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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase II study determined the efficacy of lacnotuzumab added to gemcitabine plus carboplatin (gem-carbo) in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Female patients with advanced TNBC, with high levels of tumor-associated macrophages, and not amenable to curative treatment by surgery or radiotherapy, were enrolled. Lacnotuzumab was dosed at 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks (Q3W), {plus minus} a dose on Cycle 1, Day 8. Gem and carbo were given at 1000 mg/m2 and area under curve 2 dose in mg, respectively, Q3W. Treatment continued until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or discontinuation by physician/patient. RESULTS: Patients received lacnotuzumab+gem-carbo (n=34) or gem-carbo (n=15). Enrollment was halted due to recruitment challenges owing to rapid evolution of the therapeutic landscape; formal hypothesis testing of the primary endpoint, was therefore not performed. Median progression-free survival was 5.6 months (90% CI: 4.47, 8.64) in the lacnotuzumab+gem-carbo arm and 5.5 months (90% CI: 3.45, 7.46) in the gem-carbo arm. Hematologic adverse events were common in both treatment arms; however, patients treated with lacnotuzumab experienced more frequent aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase elevations. Pharmacokinetic results showed that free lacnotuzumab at 10 mg/kg exhibited a typical IgG pharmacokinetic profile and target engagement of circulating CSF-1 ligand. CONCLUSIONS: Despite successful target engagement and anticipated pharmacokinetic profile, lacnotuzumab+gem-carbo showed comparable antitumor activity to gem-carbo alone, with slightly poorer tolerability. However, the data presented in this manuscript would be informative for future studies testing agents targeting the CSF-1-CSF-1R pathway in TNBC.

2.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211042139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595977

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic cancer carries a devastating prognosis and is the fourth leading cause for cancer-related death in the United States and most European countries. Although one-third of patients receive a palliative third line therapy, the benefit of systemic therapy beyond second-line remains unclear. A plethora of clinical trials investigating novel drugs have failed over the past years. Due to the lack of established treatment regimens beyond second line, we offered nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin, well known in other tumor entities, to pretreated pancreatic cancer patients requesting systemic therapy. Material and Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 28 patients with pancreatic carcinoma treated with nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Myocet®) between 2012 and 2018 at our department were included. Results: For the majority of patients (n = 18, 64%), nonpeglyted liposomal doxorubicin was offered as a third-line therapy. Five patients received it as second line, four patients as fourth line, and one patient as fifth line of therapy. Half of the patients received at least a therapy cycle. The objective response rate to treatment was 7.1%. One patient had a period of radiologically confirmed stable disease with stable tumor markers. Another patient experienced partial remission. Conclusion: According to our findings the benefit of nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin in pancreatic cancer beyond second line is limited.

3.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of cisplatin or cetuximab to radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has significantly improved the outcome. While the superiority of cisplatin over cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy has been shown in a definitive setting, we set out to compare postoperative chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin to radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab and radiotherapy alone within the Austrian head and neck cancer registry of the Working Group on Pharmaceutical Tumor Treatment (AGMT) study group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the AGMT head and neck cancer registry, data of 557 patients with SCCHN from five Austrian cancer centers were prospectively collected between 2012 and 2017. Of these patients 120 received postoperative chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin, 26 patients received postoperative radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab and 56 patients were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy only. Patient characteristics, stage of disease, details on treatment as well as survival were analyzed by a chart-based review. RESULTS: In patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy the addition of cisplatin significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to cetuximab (PFS 84.2 months vs. 17.0 months, p = 0.04, OS not reached vs. 46.0 months, p = 0.02) and PFS compared to radiotherapy alone (PFS 84.2 months vs. 28.5 months, p < 0.01). Patients treated with cetuximab were significantly older and had a worse performance score than patients receiving cisplatin or radiotherapy alone. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the importance of multimodal treatment concepts in patients with locally advanced SCCHN. Postoperative cetuximab might be an option in patients not eligible for high-dose cisplatin but cisplatin should remain the standard of care.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502317

