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1.
Future Med Chem ; 11(13): 1645-1657, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469331

RESUMO

Selection of viral mutants resistant to compounds used in therapy is a major determinant of treatment failure, a problem akin to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In this scenario, mutagenic base and nucleoside analogs have entered the picture because they increase the mutation rate of viral populations to levels incompatible with their survival. This antiviral strategy is termed lethal mutagenesis. It has found a major impulse with the observation that some antiviral agents, which initially were considered only inhibitors of virus multiplication, may in effect exert part of their antiviral activity through mutagenesis. Here, we review the conceptual basis of lethal mutagenesis, the evidence of virus extinction through mutagenic nucleotide analogs and prospects for application in antiviral designs.

2.
Genome Biol Evol ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290967

RESUMO

Hepatoviruses show an intriguing deviated codon usage, suggesting an evolutionary signature. Abundant and rare codons in the cellular genome are scarce in the human hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome, while intermediately abundant host codons are abundant in the virus. Genotype-phenotype maps, or fitness landscapes, are a means of representing a genotype position in sequence space and uncovering how genotype relates to phenotype and fitness. Using genotype-phenotype maps of the translation efficiency, we have shown the critical role of the HAV capsid codon composition in regulating translation and determining its robustness. Adaptation to an environmental perturbation such as the artificial induction of cellular shutoff - not naturally occurring in HAV infection - involved movements in the sequence space and dramatic changes of the translation efficiency. Capsid rare codons, including abundant and rare codons of the cellular genome, slowed down the translation efficiency in conditions of no cellular shutoff. In contrast, rare capsid codons that are abundant in the cellular genome were efficiently translated in conditions of shutoff. Capsid regions very rich in slowly translated codons adapt to shutoff through sequence space movements from positions with highly robust translation to others with diminished translation robustness. These movements paralleled decreases of the capsid physical and biological robustness, and resulted in the diversification of capsid phenotypes. The deviated codon usage of extant hepatoviruses compared with that of their hosts may suggest the occurrence of a virus ancestor with an optimized codon usage with respect to an unknown ancient host.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(13): 1566-1579, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) seems to strongly suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, although little is known about the mechanism of this interaction. Both these viruses show a dynamic distribution of mutants, resulting in viral quasispecies. Next-generation sequencing is a viable approach for analyzing the composition of these mutant spectra. As the regulatory hepatitis B X protein (HBx) is essential for HBV replication, determination of HBV X gene (HBX) quasispecies complexity in HBV/HDV infection compared to HBV mono-infection may provide information on the interactions between these two viruses. AIM: To compare HBV quasispecies complexity in the HBX 5' region between chronic hepatitis delta (CHD) and chronic HBV mono-infected patients. METHODS: Twenty-four untreated patients were included: 7/24 (29.2%) with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection (CI, previously termed inactive carriers), 8/24 (33.3%) with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 9/24 (37.5%) with CHD. A serum sample from each patient was first tested for HBV DNA levels. The HBX 5' region [nucleotides (nt) 1255-1611] was then PCR-amplified for subsequent next-generation sequencing (MiSeq, Illumina, United States). HBV quasispecies complexity in the region analyzed was evaluated using incidence-based indices (number of haplotypes and number of mutations), abundance-based indices (Hill numbers of order 1 and 2), and functional indices (mutation frequency and nucleotide diversity). We also evaluated the pattern of nucleotide changes to investigate which of them could be the cause of the quasispecies complexity. RESULTS: CHB patients showed higher median HBV-DNA levels [5.4 logIU/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.5-7.9] than CHD (3.4 logIU/mL, IQR 3-7.6) (P = n.s.) or CI (3.2 logIU/mL, IQR 2.3-3.5) (P < 0.01) patients. The incidence and abundance indices indicated that HBV quasispecies complexity was significantly greater in CI than CHB. A similar trend was observed in CHD patients, although only Hill numbers of order 2 showed statistically significant differences (CHB 2.81, IQR 1.11-4.57 vs CHD 8.87, 6.56-11.18, P = 0.038). There were no significant differences in the functional indices, but CI and CHD patients also showed a trend towards greater complexity than CHB. No differences were found for any HBV quasispecies complexity indices between CHD and CI patients. G-to-A and C-to-T nucleotide changes, characteristic of APOBEC3G, were higher in CHD and CI than in CHB in genotype A haplotypes, but not in genotype D. The proportion of nt G-to-A vs A-to-G changes and C-to-T vs T-to-C changes in genotype A and D haplotypes in CHD patients showed no significant differences. In CHB and CI the results of these comparisons were dependent on HBV genotype. CONCLUSION: The lower-replication CHD and CI groups show a trend to higher quasispecies complexity than the higher-replication CHB group. The mechanisms associated with this greater complexity require elucidation.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite D Crônica/virologia , Quase-Espécies/genética , Superinfecção/virologia , Transativadores/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Replicação Viral/genética
4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 11: 2207-2210, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519058

