Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 73
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404627

RESUMO

Importance: Patients who are candidates for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and are at high bleeding risk constitute a therapeutic challenge because they often also face an increased risk of thrombotic complications. Objectives: To develop and validate models to predict the risks of major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] types 3 to 5 bleeding) and myocardial infarction (MI) and/or stent thrombosis (ST) for individual patients at high bleeding risk and provide assistance in defining procedural strategy and antithrombotic regimens. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study used individual patient data from 6 studies conducted from July 1, 2009, to September 5, 2017, for 6641 patients at more than 200 centers in Europe, the US, and Asia who underwent PCI and were identified as being at high bleeding risk using the Academic Research Consortium criteria. In 1 year of follow-up (excluding periprocedural events), individual patient risks of MI and/or ST and major bleeding were evaluated using 33 baseline variables. To validate these models, a subgroup of 1458 patients at high bleeding risk from the ONYX ONE trial were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed from February 1, 2019, to April 30, 2020. Exposures: All patients underwent PCI with bare metal, drug-coated, or drug-eluting stent implants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Forward, stepwise multivariable proportional hazards models were used to identify highly significant predictors of MI and/or ST and BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding. Results: A total of 6641 patients (4384 men [66.0%]; median age, 77.9 years [interquartile range, 70.0-82.6 years]) were included in this study. Over 365 days, nonperiprocedural MI and/or ST occurred in 350 patients (5.3%), and BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding occurred in 381 patients (5.7%). Eight independent baseline predictors of risk of MI and/or ST and 8 predictors for risk of BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding were identified. Four of these predictors were in both risk models. Both risk models showed moderate discrimination: C statistic = 0.69 for predicting MI and/or ST and 0.68 for predicting BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding. Applying these same models to the validation cohort gave a similar strength of discrimination (C statistic = 0.74 for both MI and/or ST and BARC types 3-5 bleeding). Patients with MI and/or ST had a mortality hazard ratio of 6.1 (95% CI, 4.8-7.7), and those with BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.7 (95% CI, 2.9-4.8) compared with patients free of both events. Taking these data into account, the risk scores facilitate investigation of the individual patient trade-off between these 2 risks: 2931 patients (44.1%) at high bleeding risk in the 6 studies had a greater risk of MI and/or ST than of BARC 3 to 5 bleeding, 1555 patients (23.4%) had a greater risk of BARC 3 to 5 bleeding than of MI and/or ST, and 2155 (32.4%) had a comparable risk of both events. Conclusions and Relevance: In a large cohort of patients at high bleeding risk undergoing PCI, 2 prognostic models have been developed to identify individual patients' risk of major coronary thrombotic and bleeding events. In future clinical practice, using an application on a smartphone to evaluate the trade-off between these 2 quantifiable risks for each patient may help clinicians choose the most appropriate revascularization strategy and tailor the duration and intensity of antithrombotic regimens.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420682

RESUMO

Antithrombotic drug use for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) varies considerably. The number of antithrombotic drugs (excluding oral anticoagulants) used pre- and in-hospital was recorded in ACS survivors enrolled at hospital discharge in the long-tErm follow-uP of antithrombotic management patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients (EPICOR) registry ( NCT01171404 ), a prospective cohort study. Among 10,568 patients, the number of antithrombotic drugs used early/patient ranged from 0 to 8 (interquartile range = 3-4). Overall, 250 patients (2.4%) experienced ≥ 1 in-hospital ischemic event and 343 (3.2%) ≥ 1 non-fatal bleeding event. While there was no difference in the rate of ischemic events (p = 0.75 for-trend) according to the number of antithrombotic drugs, a significantly higher incidence of non-fatal bleeds was observed (p < 0.0001 for-trend), with OR = 1.68 (95%CI = 1.51-1.88) per additional antithrombotic drug, which remained after adjustment by patient characteristics. In conclusion, careful balancing of the short-term risks for ischemic and bleeding events should be considered when adding new antithrombotic drugs.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225554