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is considered a clonal B cell malignancy. Sporadically, CLL cases with multiple productive heavy and light-chain rearrangements were detected, thus leading to a bi- or oligoclonal CLL disease with leukemic cells originating either from different B cells or otherwise descending from secondary immunoglobulin rearrangement events. This suggests a potential role of clonal hematopoiesis or germline predisposition in these cases. During the screening of 75 CLL cases for kappa and lambda light-chain rearrangements, we could detect a single case with CLL cells expressing two distinct kappa and lambda light chains paired with two separate immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable regions. Furthermore, this patient also developed a prostate carcinoma. Targeted genome sequencing of highly purified light-chain specific CLL clones from this patient and from the prostate carcinoma revealed the presence of a rare germline polymorphism in the POLE gene. Hence, our data suggest that the detected SNP may predispose for cancer, particularly for CLL.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502471

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are composed of polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The clinical picture is determined by constitutional symptoms and complications, including arterial and venous thromboembolic or hemorrhagic events. MPNs are characterized by mutations in JAK2, MPL, or CALR, with additional mutations leading to an expansion of myeloid cell lineages and, in PMF, to marrow fibrosis and cytopenias. Chronic inflammation impacting the initiation and expansion of disease in a major way has been described. Neutrophilic granulocytes play a major role in the pathogenesis of thromboembolic events via the secretion of inflammatory markers, as well as via interaction with thrombocytes and the endothelium. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology underlying myeloproliferative neoplasms and point out the central role of leukocytosis and, specifically, neutrophilic granulocytes in this group of disorders.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiviral efficacy of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of remdesivir plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, with indication of oxygen or ventilator support. METHODS: DisCoVeRy was a phase 3, open-label, adaptive, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial conducted in 48 sites in Europe (France, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, Luxembourg). Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness of any duration were eligible if they had clinical evidence of hypoxaemic pneumonia, or required oxygen supplementation. Exclusion criteria included elevated liver enzymes, severe chronic kidney disease, any contraindication to one of the studied treatments or their use in the 29 days before random assignment, or use of ribavirin, as well as pregnancy or breastfeeding. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to receive standard of care alone or in combination with remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon beta-1a, or hydroxychloroquine. Randomisation used computer-generated blocks of various sizes; it was stratified on severity of disease at inclusion and on European administrative region. Remdesivir was administered as 200 mg intravenous infusion on day 1, followed by once daily, 1-h infusions of 100 mg up to 9 days, for a total duration of 10 days. It could be stopped after 5 days if the participant was discharged. The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15 measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population and was one of the secondary outcomes. This trial is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, EudraCT2020-000936-23, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 21, 2021, 857 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to remdesivir plus standard of care (n=429) or standard of care only (n=428). 15 participants were excluded from analysis in the remdesivir group, and ten in the control group. At day 15, the distribution of the WHO ordinal scale was: (1) not hospitalised, no limitations on activities (61 [15%] of 414 in the remdesivir group vs 73 [17%] of 418 in the control group); (2) not hospitalised, limitation on activities (129 [31%] vs 132 [32%]); (3) hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen (50 [12%] vs 29 [7%]); (4) hospitalised, requiring supplemental oxygen (76 [18%] vs 67 [16%]); (5) hospitalised, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices (15 [4%] vs 14 [3%]); (6) hospitalised, on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (62 [15%] vs 79 [19%]); (7) death (21 [5%] vs 24 [6%]). The difference between treatment groups was not significant (odds ratio 0·98 [95% CI 0·77-1·25]; p=0·85). There was no significant difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events between treatment groups (remdesivir, 135 [33%] of 406 vs control, 130 [31%] of 418; p=0·48). Three deaths (acute respiratory distress syndrome, bacterial infection, and hepatorenal syndrome) were considered related to remdesivir by the investigators, but only one by the sponsor's safety team (hepatorenal syndrome). INTERPRETATION: No clinical benefit was observed from the use of remdesivir in patients who were admitted to hospital for COVID-19, were symptomatic for more than 7 days, and required oxygen support. FUNDING: European Union Commission, French Ministry of Health, Domaine d'intérêt majeur One Health Île-de-France, REACTing, Fonds Erasme-COVID-Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre, Austrian Group Medical Tumor, European Regional Development Fund, Portugal Ministry of Health, Portugal Agency for Clinical Research and Biomedical Innovation. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