RESUMO

Background: Controversy is ongoing about whether a minority mutant present at frequencies below 15% may be clinically relevant and should be considered to guide treatment. Methods: Resistance-associated substitution (RAS) studies were performed in patients before and at failure of antiviral treatments using Next-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequencing (NGS). Results: We have found two patients with genotype 1a infection having RAS in 3.5%-7.1% of the viral population at baseline that were selected during ledipasvir + sofosbuvir treatment. Co-selection of RAS located in a region not directly affected by the antiviral treatment also occurred. This observation calls into question, the recommendations to guide RAS-based direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment only when RAS are present in >15% of the sequences generated. Conclusion: Our results suggests that RAS study should include all three HCV DAA target proteins and minority mutants should be considered as clinically relevant.

6.
J Gen Virol ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451649

RESUMO

Cholestatic hepatitis C (CHC) is a severe form of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection recurrence that leads to high graft loss rates early after liver transplantation (LT). To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of CHC, we analysed HCV quasispecies in CHC patients compared to a control group (mild hepatitis C recurrence) by deep pyrosequencing. At the time of LT, NS5B quasispecies complexity was similar between the two groups but, after LT, it decreased more sharply in CHC patients than in the control group. Interestingly, the major variant before LT propagated efficiently and remained as the dominant sequence after LT in 62 % of CHC patients versus 11 % of controls (P=0.031). Sequence analysis of the complete non-structural region in a limited number of patients revealed a potential 12 aa signature specific to the CHC group. These data suggest that intrinsic molecular determinants in the circulating HCV quasispecies may provide a fitness advantage, contributing to the development of CHC.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A huge outbreak in the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) has hit Europe during the years 2016-2018. Outbreak control has been hampered by vaccine shortages in many countries, and to minimize their impact, reduction of antigen doses has been implemented. However, these measures may have consequences on the evolution of hepatitis A virus (HAV), leading to the emergence of antigenic variants. Cases in vaccinated MSM patients have been detected in Barcelona, opening the possibility to study HAV evolution under immune pressure. METHODS: We performed deep-sequencing analysis of ten overlapping fragments covering the complete capsid coding region of HAV. A total of 14578255 reads were obtained and used for the analysis of virus evolution in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated patients. We estimated maximum and minimum mutation frequencies, and Shannon entropy in the quasispecies of each patient. Non-synonymous (NSyn) mutations affecting residues exposed in the capsid surface were located, with respect to epitopes, using the recently described crystal structure of HAV, as an indication of its potential role in escaping to the effect of vaccines. FINDINGS: HAV evolution at the quasispecies level, in non-vaccinated and vaccinated patients, revealed higher diversity in epitope-coding regions of the vaccinated group. Although amino acid replacements occurring in and around the epitopes were observed in both groups, their abundance was significantly higher in the quasispecies of vaccinated patients, indicating ongoing processes of fixation. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest positive selection of antigenic variants in some vaccinated patients, raising concerns for new vaccination polices directed to the MSM group.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204877, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281674