RESUMO

AIMS: To characterize adverse ventricular remodelling after withdrawing therapy in recovered dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: TRED-HF was a randomized controlled trial with a follow-on single-arm cross-over phase that examined the safety and feasibility of therapy withdrawal in patients with recovered DCM over 6 months. The primary endpoint was relapse of heart failure defined by (i) a reduction in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction >10% and to <50%, (ii) >10% increase in LV end-diastolic volume and to above the normal range, (iii) a twofold rise in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and to >400 ng/L, or (iv) evidence of heart failure. LV mass, LV and right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and extracellular volume were measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance at baseline and follow-up (6 months or relapse) for 48 patients. LV cell and extracellular matrix masses were derived. The effect of withdrawing therapy, stratified by relapse and genotype, was investigated in the randomized and follow-on phases. In the randomized comparison, withdrawing therapy led to an increase in mean LV mass [5.4 g/m2 ; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-9.5] and cell mass (4.2 g/m2 ; 95% CI 0.5-8.0) and a reduction in LV (3.5; 95% CI 1.6-5.5) and RV (2.4; 95% CI 0.1-4.7) GLS. In a non-randomized comparison of all patients (n = 47) who had therapy withdrawn in either phase, there was an increase in LV mass (6.2 g/m2 ; 95% CI 3.6-8.9; P = 0.0001), cell mass (4.0 g/m2 ; 95% CI 1.8-6.2; P = 0.0007) and matrix mass (1.7 g/m2 ; 95% CI 0.7-2.6; P = 0.001) and a reduction in LV GLS (2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.0; P = 0.0001). Amongst those who had therapy withdrawn and did not relapse, similar changes were observed (n = 28; LV mass: 5.1 g/m2 , 95% CI 1.5-8.8, P = 0.007; cell mass: 3.7 g/m2 , 95% CI 0.3-7.0, P = 0.03; matrix mass: 1.7 g/m2 , 95% CI 0.4-3.0, P = 0.02; LV GLS: 1.7, 95% CI 0.1-3.2, P = 0.04). Patients with TTN variants (n = 10) who had therapy withdrawn had a greater increase in LV matrix mass (mean effect of TTN: 2.6 g/m2 ; 95% CI 0.4-4.8; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In TRED-HF, withdrawing therapy caused rapid remodelling, with early tissue and functional changes, even amongst patients who did not relapse.