7.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic carcinoma carries a devastating prognosis and is the 4th leading cause for cancer related death in the US and most European countries. Apart from imaging and CA 19-9, pancreatic carcinoma is still lacking reliable markers to assess tumor dynamics and to monitor treatment response over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cell free tumor-DNA (cft-DNA), respectively KRAS mutation in peripheral blood, detection as a prognostic and predictive value for chemotherapy monitoring. METHODS: Serial plasma samples from 42 patients with KRAS mutated pancreatic cancer were prospectively collected and the ctKRAS Mutation Assay (Idylla™, Biocartis, Mechelen, Belgium) of cft-DNA was performed on 29 patients that did not receive curative surgery and went on to palliative chemotherapy. To monitor cft-DNA KRAS mutation levels during treatment quantitative assessment of cft-DNA was performed at baseline and during follow up at predetermined times. RESULTS: All 29 patients included in our analyses had a detected KRAS mutation in the tumor biopsy. In almost half (48.2%) of patients a KRAS mutation could also be detected in peripheral plasma. Patients with detectable KRAS mutations before treatment start in plasma had a significantly worse survival (16.8 months vs not reached, p < 0.031 and HR 3.303). Looking for a dynamic assessment of tumor response, we found a statistically significant association between the KRAS mutant ratio from first staging CT scan to basal levels with tumor response or progress (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Performing KRAS testing from peripheral blood for patients, who have no elevated tumor markers, might be a novel option for treatment monitoring complementing routine imaging techniques.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate the clinical performance of the OncoMasTR Risk Score in the biomarker cohort of Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) Trial 8. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the OncoMasTR test in 1,200 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical specimens from postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative primary breast cancer with 0 to 3 involved lymph nodes in the prospective, randomized ABCSG Trial 8. Time to distant recurrence (DR) was analyzed by Cox models. RESULTS: The OncoMasTR Risk Score categorized 850 of 1,087 (78.2%) evaluable patients as "low risk". At 10 years, the DR rate for patients in the low-risk group was 5.8% versus 21.1% for patients in the high-risk group (P < 0.0001, absolute risk reduction 15.3%). The OncoMasTR Risk Score was highly prognostic for prediction of DR in years 0 to 10 in all patients [HR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.26, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.73], in patients that were node negative (HR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.43-2.24, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.72), and in patients with 1 to 3 involved lymph nodes (HR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.44-2.58, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.71). The OncoMasTR Risk Score provided significant additional prognostic information beyond clinical parameters, Ki67, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and Clinical Treatment Score. CONCLUSIONS: OncoMasTR Risk Score is highly prognostic for DR in postmenopausal women with ER-positive, HER2-negative primary breast cancer with 0 to 3 involved lymph nodes. In combination with prior validation studies, this fully independent validation in ABCSG Trial 8 provides level 1B evidence for the prognostic capability of the OncoMasTR Risk Score.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445701

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells (CAR T-cells) are a promising therapeutic approach in treating hematological malignancies. CAR T-cells represent engineered autologous T-cells, expressing a synthetic CAR, targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) independent of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation. The most common target is CD19 on B-cells, predominantly used for the treatment of lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), leading to approval of five different CAR T-cell therapies for clinical application. Despite encouraging clinical results, treatment of other hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains difficult. In this review, we focus especially on CAR T-cell application in different hematological malignancies as well as strategies for overcoming CAR T-cell dysfunction and increasing their efficacy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/tendências , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Leucemia/imunologia , Leucemia/terapia , Linfoma/imunologia , Linfoma/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414843

