. The most pronounced effect was detected after 7 days, with 250 deaths (95% C.I. 108.1-392.8) for the highest increase in the ICU admissions -from 100 to 200. CONCLUSIONS: These results would serve as a warning for the scientific community and the health care decision-makers to prevent a quick and out-of-control saturation of the ICU beds in case of a relapse of the COVID-19 outbreak.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to derive and validate a prediction model of survival and recurrence among Western patients undergoing resection of gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for gastric cancer at seven US institutions and a major Italian center from 2000 to 2020 were included. Variables included in the multivariable Cox models were identified using an automated model selection procedure based on an algorithm. Best models were selected using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The performance of the models was internally cross-validated via the bootstrap resampling procedure. Discrimination was evaluated using the Harrell's Concordance Index and accuracy was evaluated using calibration plots. Nomograms were made available as online tools. RESULTS: Overall, 895 patients met inclusion criteria. Age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.84), presence of preoperative comorbidities (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.41), lymph node ratio (LNR; HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.42-2.01), and lymphovascular invasion (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.33-2.45) were associated with overall survival (OS; all p < 0.01), whereas tumor location (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.23-3.02), T category (Tis-T1 vs. T3: HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.66), LNR (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.45-2.28), and lymphovascular invasion (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.01-2.22) were associated with disease-free survival (DFS; all p < 0.05) The models demonstrated good discrimination on internal validation relative to OS (C-index 0.70) and DFS (C-index 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: A web-based nomograms to predict OS and DFS among gastric cancer patients following resection demonstrated good accuracy and discrimination and good performance on internal validation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as well as its treatment with acid-suppressive medications have been considered possible risk factors for the development of asthma, but few studies have disentangled the role of GERD with that of its treatment. The present study aimed at estimating the association of treated and untreated GERD in the first year of life with the risk of asthma. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including all children born between 2004 and 2015 registered in Pedianet, an Italian primary care database. We analyzed the association of children exposed to GERD (both treated and untreated) in the first year of life with the risk of developing clinically assessed asthma (clinical asthma) after 3 years. Secondary outcomes included asthma identified by anti-asthmatic medications (treated asthma) and wheezing after 3 years. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated comparing children with and without GERD, stratifying by treatment with acid-suppressive medications. RESULTS: Out of 86,381 children, 1652 (1.9%) were affected by GERD in the first year of life, of which 871 (53%) were treated with acid-suppressive medications. Compared with controls, children with GERD were at increased risk of clinical asthma (HR: 1.40, 95% CI 1.15-1.70). Risks were similar between treated and untreated GERD (p = 0.41). Comparable results were found for treated asthma, but no risk increase was seen for wheezing. DISCUSSION: Early-life GERD was associated with subsequent childhood asthma. Similar risks among children with treated and untreated GERD suggest that acid-suppressive medications are unlikely to play a major role in the development asthma.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574738