4.
Radiology ; 297(3): 652-660, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048034

RESUMO

BackgroundStenosis of the internal carotid artery has a higher risk for stroke. Many investigations have focused on structure and plaque composition as signs of plaque vulnerability, but few studies have analyzed hemodynamic changes in the brain as a risk factor.PurposeTo use 3-T MRI methods including contrast material-enhanced MR angiography, carotid plaque imaging, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) to identify imaging parameters that best help distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic participants with carotid stenosis.Materials and MethodsParticipants with carotid stenosis from two ongoing prospective studies who underwent ASL and carotid plaque imaging with use of 3-T MRI in the same setting from 2014 to 2018 were studied. Participants were assessed clinically for recent symptoms (transient ischemic attack or stroke) and divided equally into symptomatic and nonsymptomatic groups. Reviewers were blinded to the symptomatic status and MRI scans were analyzed for the degree of stenosis, plaque surface structure, presence of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), circle of Willis collaterals, and the presence and severity of arterial transit artifacts (ATAs) at ASL imaging. MRI findings were correlated with symptomatic status by using t tests and the Fisher exact test.ResultsA total of 44 participants (mean age, 71 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; 31 men) were evaluated. ATAs were seen only in participants with greater than 70% stenosis (16 of 28 patients; P < .001) and were associated with absence of anterior communicating artery (13 of 16 patients; P = .003). There was no association between history of symptoms and degree of stenosis (27 patients with ≥70% stenosis and 17 patients with <70%; P = .54), IPH (12 patients with IPH and 32 patients without IPH; P = .31), and plaque surface structure (17 patients with irregular or ulcerated plaque and 27 with smooth plaque; P = .54). Participants with ATAs (n = 16) were more likely to be symptomatic than were those without ATAs (n = 28) (P = .004). Symptomatic status also was associated with the severity of ATAs (P = .002).ConclusionArterial transit artifacts were the only factor associated with recent ischemic symptoms in participants with carotid stenosis. The degree of stenosis, plaque ulceration, and intraplaque hemorrhage were not associated with symptomatic status.© RSNA, 2020Online supplemental material is available for this article.See also the editorial by Zaharchuk in this issue.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Artefatos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marcadores de Spin
5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(12): 984-995, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared ways of describing treatment effects. The objective was to better explain to clinicians and patients what they might expect from a given treatment, not only in terms of relative and absolute risk reduction, but also in projections of long-term survival. BACKGROUND: The restricted mean survival time (RMST) can be used to estimate of long-term survival, providing a complementary approach to more conventional metrics (e.g., absolute and relative risk), which may suggest greater benefits of therapy in high-risk patients compared with low-risk patients. METHODS: Relative and absolute risk, as well as the RMST, were calculated in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) trials. RESULTS: As examples, in the RALES trial (more severe HFrEF), the treatment effect metrics for spironolactone versus placebo on heart failure hospitalization and/or cardiovascular death were a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 0.77), number needed to treat = 9 (7 to 14), and age extension of event-free survival +1.1 years (-0.1 to + 2.3 years). The corresponding metrics for EMPHASIS-HF (eplerenone vs. placebo in less severe HFrEF) were 0.64 (0.54 to 0.75), 14 (1 to 22), and +2.9 (1.2 to 4.5). In patients in PARADIGM-HF aged younger than 65 years, the metrics for sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.88), 23 (15 to 44), and +1.7 (0.6 to 2.8) years; for those aged 65 years or older, the metrics were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.94), 29 (17 to 83), and +0.9 (0.2 to 1.6) years, which provided evidence of a greater potential life extension in younger patients. Similar observations were found for lower risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: RMST event-free (and overall) survival estimates provided a complementary means of evaluating the effect of therapy in relation to age and risk. They also provided a clinically useful metric that should be routinely reported and used to explain the potential long-term benefits of a given treatment, especially to younger and less symptomatic patients.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(14): 1609-1621, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varying definitions of procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) are in widespread use. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the rates and clinical relevance of PMI using different definitions in patients with left main coronary artery disease randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial. METHODS: The pre-specified protocol definition of PMI (PMIProt) required a large elevation of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), with identical threshold for both procedures. The Third Universal Definition of MI (types 4a and 5) (PMIUD) required lesser biomarker elevations but with supporting evidence of myocardial ischemia, different after PCI and CABG. For the PMIUD, troponins were used preferentially (available in 49.5% of patients), CK-MB otherwise. The multivariable relationship between each PMI type and 5-year mortality was determined. RESULTS: PMIProt occurred in 34 of 935 (3.6%) patients after PCI and 56 of 923 (6.1%) patients after CABG (difference -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.4% to -0.5%; p = 0.015). The corresponding rates of PMIUD were 37 (4.0%) and 20 (2.2%), respectively (difference 1.8%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 3.4%; p = 0.025). Both PMIProt and PMIUD were associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.18 [95% CI: 1.13 to 4.23] and 2.87 [95% CI: 1.44 to 5.73], respectively). PMIProt was associated with a consistent hazard of cardiovascular mortality after both PCI and CABG (pinteraction = 0.86). Conversely, PMIUD was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality after CABG (adjusted HR: 11.94; 95% CI: 4.84 to 29.47) but not after PCI (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.67) (pinteraction = 0.004). Results were similar for all-cause mortality and with varying PMIUD biomarker definitions. Only large biomarker elevations (CK-MB ≥10× upper reference limit and troponin ≥70× upper reference limit) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of PMI after PCI and CABG vary greatly with different definitions. In the EXCEL trial, the pre-specified PMIProt was associated with similar hazard after PCI and CABG, whereas PMIUD was strongly associated with mortality after CABG but not after PCI. (EXCEL Clinical Trial [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 136: 140-148, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950468