RESUMO

RNA viruses replicate with a template-copying fidelity, which lies close to an extinction threshold. Increases of mutation rate by nucleotide analogues can drive viruses towards extinction. This transition is the basis of an antiviral strategy termed lethal mutagenesis. We have introduced a new diversity index, the rare haplotype load (RHL), to describe NS5B (polymerase) mutant spectra of hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations passaged in absence or presence of the mutagenic agents favipiravir or ribavirin. The increase in RHL is more prominent in mutant spectra whose expansions were due to nucleotide analogues than to multiple passages in absence of mutagens. Statistical tests for paired mutagenized versus non-mutagenized samples with 14 diversity indices show that RHL provides consistently the highest standardized effect of mutagenic treatment difference for ribavirin and favipiravir. The results indicate that the enrichment of viral quasispecies in very low frequency minority genomes can serve as a robust marker for lethal mutagenesis. The diagnostic value of RHL from deep sequencing data is relevant to experimental studies on enhanced mutagenesis of viruses, and to pharmacological evaluations of inhibitors suspected to have a mutagenic activity.

9.
Transfusion ; 58(11): 2501-2505, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted by transfusion of any type of blood component, but there are few data on the potential risk of transmitting this virus and the associated complications. We provide evidence that HEV can be transmitted by cryosupernatant plasma, and that HEV infection can act as a trigger for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A patient with a history of TTP treated with plasmapheresis 2 months previously developed jaundice and a TTP exacerbation with purpura, thrombocytopenia, schistocytes, and undetectable ADAMTS-13 activity. He was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E and treated with ribavirin. TTP remitted with remission of HEV infection. RESULTS: Traceback to determine the source of the infection showed that 1 cryosupernatant plasma among the 99 different blood components used for the patient's last plasmapheresis was positive for HEV RNA, with an estimated viral load of 5000 to 10,000 IU/mL. Phylogenetic analysis proved the transfusion-transmitted route of acute hepatitis E. CONCLUSION: In a patient with TTP, acute HEV infection transmitted by cryosupernatant plasma may trigger exacerbation of TTP, which can be controlled on remission of HEV infection with ribavirin.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 446, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high sustained virological response rates achieved with current directly-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV), around 5-10% of treated patients do not respond to current antiviral therapies, and basal resistance to DAAs is increasingly detected among treatment-naïve infected individuals. Identification of amino acid substitutions (including those in minority variants) associated with treatment failure requires analytical designs that take into account the high diversification of HCV in more than 86 subtypes according to the ICTV website (June 2017). METHODS: The methodology has involved five sequential steps: (i) to design 280 oligonucleotide primers (some including a maximum of three degenerate positions), and of which 120 were tested to amplify NS3, NS5A-, and NS5B-coding regions in a subtype-specific manner, (ii) to define a reference sequence for each subtype, (iii) to perform experimental controls to define a cut-off value for detection of minority amino acids, (iv) to establish bioinformatics' tools to quantify amino acid replacements, and (v) to validate the procedure with patient samples. RESULTS: A robust ultra-deep sequencing procedure to analyze HCV circulating in serum samples from patients infected with virus that belongs to the ten most prevalent subtypes worldwide: 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2j, 3a, 4d, 4e, 4f has been developed. Oligonucleotide primers are subtype-specific. A cut-off value of 1% mutant frequency has been established for individual mutations and haplotypes. CONCLUSION: The methodological pipeline described here is adequate to characterize in-depth mutant spectra of HCV populations, and it provides a tool to understand HCV diversification and treatment failures. The pipeline can be periodically extended in the event of HCV diversification into new genotypes or subtypes, and provides a framework applicable to other RNA viral pathogens, with potential to couple detection of drug-resistant mutations with treatment planning.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genótipo , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Falha de Tratamento , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135148