RESUMO

Patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (R/R CLL) whose treatment failed with a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor have poor outcomes. We investigated tafasitamab plus idelalisib (cohort A) or venetoclax (cohort B) in this patient population in a phase II study (NCT02639910). In total, 24 patients were enrolled (cohort A: n = 11, median time on study, 7.4 months; cohort B: n = 13, median time on study, 15.6 months). The most common treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) in cohort A was anemia (63.6%) and in cohort B was infusion-related reaction (53.8%). The most common severe TEAE was neutropenia (cohort A: 45.5%; cohort B: 46.2%). The best overall response rate was 90.9% (cohort A) and 76.9% (cohort B). Undetectable minimal residual disease in peripheral blood was achieved in 2/8 patients (cohort A) and 6/7 patients (cohort B). Overall, these results suggest that anti-CD19 antibody-based combinations may be important in the treatment of patients with CLL.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206229

RESUMO

The reinvigoration of anti-cancer immunity by immune checkpoint therapies has greatly improved cancer treatment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients as well as in the Tcl1 mouse model for CLL, PD1-expressing, exhausted T cells significantly expand alongside CLL development; nevertheless, PD1 inhibition has no clinical benefit. Hence, exhausted T cells are either not activatable by simple PD1 blocking in CLL and/or only an insufficient number of exhausted T cells are CLL-specific. In this study, we examined the latter hypothesis by exploiting the Tcl1 transgenic CLL mouse model in combination with TCR transgene expression specific for a non-cancer antigen. Following CLL tumor development, increased PD1 levels were detected on non-CLL specific T cells that seem dependent on the presence of (tumor-) antigen-specific T cells. Transcriptome analysis confirmed a similar exhaustion phenotype of non-CLL specific and endogenous PD1pos T cells. Our results indicate that in the CLL mouse model, a substantial fraction of non-CLL specific T cells becomes exhausted during disease progression in a bystander effect. These findings have important implications for the general efficacy assessment of immune checkpoint therapies in CLL.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 395-405, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, the most effective duration for adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor remains unclear. METHODS: In this prospective, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy to receive the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for an additional 2 years (2-year group, receiving a total of 7 years) or an additional 5 years (5-year group, receiving a total of 10 years). The primary end point was disease-free survival. The primary analysis included all the patients who were still participating in the trial and who had no recurrence 2 years after randomization (i.e., when treatment in the 2-year group had ended). Secondary end points were overall survival, contralateral breast cancer, second primary cancer, and clinical bone fracture. RESULTS: Among the 3484 women who were enrolled in the trial, 3208 remained in the trial without disease progression after the first 2 years of extended anastrozole treatment following randomization. Among these women, disease progression or death occurred in 335 women in each treatment group in the primary-analysis set at 8 years (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P = 0.90). No between-group differences occurred in most secondary end points, and subgroup analyses did not indicate differences in any particular subgroup. The risk of clinical bone fracture was higher in the 5-year group than in the 2-year group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.84). CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy, extending hormone therapy by 5 years provided no benefit over a 2-year extension but was associated with a greater risk of bone fracture. (Funded by AstraZeneca and the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group; ABCSG-16/SALSA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00295620.).


Assuntos
Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in prophylactic anticoagulation and antineoplastic treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (aPC) warrant an updated reassessment of thromboembolic risk in this population. This multicenter retrospective cohort study aims to comprehensively characterize incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of venous (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in homogenously treated patients with aPC. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty-five patients with aPC undergoing palliative first-line chemotherapy (Gemcitabine/nab-Paclitaxel (GN) or FOLIRINOX) were included. Primary outcomes were objectively confirmed VTE and/or ATE. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 26 months, 86 VTE (cumulative incidence: 20.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.3-24.0) and 11 ATE events (cumulative incidence: 2.8%; 95% CI: 1.5-4.9) were observed. VTE diagnosis was associated with increased mortality (transition hazard ratio [THR]: 1.59 [95% CI: 1.21-2.09]) and increased risk of cancer progression (THR: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.08-2.01]), while the impact of ATE on mortality was numerically but not statistically significant (THR: 1.85 [95% CI: 0.87-3.94]). The strongest predictor of increased VTE risk was history of cancer-associated VTE (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR]: 3.29 [95% CI: 2.09-5.18]), while the Khorana score (SHR: 0.78 [0.57-1.06]) failed to predict VTE risk. A history of cerebrovascular disease was associated with markedly increased ATE risk (SHR: 22.05 [95% CI: 6.83-71.22], p < 0.001), especially ischemic stroke. Risk of VTE/ATE did not significantly differ according to type of first-line chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with aPC undergoing palliative first-line chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX or GN face a high risk for VTE/ATE and its diagnosis is linked to worse clinical outcomes. VTE-risk prediction models have limited ability to sub-stratify thrombotic events in this high-risk scenario.