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is associated with significant symptomatic deterioration, heart failure, and thromboembolic disease. There is a need for better mechanistic insight and improved identification of at risk patients. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess predictors of AF in HC, in particular the role of myocardial fibrosis. Consecutive patients with HC referred for CMR 2003 to 2013 were prospectively enrolled. CMR parameters including left ventricular volumes, presence and percentage of late gadolinium enhancement in the left ventricle (%LGE) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) were measured. Overall, 377 patients were recruited (age 62 ± 14 years, 73% men). Sixty-two patients (16%) developed new-onset AF during a median follow up of 4.5 (interquartile range 2.9 to 6.0) years. Multivariable analysis revealed %LGE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3 per 10% (confidence interval: 1.0 to 1.5; p = 0.02), LAVi (HR 1.4 per 10 mL/m2[1.2 to 1.5; p < 0.001]), age at HC diagnosis, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and diabetes to be independent predictors of AF. We constructed a simple risk prediction score for future AF based on the multivariable model with a Harrell's C-statistic of 0.73. In conclusion, the extent of ventricular fibrosis and LA volume independently predicted AF in patients with HC. This finding suggests a mechanistic relation between fibrosis and future AF in HC. CMR with quantification of fibrosis has incremental value over LV and LA measurements in risk stratification for AF. A risk prediction score may be used to identify patients at high risk of future AF who may benefit from more intensive rhythm monitoring and a lower threshold for oral anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1468-1483, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943165

RESUMO

Investigating the balance of risk for thrombotic and bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is especially relevant for patients at high bleeding risk (HBR). The Academic Research Consortium for HBR recently proposed a consensus definition in an effort to standardize the patient population included in HBR trials. The aim of this consensus-based document, the second initiative from the Academic Research Consortium for HBR, is to propose recommendations to guide the design of clinical trials of devices and drugs in HBR patients undergoing PCI. The authors discuss the designs of trials in HBR patients undergoing PCI and various aspects of trial design specific to HBR patients, including target populations, intervention and control groups, primary and secondary outcomes, and timing of endpoint reporting.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 41(46): 4391-4399, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901285

RESUMO

The win ratio was introduced in 2012 as a new method for examining composite endpoints and has since been widely adopted in cardiovascular (CV) trials. Improving upon conventional methods for analysing composite endpoints, the win ratio accounts for relative priorities of the components and allows the components to be different types of outcomes. For example, the win ratio can combine the time to death with the number of occurrences of a non-fatal outcome such as CV-related hospitalizations (CVHs) in a single hierarchical composite endpoint. The win ratio can provide greater statistical power to detect and quantify a treatment difference by using all available information contained in the component outcomes. The win ratio can also incorporate quantitative outcomes such as exercise tests or quality-of-life scores. There is a need for more practical guidance on how best to design trials using the win ratio approach. This manuscript provides an overview of the principles behind the win ratio and provides insights into how to implement the win ratio in CV trial design and reporting, including how to determine trial size.

10.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718911

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the one-year safety and efficacy of the transcatheter ARTO™ system in the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: MAVERIC is a multicenter, prospective, non-randomized pre-commercial study. Eligible patients were on guideline-recommended therapy for NYHA class II-IV systolic heart failure and had an FMR grade≥2+. ARTO™ system was implanted in forty-five (100%) patients. Primary safety composite endpoint (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, device related surgery, cardiac tamponade, renal failure) at 30-days and one-year was 4.4% [95%CI 1.5-16.6] and 17.8% [95%CI 9.3-32.4]. Periprocedural complications occurred in seven patients (15.5% [95%CI 6.5-29.5]) and five patients (11.1% [95%CI 4.9-24.0]) died during one-year follow-up. Paired results for 36 patients demonstrated 24 (66.7%) had Grade 3+/4+ mitral regurgitation at baseline however, only 5 (13.9%) and 3 (8.3%) patients remained at Grade 3+/4+ 30-days and one-year post-procedure (p<0.0001). Echocardiographic parameters such as antero-posterior annulus diameter decreased from 41.4mm (baseline) to 36.0 and 35.3mm at 30-days and one-year respectively (p<0.0001). Twenty-five patients (69.4%) had baseline NYHA Class III/IV symptoms decreasing significantly to 9 (25.0%) at 30-days and 8 (22.2%) at one-year post-procedure (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The ARTO™ transcatheter mitral valve repair system is both safe and effective in decreasing FMR up to one-year post-procedure.