RESUMO

Purpose: The study of the cancer secretome suggests that a fraction of the intracellular proteome could play unanticipated roles in the extracellular space during tumorigenesis. A project aimed at investigating the invasive secretome led us to study the alternative extracellular function of the nuclear protein high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.Experimental Design: Antibodies against HMGA1 were tested in signaling, adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis assays using breast cancer cell lines and xenograft models. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the subcellular localization of HMGA1 in cell lines, xenograft, and patient-derived xenograft models. A cohort of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients was used to study the correlation between subcellular localization of HMGA1 and the incidence of metastasis.Results: Our data show that treatment of invasive cells with HMGA1-blocking antibodies in the extracellular space impairs their migration and invasion abilities. We also prove that extracellular HMGA1 (eHMGA1) becomes a ligand for the Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (RAGE), inducing pERK signaling and increasing migration and invasion. Using the cytoplasmic localization of HMGA1 as a surrogate marker of secretion, we showed that eHMGA1 correlates with the incidence of metastasis in a cohort of TNBC patients. Furthermore, we show that HMGA1 is enriched in the cytoplasm of tumor cells at the invasive front of primary tumors and in metastatic lesions in xenograft models.Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that eHMGA1 could become a novel drug target in metastatic TNBC and a biomarker predicting the onset of distant metastasis. Clin Cancer Res; 1-16. ©2018 AACR.

12.
J Viral Hepat ; 25(12): 1515-1525, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141252

RESUMO

The emergence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can compromise the high efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Little is known about RASs selection at very early time points during DAA treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the potential emergence of RASs immediately after therapy initiation. Samples of 71 patients treated with different DAAs were collected at baseline, during therapy (hours 4 and 8; days 1-7; weeks 2-4) or until target not detected. HCV-RNA levels were determined by qPCR, and RASs were detected by deep sequencing. Sixty-three (89%) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR), 7 (10%) relapsed, and 1 (1%) experienced a breakthrough. Almost all non-SVR (7/8, 88%) showed RASs either at baseline or relapse. High-frequency RASs detected at baseline (Y93H and L159F+C316N) remained detectable at early time points during therapy and reappeared as most prevalent substitutions at relapse. Conversely, emergent RASs at relapse (Q80R, D168E/V, R155K and L31V) were not observed during the first hours-days, before HCV-RNA became undetectable. HCV-RNA decay and genetic evolution of the quasispecies followed a similar pattern during the first hours of therapy in SVR and non-SVR patients. In conclusion, the absence of early RASs selection and the similar dynamics of HCV kinetics and quasispecies in SVR and non-SVR patients after therapy initiation suggest that RASs selection may occur at later stages in the remaining reservoir, where viral populations persist hidden at very low replication levels. Nevertheless, we cannot completely exclude very early selection, when RASs are present below the sensitivity limit of deep sequencing.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201850, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092071

RESUMO

Noroviruses are the main cause of epidemics of acute gastroenteritis at a global scale. Although chronically infected immunocompromised individuals are regarded as potential reservoirs for the emergence of new viral variants, viral quasispecies distribution and evolution patterns in acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections has not been extensively studied. Amplicons of 450 nts from the P2 coding capsid domain were studied using next-generation sequencing (454/GS-Junior) platform. Inter-host diversity between symptomatic and asymptomatic acutely infected individuals linked to the same outbreak as well as their viral intra-host diversity over time were characterized. With an average of 2848 reads per sample and a cutoff frequency of 0.1%, minor variant haplotypes were detected in 5 out of 8 specimens. Transmitted variants could not be confirmed in all infected individuals in one outbreak. The observed initial intra-host viral diversity in asymptomatically infected subjects was higher than in symptomatic ones. Viral quasispecies evolution over time within individuals was host-specific, with an average of 2.8 nt changes per day (0.0062 changes per nucleotide per day) in a given symptomatic case. Nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in 28 out of 450 analyzed nucleotide positions, 32.14% of which were synonymous and 67.86% were non-synonymous. Most observed amino acid changes emerged at or near blockade epitopes A, B, D and E. Our results suggest that acutely infected individuals, even in the absence of symptoms, which go underreported and may enhance transmission, may contribute to norovirus genetic variability and evolution.