RESUMO

Population aging is related to a huge growth in healthcare and welfare costs. Therefore, wearable devices could be strategic for minimizing years of disability in old age and monitoring patients' lifestyles and health. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using smart devices to monitor patients' physical activity in a primary care setting. To assess the acceptance of this novel technology from the point of view of both patients and healthcare professionals, two questionnaires (one paper-based and one ex-novo developed) were administered to 11 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a non-compliant behavior towards the therapeutic indications of their general practitioner (GP). Seven participants would continue to use a wearable activity tracker to monitor their health. We observed that 75% of patients reported a device's characteristics satisfaction level of over 80% of the total score assigned to this dimension. No differences were observed in the questionnaire's scores between the two professionals categories (GPs and nurses). Three dimensions (equipment characteristics, subjective norm, perceived risks, perceived ease-of-use and facilitating conditions) correlated > 0.5 with the device's acceptability level. Some weak correlations were observed between healthcare professionals' perception and patients' parameters, particularly between the dimensions of collaboration and web interface ease-of-use and patients' median number of steps and hours of sleep. In conclusion, despite the limited number of subjects involved, a good acceptance level towards these non-medical devices was observed, according to both patients' and healthcare professionals' impressions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with binary outcome the estimate of the marginal treatment effect can be biased by prognostic baseline covariates adjustment. Methods that target the marginal odds ratio, allowing for improved precision and power, have been developed. METHODS: The performance of different estimators for the treatment effect in the frequentist (targeted maximum likelihood estimator, inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting, parametric G-computation, and the semiparametric locally efficient estimator) and Bayesian (model averaging), adjustment for confounding, and generalized Bayesian causal effect estimation frameworks are assessed and compared in a simulation study under different scenarios. The use of these estimators is illustrated on an RCT in type II diabetes. RESULTS: Model mis-specification does not increase the bias. The approaches that are not doubly robust have increased standard error (SE) under the scenario of mis-specification of the treatment model. The Bayesian estimators showed a higher type II error than frequentist estimators if noisy covariates are included in the treatment model. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting for prognostic baseline covariates in the analysis of RCTs can have more power than intention-to-treat based tests. However, for some classes of model, when the regression model is mis-specified, inflated type I error and potential bias on treatment effect estimate may arise.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Viés , Causalidade , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Probabilidade
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371876

RESUMO

The present study aimed to provide a descriptive analysis of the nutrient profile of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) marketed in Italy according to three front-of-pack labeling (FOPL) schemes implemented by France, i.e., the Nutriscore; by the United Kingdom, i.e., Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL); and by Italy, i.e., the NutrInform battery. The analysis was made in fourteen food product categories, corresponding to 124 foods. The application of the Nutriscore scheme showed that a significant proportion of foods (23%) were awarded an A or B. Furthermore, the analysis according to the MTL showed that food products that were above the threshold ("red") for fat, saturated fats, sugars, and salt ranged from 13% to 31%. Interestingly, even though all foods considered in the analysis were UPF, they were heterogeneous in nutritional composition, as demonstrated by the FOPL schemes applied, showing that UPF represent a heterogeneous group of foods with different characteristics. Such a finding may have relevant implications for epidemiological studies that analyze the association between UPF consumption and health outcomes, suggesting the need for better characterization of the effects of UPF intake on human health.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Fast Foods/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Itália
9.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359385

RESUMO

The present work aims to identify the predictors of hemodynamic failure (HF) developed during pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay testing a set of machine learning techniques (MLTs), comparing their ability to predict the outcome of interest. The study involved patients admitted to PICUs between 2010 and 2020. Data were extracted from the Italian Network of Pediatric Intensive Care Units (TIPNet) registry. The algorithms considered were generalized linear model (GLM), recursive partition tree (RPART), random forest (RF), neural networks models, and extreme gradient boosting (XGB). Since the outcome is rare, upsampling and downsampling algorithms have been applied for imbalance control. For each approach, the main performance measures were reported. Among an overall sample of 29,494 subjects, only 399 developed HF during the PICU stay. The median age was about two years, and the male gender was the most prevalent. The XGB algorithm outperformed other MLTs in predicting HF development, with a median ROC measure of 0.780 (IQR 0.770-0.793). PIM 3, age, and base excess were found to be the strongest predictors of outcome. The present work provides insights for the prediction of HF development during PICU stay using machine-learning algorithms.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444637

RESUMO

The present study aimed to analyze sleep quality and quality of Life (QoL) in patients undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI). It was conducted at the Interventional Cardiology Unit of the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health of the University of Padova on 27 adult patients who underwent TAVI via the transfemoral approach. Patients completed two validated instruments, i.e., the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L), on the day of discharge and one month after the hospital discharge. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled with a severe aortic stenosis diagnosis, treated with transfemoral TAVI procedure. The study population included seventeen poor sleepers and ten good sleepers with a median age of 81.92 years overall. The global PSQI evaluation revealed a small significant improvement at follow-up (p-value 0.007). Small positive changes were detected in the Self-care and Usual activity domains of the EQ-5D-5L and the EQ-VAS. No correlation was detected between EQ-5D-5L and sleep quality. The present study confirms the importance of sleep quality monitoring in patients who undergo TAVI procedure for aortic stenosis treatment.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360301