11.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003183, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during intrauterine life and early childhood is hypothesised to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis), but experimental evidence from humans is limited. This hypothesis has major implications for control of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in South Asia (home to a quarter of world's population), where a quarter of newborns have low birth weight. We investigated whether, in an area with prevalent undernutrition, supplemental nutrition offered to pregnant women and their offspring below the age of 6 years was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in the offspring when they were young adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Hyderabad Nutrition Trial was a community-based nonrandomised controlled intervention trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad, India (1987-1990). Protein-calorie food supplement was offered daily to pregnant and lactating women (2.09 MJ energy and 20-25 g protein) and their offspring (1.25 MJ energy and 8-10 g protein) until the age of six years in the 15 intervention villages, but not in the 14 control villages. A total of 1,826 participants (949 from the intervention villages and 877 from the control villages, representing 70% of the cohort) at a mean age of 21.6 years (62% males) were examined between 2009 and 2012. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the participants was 20 kg/m2 and the mean systolic blood pressure was 115 mm Hg. The age, sex, socioeconomic position, and urbanisation-adjusted effects of intervention (beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals) on outcomes were as follows: carotid intima-media thickness, 0.01 mm (-0.01 to 0.03), p = 0.36; arterial stiffness (augmentation index), -1.1% (-2.5 to 0.3), p = 0.097; systolic blood pressure, 0.5 mm Hg (-0.6 to 1.6), p = 0.36; BMI, -0.13 kg/m2 (-0.75 to 0.09), p = 0.093; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 0.06 mmol/L (-0.07 to 0.2), p = 0.37; and fasting insulin (log), -0.06 mU/L (-0.19 to 0.07), p = 0.43. The limitations of this study include nonrandomised allocation of intervention and lack of data on compliance, and potential for selection bias due to incomplete follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that in an area with prevalent undernutrition, protein-calorie food supplements offered to pregnant women and their offspring below the age of 6 years were not associated with lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors among offspring when they were young adults. Our findings, coupled with evidence from other intervention studies to date, suggest that policy makers should attach limited value to cardiovascular health benefits of maternal and child protein-calorie food supplementation programmes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(10): 1803-1813, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367642

RESUMO

AIMS: More evidence is needed to quantify the association between tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2008-2017, using the Optum longitudinal database, a patient-level database that integrates multiple US-based electronic health and claim records from several health care providers, we identified 435 679 patients with new HF diagnosis and both an assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction and at least 1 year of history. TR was graded as mild, moderate or severe and classified as prevalent (at the time of the initial HF diagnosis) or incident (subsequent new cases thereafter). For prevalent TR, the analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for patient covariates. Incident TR was modelled as a time-updated covariate, as were other non-fatal events during follow-up. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe TR at baseline was 10.1%, 5.1% and 1.4%, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 1.5 years, 121 273 patients (27.8%) died and prevalent TR was independently associated with survival. Compared to patients with no TR at baseline, the adjusted hazard ratios for mortality were 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.01], 1.17 (95% CI 1.14-1.20) and 1.34 (95% CI 1.28-1.39) for mild, moderate and severe TR, respectively. In the 363 270 patients free from TR at baseline, incident TR (at least mild, at least moderate, or severe) developed during follow-up in 12.1%, 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively. Adjusted mortality hazard ratios for such new cases were 1.48 (95% CI 1.44-1.52), 1.92 (95% CI 1.86-1.99) and 2.44 (95% CI 2.32-2.57), respectively. Findings were consistent across all patient subgroups based on age, gender, rhythm, associated comorbidities, prior cardiac surgery, B-type natriuretic peptide/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: In this large contemporary patient-level database of almost half-million US patients with HF, TR was associated with a marked increases in mortality risk overall and in all subgroups. Future randomized controlled trials will evaluate the impact of TR correction on clinical outcomes and the causal relationship between TR and mortality.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231387