14.
Virology ; 523: 100-109, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107298

RESUMO

Viral fitness quantifies the degree of virus adaptation to a given environment. How viral fitness can influence the mutant spectrum complexity of a viral quasispecies subjected to lethal mutagenesis has not been investigated. Here we document that two high fitness hepatitis C virus populations display higher resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogues favipiravir and ribavirin than their parental, low fitness HCV. All populations, however, exhibited a mutation transition bias indicative of active mutagenesis. Resistance to the analogues was associated with a limited expansion of mutant spectrum complexity, as evidenced by several diversity indices used to characterize mutant spectra. The results are consistent with a replicative site-drug competition mechanism that was previously proposed for HCV fitness-associated resistance to non-mutagenic inhibitors. Other alternative, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms are considered. The results introduce viral fitness as a relevant parameter to evaluate the response of viruses to lethal mutagenesis, with implications for antiviral designs.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênese , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Aptidão Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Inoculações Seriadas
15.
J Virol ; 92(16)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875244

RESUMO

One unexplored aspect of HIV-1 genetic architecture is how codon choice influences population diversity and evolvability. Here we compared the levels of development of HIV-1 resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) between wild-type (WT) virus and a synthetic virus (MAX) carrying a codon-pair-reengineered protease sequence including 38 (13%) synonymous mutations. The WT and MAX viruses showed indistinguishable replication in MT-4 cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Both viruses were subjected to serial passages in MT-4 cells, with selective pressure from the PIs atazanavir (ATV) and darunavir (DRV). After 32 successive passages, both the WT and MAX viruses developed phenotypic resistance to PIs (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] of 14.6 ± 5.3 and 21.2 ± 9 nM, respectively, for ATV and 5.9 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 1.9, respectively, for DRV). Ultradeep sequence clonal analysis revealed that both viruses harbored previously described mutations conferring resistance to ATV and DRV. However, the WT and MAX virus proteases showed different resistance variant repertoires, with the G16E and V77I substitutions observed only in the WT and the L33F, S37P, G48L, Q58E/K, and L89I substitutions detected only in the MAX virus. Remarkably, the G48L and L89I substitutions are rarely found in vivo in PI-treated patients. The MAX virus showed significantly higher nucleotide and amino acid diversity of the propagated viruses with and without PIs (P < 0.0001), suggesting a higher selective pressure for change in this recoded virus. Our results indicate that the HIV-1 protease position in sequence space delineates the evolution of its mutant spectrum. Nevertheless, the investigated synonymously recoded variant showed mutational robustness and evolvability similar to those of the WT virus.IMPORTANCE Large-scale synonymous recoding of virus genomes is a new tool for exploring various aspects of virus biology. Synonymous virus genome recoding can be used to investigate how a virus's position in sequence space defines its mutant spectrum, evolutionary trajectory, and pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated how synonymous recoding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease affects the development of protease inhibitor (PI) resistance. HIV-1 protease is a main target of current antiretroviral therapies. Our present results demonstrate that the wild-type (WT) virus and a virus with recoded protease exhibited different patterns of resistance mutations after PI treatment. Nevertheless, the developed PI resistance phenotypes were indistinguishable between the recoded virus and the WT virus, suggesting that the HIV-1 strain with synonymously recoded protease and the WT virus are equally robust and evolvable.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Evolução Molecular , Protease de HIV/genética , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/fisiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Silenciosa , Células Cultivadas , HIV/genética , Humanos , Linfócitos/virologia , Nucleotídeos/genética , Inoculações Seriadas , Replicação Viral
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(19): 2095-2107, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785078