RESUMO

The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the factors associated with the mortality of elderly Italians diagnosed with coronavirus who resided in institutions or who were hospitalized because of the disease. METHODS: A systematic review following the recommendations of The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) was carried out, utilizing the PEO strategy, i.e., Population, Exposure and Outcome. In this case, the population was the elderly aged over 65 years old, the exposure referred to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the outcome was mortality. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI/PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were used until 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Five Italian studies were included in this meta-analysis, with the number of elderly people included varying between 18 and 1591 patients. The main morbidities presented by the elderly in the studies were dementia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The factors associated with the mortality of elderly Italian people diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 who lived in institutions or who were hospitalized because of the disease were evaluated. It was found that dementia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and hypertension were the main diagnosed diseases for mortality in elderly people with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Environ Res ; 203: 111794, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and widespread environmental pollutants. People living in Veneto Region (Italy) have been exposed from the late 1970s to 2013 to elevated concentrations of PFAS through drinking water. The effect of PFAS on thyroid function is still controversial and studies focusing on thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum PFAS and TSH levels and its dose-response relationship in a large population of highly exposed individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 21,424 individuals aged 14-39 living in the contaminated area. In the main analysis, participants with prevalent thyroid disease and pregnant women were excluded. Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were measured. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the association between TSH levels and serum PFAS, using thin plate spline smooth terms to model the potential non-linear relationship. Models were stratified by sex and age group and adjusted for potential confounders. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between PFAS with prevalent self-reported thyroid disorders. RESULTS: We found no association between TSH and any type of PFAS among adolescents or women. A decrease in TSH concentration was observed in association with an IQR increase in PFHxS and a mild decrease in TSH at low levels of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS among male adults. Self-reported thyroid disease was more common among women with higher levels of PFNA concentrations, whereas all other PFAS were not associated with thyroid diseases regardless of sex or age. CONCLUSIONS: Overall there is no evidence of an association between TSH and PFAS. However, some results are suggestive of a possible inverse association of TSH with PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS among adult males.

13.
World J Surg ; 45(11): 3449-3457, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult, benign, non-iatrogenic bronchoesophageal fistula (BEF) is a rare condition, which is occasionally described in single case reports. Therefore, little is known about its possible causes, presentation and management. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature in MEDLINE, PubMed Central and EMBASE databases between 1990 and 2020 was carried out to identify all cases of BEF. The initial database search identified 19,452 articles, of which 183 (251 individual patient cases) were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: Main causes of BEF were congenital malformations (97/251, 38.7%) and infections (82/251, 32.7%), while 33/251 (13.1%) fistulae were regarded as idiopathic and 39/251 (15.5%) attributed to other causes. Esophagograpy was the most sensitive method of diagnosis (97.4%) compared with esophagoscopy (78.9%), computed tomography (49.6%) and bronchoscopy (46.0%). Definitive treatment was surgical for 176 patients (70%), endoscopic for 25 (10%) and medical for 37 (14.7%). Compared with congenital BEFs, infective BEFs had shorter median symptom duration and were distributed more proximally over the bronchial tree. Definitive treatment was almost only surgical for congenital BEFs, while infective BEFs were treated also endoscopically (12%) and by medical therapy (38%). Morbidity, treatment failure and recurrence rates were higher for infective BEFs. CONCLUSIONS: BEFs are rare. Symptoms are non-specific and a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. Patients with infective BEF tend to have a more severe clinical picture than those with congenital BEF. Surgery is the main treatment for patients affected by congenital BEF, while infective BEFs may heal conservatively.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206234