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes and cancer account for more than half of the global disease burden, and 75% of related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite large regional variations in CVD incidence and prevalence, CVDs remain the leading causes of death worldwide. With urbanisation, developing nations are undergoing unprecedented labour-force transitions out of agriculture and into types of non-agricultural employment, mainly in the industry and service sectors. There are few studies on the effect of these transitions on CVDs and CVD risk factors in LMICs. We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from January 1950 to January 2017 to assess the association of engaging in agriculture compared to types of non-agricultural employment (e.g. services and manufacturing) with CVD incidence, prevalence and risk factors. Studies were included if they: included participants who engaged in agriculture and participants who did not engage in agriculture; measured atherosclerotic CVDs or their modifiable risk factors; and involved adults from LMICs. We assessed the quality of evidence in seven domains of each study. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared in forest plots across studies. Study heterogeneity did not permit formal meta-analyses with pooled results. There was a lack of publications on the primary outcomes, atherosclerotic CVDs (n = 2). Limited evidence of varying consistency from 13 studies in five countries reported that compared with non-agricultural workers, mainly living in urban areas, rural agriculture workers had a lower prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity; and a higher prevalence of underweight and smoking. High quality evidence is lacking on the associations of engaging in and transitioning out of agriculture with atherosclerotic CVDs and their modifiable risk factors in LMICs. There is a need for interdisciplinary longitudinal studies to understand associations of types of employment and labour-force transitions with CVD burdens in LMICs.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 122, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhoea (IBS-D) is a common and chronic condition that can significantly impair quality of life. The emergence of new drugs for IBS-D has been slow and there is a need for new treatments, including drug-free treatments, which are easy to use and suitable for different patient groups. Currently available drug-free treatments include Enterosgel®, an intestinal adsorbent approved for use in IBS-D and acute diarrhoea and available over-the-counter in the UK and 30 countries worldwide. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre study is to test the efficacy and safety of Enterosgel® compared to placebo in symptomatic treatment in IBS-D. METHODS/DESIGN: We will recruit 430 participants with IBS-D from approximately 30 primary and secondary care sites in England. Participants meeting the required abdominal pain and stool consistency criteria over a 2-week screening period will be randomly allocated to receive blinded treatment (Enterosgel® or placebo) for 8 weeks. This will be followed by an 8-week open-label treatment phase with Enterosgel®. Participants will be allowed to adjust their daily dosage during both phases based on their symptoms. Participants will then return to standard care and those who responded to treatment will receive a follow-up call 8 weeks later. Co-medication with loperamide will be permitted and use recorded. The primary outcome measure is the percentage of participants defined as responders for abdominal pain and stool consistency during at least 4 weeks in the 8-week blinded phase. Secondary outcome measures include stool frequency, stool consistency, abdominal pain, bloating, urgency, adequate relief, questionnaire scores and rescue medication use. Exploratory outcomes will be assessed in subsets of participants including qualitative and quantitative data on faecal microorganisms and biomarkers and gut-related measurements from magnetic resonance imaging data. DISCUSSION: This is the first large scale randomised controlled trial investigating Enterosgel® in IBS-D. A study design with blinded phase followed by an open-label phase was chosen to encourage participation and study completion. Demonstrating that Enterosgel® is effective and safe in IBS-D could encourage adoption by patients and healthcare professionals and foster future clinical trials assessing its use in related conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17149988. Prospectively registered on 14 November 2017.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal , Diarreia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Silicones , Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Silicones/administração & dosagem , Silicones/efeitos adversos , Desintoxicação por Sorção/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 311: 7-14, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on long-term outcomes in unselected patients surviving the first year following myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: The TIGRIS (long-Term rIsk, clinical manaGement and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery dISease in post-myocardial infarction patients) prospective registry enrolled 9176 eligible patients aged ≥50 years, 1-3 years post-MI, from 25 countries. All had ≥1 risk factor: age ≥ 65 years, diabetes mellitus, second prior MI, multivessel coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD). Primary outcome was a composite of MI, unstable angina with urgent revascularization, stroke, or all-cause death at 2-year follow-up. Bleeding requiring hospitalization was also recorded. 9027 patients (98.4%) provided follow-up data: the primary outcome occurred in 621 (7.0%), all-cause mortality in 295 (3.3%), and bleeding in 109 (1.2%) patients. Events accrued linearly over time. In multivariable analyses, qualifying risk factors were associated with increased risk of primary outcome (incidence rate ratio [RR] per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval]): CKD 2.06 (1.66, 2.55), second prior MI 1.71 (1.38, 2.10), diabetes mellitus 1.63 (1.39, 1.92), age ≥ 65 years 1.53 (1.28, 1.83), and multivessel disease 1.24 (1.05, 1.48). Risk of bleeding events was greater in older patients (vs <65 years) 65-74 years 2.68 (1.53, 4.70), ≥75 years 4.62 (2.57, 8.28), and those with CKD 1.99 (1.18, 3.35). CONCLUSION: In stable patients recruited 1-3 years post-MI, recurrent cardiovascular and bleeding events accrued linearly over 2 years. Factors independently predictive of ischemic and bleeding events were identified, providing a context for deciding on treatment options.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(7): 1160-1170, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056322