RESUMO

AIM: To detect hyper-conserved regions in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) X gene (HBX) 5' region that could be candidates for gene therapy. METHODS: The study included 27 chronic hepatitis B treatment-naive patients in various clinical stages (from chronic infection to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, both HBeAg-negative and HBeAg-positive), and infected with HBV genotypes A-F and H. In a serum sample from each patient with viremia > 3.5 log IU/mL, the HBX 5' end region [nucleotide (nt) 1255-1611] was PCR-amplified and submitted to next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed genotype variants by phylogenetic analysis, and evaluated conservation of this region by calculating the information content of each nucleotide position in a multiple alignment of all unique sequences (haplotypes) obtained by NGS. Conservation at the HBx protein amino acid (aa) level was also analyzed. RESULTS: NGS yielded 1333069 sequences from the 27 samples, with a median of 4578 sequences/sample (2487-9279, IQR 2817). In 14/27 patients (51.8%), phylogenetic analysis of viral nucleotide haplotypes showed a complex mixture of genotypic variants. Analysis of the information content in the haplotype multiple alignments detected 2 hyper-conserved nucleotide regions, one in the HBX upstream non-coding region (nt 1255-1286) and the other in the 5' end coding region (nt 1519-1603). This last region coded for a conserved amino acid region (aa 63-76) that partially overlaps a Kunitz-like domain. CONCLUSION: Two hyper-conserved regions detected in the HBX 5' end may be of value for targeted gene therapy, regardless of the patients' clinical stage or HBV genotype.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Transativadores/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transativadores/isolamento & purificação
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(6): 680-692, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456407

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the variability/conservation of the domain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 region that interacts with sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (hereafter, NTCP-interacting domain) and the prevalence of the rs2296651 polymorphism (S267F, NTCP variant) in a Spanish population. METHODS: Serum samples from 246 individuals were included and divided into 3 groups: patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) (n = 41, 73% Caucasians), patients with resolved HBV infection (n = 100, 100% Caucasians) and an HBV-uninfected control group (n = 105, 100% Caucasians). Variability/conservation of the amino acid (aa) sequences of the NTCP-interacting domain, (aa 2-48 in viral genotype D) and a highly conserved preS1 domain associated with virion morphogenesis (aa 92-103 in viral genotype D) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and compared in 18 CHB patients with viremia > 4 log IU/mL. The rs2296651 polymorphism was determined in all individuals in all 3 groups using an in-house real-time PCR melting curve analysis. RESULTS: The HBV preS1 NTCP-interacting domain showed a high degree of conservation among the examined viral genomes especially between aa 9 and 21 (in the genotype D consensus sequence). As compared with the virion morphogenesis domain, the NTCP-interacting domain had a smaller proportion of HBV genotype-unrelated changes comprising > 1% of the quasispecies (25.5% vs 31.8%), but a larger proportion of genotype-associated viral polymorphisms (34% vs 27.3%), according to consensus sequences from GenBank patterns of HBV genotypes A to H. Variation/conservation in both domains depended on viral genotype, with genotype C being the most highly conserved and genotype E the most variable (limited finding, only 2 genotype E included). Of note, proline residues were highly conserved in both domains, and serine residues showed changes only to threonine or tyrosine in the virion morphogenesis domain. The rs2296651 polymorphism was not detected in any participant. CONCLUSION: In our CHB population, the NTCP-interacting domain was highly conserved, particularly the proline residues and essential amino acids related with the NTCP interaction, and the prevalence of rs2296651 was low/null.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Precursores de Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha , Simportadores/metabolismo
18.
Virus Res ; 243: 52-59, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988126