RESUMO

(1) Background: Propensity score methods gained popularity in non-interventional clinical studies. As it may often occur in observational datasets, some values in baseline covariates are missing for some patients. The present study aims to compare the performances of popular statistical methods to deal with missing data in propensity score analysis. (2) Methods: Methods that account for missing data during the estimation process and methods based on the imputation of missing values, such as multiple imputations, were considered. The methods were applied on the dataset of an ongoing prospective registry for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery disease. The performances were assessed in terms of the overall balance of baseline covariates. (3) Results: Methods that explicitly deal with missing data were superior to classical complete case analysis. The best balance was observed when propensity scores were estimated with a method that accounts for missing data using a stochastic approximation of the expectation-maximization algorithm. (4) Conclusions: If missing at random mechanism is plausible, methods that use missing data to estimate propensity score or impute them should be preferred. Sensitivity analyses are encouraged to evaluate the implications methods used to handle missing data and estimate propensity score.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pontuação de Propensão
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281037

RESUMO

Delirium is a psycho-organic syndrome common in hospitalized patients, especially the elderly, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study aims to identify the predictors that are mostly associated with the risk of delirium episodes using a machine learning technique (MLT). A random forest (RF) algorithm was used to evaluate the association between the subject's characteristics and the 4AT (the 4 A's test) score screening tool for delirium. RF algorithm was implemented using information based on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, drugs and procedures. Of the 78 patients enrolled in the study, 49 (63%) were at risk for delirium, 32 (41%) had at least one episode of delirium during the hospitalization (38% in orthopedics and 31% both in internal medicine and in the geriatric ward). The model explained 75.8% of the variability of the 4AT score with a root mean squared error of 3.29. Higher age, the presence of dementia, physical restraint, diabetes and a lower degree are the variables associated with an increase of the 4AT score. Random forest is a valid method for investigating the patients' characteristics associated with delirium onset also in small case-series. The use of this model may allow for early detection of delirium onset to plan the proper adjustment in healthcare assistance.


Assuntos
Delírio , Idoso , Algoritmos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Programas de Rastreamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a specialized procedure used to treat chronic end-stage respiratory diseases. Due to the scarcity of lung donors, constructing fair and equitable lung transplant allocation methods is an issue that has been addressed with different strategies worldwide. This work aims to describe how Italy's "national protocol for the management of surplus organs in all transplant programs" functions through an online app to allocate lung transplants. We have developed two probability models to describe the allocation process among the various transplant centers. An online app was then created. The first model considers conditional probabilities based on a protocol flowchart to compute the probability for each area and transplant center to receive each n-th organ in the period considered. The second probability model is based on the generalization of the binomial distribution to correlated binary variables, which is based on Bahadur's representation, to compute the cumulative probability for each transplant center to receive at least nth organs. Our results show that the impact of the allocation of a surplus organ depends mostly on the region where the organ was donated. The discrepancies shown by our model may be explained by a discrepancy between the northern and southern regions in relation to the number of organs donated.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Humanos , Itália , Pulmão , Doadores de Tecidos , Listas de Espera
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281108