15.
Blood ; 138(12): 1067-1080, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115113

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has a poor prognosis under the current standard of care. In recent years, venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor, was approved to treat patients who are ineligible for intensive induction chemotherapy. However, complete remission rates with venetoclax-based therapies are hampered by minimal residual disease (MRD) in a proportion of patients, leading to relapse. MRD is a result of leukemic stem cells being retained in bone marrow protective environments; activation of the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway was shown to be relevant to this process. An important role is also played by cell adhesion molecules such as CD44, which has been shown to be crucial for the development of AML. Here we show that CD44 is involved in CXCL12 promotion of resistance to venetoclax-induced apoptosis in human AML cell lines and AML patient samples, which could be abrogated by CD44 knock down, knockout, or blocking with an anti-CD44 antibody. Split-Venus bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed that CD44 and CXCR4 physically associate at the cell membrane upon CXCL12 induction. In the venetoclax-resistant OCI-AML3 cell line, CXCL12 promoted an increase in the proportion of cells expressing high levels of embryonic stem cell core transcription factors (ESC-TFs: Sox2, Oct4, Nanog) abrogated by CD44 knockdown. This ESC-TF-expressing subpopulation which could be selected by venetoclax treatment, exhibited a basally enhanced resistance to apoptosis and expressed higher levels of CD44. Finally, we developed a novel AML xenograft model in zebrafish, which showed that CD44 knockout sensitizes OCI-AML3 cells to venetoclax treatment in vivo. Our study shows that CD44 is a potential molecular target for sensitizing AML cells to venetoclax-based therapies.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are changing the therapeutic landscape of hematologic malignancies. Severe side effects include cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), but prolonged cytopenia has also been reported. The underlying mechanism for prolonged cytopenia is poorly understood so far. CASES: Severe pancytopenia with grade 2-3 anemia was marked 2-3 months after treatment. Laboratory evaluation revealed undetectable levels of haptoglobin with increased reticulocyte counts. Coomb's tests were negative, no schistocytes were detected on blood smear, and infectious causes were ruled out. Increased erythropoiesis without lymphoma infiltration was noted on bone marrow biopsy. A spontaneous increase in haptoglobin and hemoglobin levels was observed after several weeks. For one patient, peripheral CAR-T levels were monitored over time. We observed a decline at the same time as hemoglobin levels began to rise, implying a potential causality. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, we describe the first two cases of Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia after CAR-T treatment for B-cell lymphoma. We encourage routine monitoring for hemolytic anemia after CAR-T treatment and also encourage further investigations on the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica/etiologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Linfoma/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067112

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease arising from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite multimodality treatments approximately half of all patients with locally advanced disease relapse and the prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC is dismal. The introduction of checkpoint inhibitors improved the treatment options for these patients and pembrolizumab alone or in combination with a platinum and fluorouracil is now the standard of care for first-line therapy. However, approximately only one third of unselected patients respond to this combination and the response rate to checkpoint inhibitors alone is even lower. This shows that there is an urgent need to improve prognostication and prediction of treatment benefits in patients with HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the most relevant risk factors in the field and discuss their roles and limitations. The human papilloma virus (HPV) status for patients with oropharyngeal cancer and the combined positive score are the only biomarkers consistently used in clinical routine. Other factors, such as the tumor mutational burden and the immune microenvironment have been highly studied and are promising but need validation in prospective trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Tabaco
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065941