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the capacity of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for quantifying edited and unedited HDV populations, and to confirm if edition is a general phenomenon taking place along the entire HDV region analyzed, as we previously reported (Homs M et al. PLoS One 2016, 11, e0158557). METHODS: Four serum samples from 4 patients with chronic HDV/HBV infection were included in the study. The region selected for analysis covered 360 nucleotides (nt), positions 910-1270 of the HDV genome, which included the HDAg ORF editing site (nt 1014 within codon 196). Quantification of edited and unedited genomes was performed by molecular cloning and Sanger sequencing and by NGS. To evaluate the reliability of the NGS values obtained, we combined a clone with an edited codon and one with an unedited codon in known percentages in a series of artificial mixtures, which were then analyzed by NGS. In addition, we determined the nt changes occurring over the complete amplified region after excluding the editing codon (196) to evaluate edition along it. RESULTS: In total, 11,208 quality-filtered sequences were obtained in the 4 samples. The 95% confidence intervals for the proportions of unedited populations by molecular cloning and NGS were overlapping, and those of cloning were wider, indicating that they are comparable and that NGS is more precise than cloning. Unedited genomes predominated over edited ones in all 4 samples analyzed by NGS and in 3 of the 4 samples analyzed by molecular cloning. In total, 83,276 quality-filtered sequences were obtained from the artificial mixtures. Percentages of the two viral populations detected by NGS in these mixtures were comparable to the expected percentages. Evaluation of edition along the HDV coding region showed that transitions were more frequent than transversions, accounting for 63.09% and 36.91%, respectively. Interestingly, among the 4 possible transition-type changes, G:A and A:G accounted for 73.86% of the total. CONCLUSION: Next-generation sequencing proved useful to quantify edited and unedited HDV genomes, and provided relevant information on the HDV quasispecies.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Hepatite D/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/classificação , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Replicação Viral
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 67: 114-117, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of the new generation of hepatitis C treatments named direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) depends on the genotype, subtype, and resistance-associated substitutions present in individual patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate a massive sequencing platform for the analysis of genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in order to optimize therapy. METHODS: A total of 84 patients with hepatitis C were analyzed. The routine genotyping methodology for HCV used at the study institution (Versant HCV Assay, LiPA) was compared with a deep sequencing platform (454/GS-Junior and Illumina MiSeq). RESULTS: The mean viral load in these HCV patients was 6.89×106±7.02×105. Viral genotypes analyzed by LiPA were distributed as follows: 26% genotype 1a (22/84), 55% genotype 1b (46/84), 1% genotype 1 (1/84), 2.5% genotype 3 (2/84), 6% genotype 3a (5/84), 6% genotype 4a/c/d (5/84). When analyzed by deep sequencing, the samples were distributed as follows: 27% genotype 1a (23/84), 56% genotype 1b (47/84), 8% genotype 3a (7/84), 5% genotype 4d (4/84), 2.5% genotype 4f (2/84). Six of the 84 patients (7%) were infected with more than one subtype. Among these, 33% (2/6) failed DAA-based triple therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of mixed infection could explain some treatment failures. Accurate determination of viral genotypes and subtypes would allow optimal patient management and improve the effectiveness of DAA therapy.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Carga Viral , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
20.
J Gen Virol ; 99(1): 97-102, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239718

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly divergent virus currently classified into seven major genotypes and 86 subtypes (ICTV, June 2017), which can have differing responses to therapy. Accurate genotyping/subtyping using high-resolution HCV subtyping enables confident subtype identification, identifies mixed infections and allows detection of new subtypes. During routine genotyping/subtyping, one sample from an Equatorial Guinea patient could not be classified into any of the subtypes. The complete genomic sequence was compared to reference sequences by phylogenetic and sliding window analysis. Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) were assessed by deep sequencing. The unclassified HCV genome did not belong to any of the existing genotype 1 (G1) subtypes. Sliding window analysis along the complete genome ruled out recombination phenomena suggesting that it belongs to a new HCV G1 subtype. Two NS5A RASs (L31V+Y93H) were found to be naturally combined in the genome which could limit treatment possibilities in patients infected with this subtype.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Guiné Equatorial , Feminino , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/patologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/uso terapêutico
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