RESUMO

AIMS: There is an important need for better biomarkers to predict left ventricular (LV) remodelling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We undertook a comprehensive assessment of cardiac structure and myocardial composition to determine predictors of remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective study of patients with recent-onset DCM with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) assessment of ventricular structure and function, extracellular volume (T1 mapping), myocardial strain, myocardial scar (late gadolinium enhancement) and contractile reserve (dobutamine stress). Regression analyses were used to evaluate predictors of change in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) over 12 months. We evaluated 56 participants (34 DCM patients, median LVEF 43%; 22 controls). Absolute LV contractile reserve predicted change in LVEF (1% increase associated with 0.4% increase in LVEF at 12 months, P = 0.02). Baseline myocardial strain (P = 0.39 global longitudinal strain), interstitial myocardial fibrosis (P = 0.41), replacement myocardial fibrosis (P = 0.25), and right ventricular contractile reserve (P = 0.17) were not associated with LV reverse remodelling. There was a poor correlation between contractile reserve and either LV extracellular volume fraction (r = -0.22, P = 0.23) or baseline LVEF (r = 0.07, P = 0.62). Men were more likely to experience adverse LV remodelling (P = 0.01) but age (P = 0.88) and disease-modifying heart failure medication (beta-blocker, P = 0.28; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, P = 0.92) did not predict follow-up LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial recovery of LV function occurs within 12 months in most patients with recent-onset DCM. Women had the greatest improvement in LVEF. A low LV contractile reserve measured by dobutamine stress CMR appears to identify patients whose LVEF is less likely to recover.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 848-855, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944496

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop a risk model for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high-risk acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Effect of Carvedilol on Outcome After Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction trial (CAPRICORN) and the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) were used to create a SCD risk model (with non-SCD as a competing risk) in 13 202 patients. The risk model was validated in the Eplerenone Post-AMI Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS). The rate of SCD was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 3.0-3.5) per 100 person-years over a median follow-up of 2.0 years. Independent predictors of SCD included age > 70 years; heart rate ≥ 70 bpm; smoking; Killip class III/IV; left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%; atrial fibrillation; history of prior myocardial infarction, heart failure or diabetes; estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; and no coronary reperfusion or revascularisation therapy for index AMI. The model was well calibrated and showed good discrimination (C-statistic = 0.72), including in the early period after AMI. The observed 2-year event rates increased steeply with each quintile of risk score (1.9%, 3.6%, 6.2%, 9.0%, 13.4%, respectively). CONCLUSION: An easy to use SCD risk score developed from routinely collected clinical variables in patients with heart failure, left ventricular systolic dysfunction or both, early after AMI was superior to left ventricular ejection fraction. This score might be useful in identifying patients for future trials testing treatments to prevent SCD early after AMI.