RESUMO

The class of demosponges is the biggest and most diverse of all described sponge species and it is reported to produce a plethora of chemically different metabolites with interesting biological activities. The focus of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of two Mediterranean demosponges, targeting their brominated compounds and prenylated hydroquinones, compounds with interesting cytotoxic and anti-microbial properties. In order to gain a deeper insight into the chemical diversity of their metabolites and their activities, 20 pure secondary metabolites including new natural products were isolated from two different species (Aplysina aerophoba and Spongia sp.) using various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were confirmed by NMR and HRMS, revealing molecules with various chemical scaffolds, mainly prenylated hydroquinones from Spongia sp. and halogenated compounds from Aplysina aerophoba, including 5 novel natural products. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxic properties using 9 different cell lines, and especially one compound, 2,6-dibromo-4-hydroxy-4-methoxycarbonylmethylcyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one showed good activities in all tested models.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Poríferos/química , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
19.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183353

RESUMO

AURORA aims to study the processes of relapse in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) by performing multi-omics profiling on paired primary tumors and early-course metastases. Among 381 patients (primary tumor and metastasis pairs: 252 targeted gene sequencing, 152 RNA sequencing, 67 single nucleotide polymorphism arrays), we found a driver role for GATA1 and MEN1 somatic mutations. Metastases were enriched in ESR1, PTEN, CDH1, PIK3CA, and RB1 mutations; MDM4 and MYC amplifications; and ARID1A deletions. An increase in clonality was observed in driver genes such as ERBB2 and RB1. Intrinsic subtype switching occurred in 36% of cases. Luminal A/B to HER2-enriched switching was associated with TP53 and/or PIK3CA mutations. Metastases had lower immune score and increased immune-permissive cells. High tumor mutational burden correlated to shorter time to relapse in HR+/HER2- cancers. ESCAT tier I/II alterations were detected in 51% of patients and matched therapy was used in 7%. Integration of multi-omics analyses in clinical practice could affect treatment strategies in MBC. SIGNIFICANCE: The AURORA program, through the genomic and transcriptomic analyses of matched primary and metastatic samples from 381 patients with breast cancer, coupled with prospectively collected clinical data, identified genomic alterations enriched in metastases and prognostic biomarkers. ESCAT tier I/II alterations were detected in more than half of the patients.

20.
Clin Ther ; 43(6): 1092-1111, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053700

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the Phase II GEOMETRY mono-1 study, the potent and selective mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) inhibitor capmatinib exhibited considerable efficacy in MET exon 14 skipping (METex14)-mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer at a dose of 400 mg BID. The current recommended dose is 400 mg BID in tablet formulation, with or without food. This article reports the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, safety, and tolerability of capmatinib 300 and 400 mg BID given with food in MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, Phase I study enrolled adult patients with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors. In the dose escalation phase, capmatinib tablets were orally administered at a dose of 300 mg BID with food; if tolerated, the dose escalation cohort of 400 mg BID was to be opened to enrollment. In the expansion phase, patients were to be enrolled at the higher of the tolerated doses. Tablets were taken within 30 minutes of an unrestricted meal type, except on cycle 1 day 1 (C1D1) and cycle 1 day 7 (C1D7), when they were given with a high-fat meal. The primary objectives were to determine the higher of the tolerated study doses and assess PK variables, with a secondary objective of safety. FINDINGS: Overall, 35 patients (300 mg BID, n = 8; 400 mg BID, n = 27) with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors were enrolled; all patients had received prior antineoplastic therapy, and the most common primary site was lung (45.7%). Among PK-evaluable patients, the median Tmax for capmatinib after administration with a high-fat meal (on C1D1/C1D7) was 4.0 to 5.6 hours across doses. At steady state (C1D7), capmatinib accumulation was low across dose levels (geometric mean of accumulation ratios, 1.29-1.69), with an increase in exposure (AUCtau and Cmax) from 300 to 400 mg BID. There were no occurrences of dose-limiting toxicity. All patients experienced at least 1 adverse event, and treatment-related adverse events occurred in 28 patients (80%; 300 mg BID, n = 6; 400 mg BID, n = 22), the most frequent of which were fatigue (37.1%) and nausea (34.3%). IMPLICATIONS: Capmatinib tablet formulation at a dose of up to 400 mg BID with food is well tolerated in patients with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors, with safety observations consistent with the existing profile under fasted conditions. These findings support the capmatinib dosing recommendation of 400 mg BID with or without food. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02925104.

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