RESUMO

Wearable devices (WDs) can objectively assess patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) in clinical trials. In this study, the feasibility and acceptability of using commercial WDs in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) will be explored. This is a prospective observational study. Participants were trained to use a WD and a smartphone to collect data on their physical activity, rest heart rate and number of hours of sleep. Validated questionnaires were also used to evaluate these outcomes. A technology acceptance questionnaire was used at the end of the follow up. In our participants an overall good compliance in wearing the device (75.1% vs. 79.8%, SAVR vs. TAVR) was assessed. Half of the patients were willing to continue using the device. Perceived ease of use is one of the domains that scored higher in the technology acceptance questionnaire. In this study we observed that the use of a WD is accepted in our frail population for an extended period. Even though commercial WDs are not tailored for clinical research, they can produce useful information on patient behavior, especially when coordinated with intervention tailored to the single patient.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 263, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological features of coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) were indicated to be somewhat different from those described in nonCOVID-19 ARDS, because of relatively preserved compliance of the respiratory system despite marked hypoxemia. We aim ascertaining whether respiratory system static compliance (Crs), driving pressure (DP), and tidal volume normalized for ideal body weight (VT/kg IBW) at the 1st day of controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in COVID-19 ARDS. METHODS: Observational multicenter cohort study. All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted to 25 ICUs belonging to the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February 28th-April 28th, 2020), who received controlled mechanical ventilation, were screened. Only patients fulfilling ARDS criteria and with complete records of Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW within the 1st day of controlled mechanical ventilation were included. Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW were collected in sedated, paralyzed and supine patients. RESULTS: A total of 704 COVID-19 patients were screened and 241 enrolled. Seventy-one patients (29%) died in ICU. The logistic regression analysis showed that: (1) Crs was not linearly associated with ICU mortality (p value for nonlinearity = 0.01), with a greater risk of death for values < 48 ml/cmH2O; (2) the association between DP and ICU mortality was linear (p value for nonlinearity = 0.68), and increasing DP from 10 to 14 cmH2O caused significant higher odds of in-ICU death (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.99); (3) VT/kg IBW was not associated with a significant increase of the risk of death (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.55-1.52). Multivariable analysis confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Crs < 48 ml/cmH2O was associated with ICU mortality, while DP was linearly associated with mortality. DP should be kept as low as possible, even in the case of relatively preserved Crs, irrespective of VT/kg IBW, to reduce the risk of death.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The involvement of mediastinal great vessels is common in advanced stage thymic tumors, which makes their surgical resection challenging. Moreover, the impact of vascular involvement on the oncological prognosis is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the surgical and oncological outcomes and the impact of vascular involvement in a population of patients operated for advanced stage thymic tumors. METHODS: A retrospective analysis on four hundred and sixty-five patients undergoing resection for advanced stage (Masaoka III-IV) thymic tumors in a single high-volume center was performed. One hundred forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the study. Patients were divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of vascular involvement. RESULTS: the two groups did not differ for the baseline characteristics and showed comparable surgical outcomes. Vascular involvement was not associated with worse overall survival but with an increased recurrence rate (p = 0.03). Multivariable analysis demonstrated a higher risk of recurrence in patients without R0 resection (HR 0.11, 0.02-0.54, p = 0.006) and with thymic carcinoma (HR 2.27, 1.22-4.24, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: resection of thymic tumors with vascular involvement can be performed with optimal surgical results in a high volume center. From the oncological point of view, the involvement of the great vessels seems to be associated with a higher recurrence rate without affecting long-term survival.

20.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2617-2631, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HRD in PDAC from PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, and online cancer genomic data sets. The main outcome was pooled prevalence of somatic and germline mutations in the better characterized HRD genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, ATR, CHEK2, RAD51, and the FANC genes). The secondary outcomes were prevalence of germline mutations overall, and in sporadic and familial cases; prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ); and prevalence of HRD based on other definitions (ie, alterations in other genes, genomic scars, and mutational signatures). Random-effects modeling with the Freeman-Tukey transformation was used for the analyses. PROSPERO registration number: (CRD42020190813). RESULTS: Sixty studies with 21,842 participants were included in the systematic review and 57 in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of germline and somatic mutations was BRCA1: 0.9%, BRCA2: 3.5%, PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2.2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, FANC: 0.5%, RAD51: 0.0%, and ATR: 0.1%. Prevalence of germline mutations was BRCA1: 0.9% (2.4% in AJ), BRCA2: 3.8% (8.2% in AJ), PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, and FANC: 0.4%. No significant differences between sporadic and familial cases were identified. HRD prevalence ranged between 14.5%-16.5% through targeted next-generation sequencing and 24%-44% through whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing allowing complementary genomic analysis, including genomic scars and other signatures (surrogate markers of HRD). CONCLUSION: Surrogate readouts of HRD identify a greater proportion of patients with HRD than analyses limited to gene-level approaches. There is a clear need to harmonize HRD definitions and to validate the optimal biomarker for treatment selection. Universal HRD screening including integrated somatic and germline analysis should be offered to all patients with PDAC.

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