18.
Obes Rev ; 21(4): e12989, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898862

RESUMO

Uncertainty exists regarding the relation of body size and weight change with dementia risk. As populations continue to age and the global obesity epidemic shows no sign of waning, reliable quantification of such associations is important. We examined the relationship of body mass index, waist circumference, and annual percent weight change with risk of dementia and its subtypes by pooling data from 19 prospective cohort studies and four clinical trials using meta-analysis. Compared with body mass index-defined lower-normal weight (18.5-22.4 kg/m2 ), the risk of all-cause dementia was higher among underweight individuals but lower among those with upper-normal (22.5-24.9 kg/m2 ) levels. Obesity was associated with higher risk in vascular dementia. Similarly, relative to the lowest fifth of waist circumference, those in the highest fifth had nonsignificant higher vascular dementia risk. Weight loss was associated with higher all-cause dementia risk relative to weight maintenance. Weight gain was weakly associated with higher vascular dementia risk. The relationship between body size, weight change, and dementia is complex and exhibits non-linear associations depending on dementia subtype under scrutiny. Weight loss was associated with an elevated risk most likely due to reverse causality and/or pathophysiological changes in the brain, although the latter remains speculative.

19.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(1): 24-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction tools are lacking for patients with stable disease some years after myocardial infarction (MI). HYPOTHESIS: A practical long-term cardiovascular risk index can be developed. METHODS: The long-Term rIsk, Clinical manaGement and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery dISease in post-myocardial infarction patients prospective global registry enrolled patients 1 to 3 years post-MI (369 centers; 25 countries), all with ≥1 risk factor (age ≥65 years, diabetes mellitus requiring medication, second prior MI, multivessel coronary artery disease, or chronic non-end-stage kidney disease [CKD]). Self-reported health was assessed with EuroQoL-5 dimensions. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to determine key predictors of the primary composite outcome (MI, unstable angina with urgent revascularization [UA], stroke, or all-cause death) over 2 years. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 621 (6.9%) of 9027 eligible patients: death 295 (3.3%), MI 195 (2.2%), UA 103 (1.1%), and stroke 58 (0.6%). All events accrued linearly. In a multivariable model, 11 significant predictors of primary outcome (age ≥65 years, diabetes, second prior MI, CKD, history of major bleed, peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalization (prior 6 months), medical management (index MI), on diuretic, and poor self-reported health) were identified and combined into a user-friendly risk index. Compared with lowest-risk patients, those in the top 16% had a rate ratio of 6.9 for the primary composite, and 18.7 for all-cause death (overall c-statistic; 0.686, and 0.768, respectively). External validation was performed using the Australian Cooperative National Registry of Acute Coronary Care, Guideline Adherence and Clinical Events registry (c-statistic; 0.748, and 0.849, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients >1-year post-MI, recurrent cardiovascular events and deaths accrue linearly. A simple risk index can stratify patients, potentially helping to guide management.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Stroke ; 50(12): 3439-3448, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735137

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- This analysis was performed to assess the association between perioperative and clinical variables and the 30-day risk of stroke or death after carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods- Individual patient-level data from the 5 largest randomized controlled carotid trials were pooled in the Carotid Stenosis Trialists' Collaboration database. A total of 4181 patients who received carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic stenosis per protocol were included. Determinants of outcome included carotid endarterectomy technique, type of anesthesia, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, shunting, antiplatelet medication, and clinical variables. Stroke or death within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy was the primary outcome. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were estimated in multilevel multivariable analyses using a Poisson regression model. Results- Mean age was 69.5±9.2 years (70.7% men). The 30-day stroke or death rate was 4.3%. In the multivariable regression analysis, local anesthesia was associated with a lower primary outcome rate (versus general anesthesia; aRR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.50-0.99]). Shunting (aRR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.05-1.95]), a contralateral high-grade carotid stenosis or occlusion (aRR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.02-2.47]), and a more severe neurological deficit (mRS, 3-5 versus 0-2: aRR, 2.51 [95% CI, 1.30-4.83]) were associated with higher primary outcome rates. None of the other characteristics were significantly associated with the perioperative stroke or death risk. Conclusions- The current results indicate lower perioperative stroke or death rates in patients operated upon under local anesthesia, whereas a more severe neurological deficit and a contralateral high-grade carotid stenosis or occlusion were identified as potential risk factors. Despite a possible selection bias and patients not having been randomized, these findings might be useful to guide surgeons and anesthetists when treating patients with symptomatic carotid disease.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Local , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA