Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 163
Filtrar
1.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(1): 84-89, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525041

RESUMO

Considering the profound influence exerted by the ABO blood group system on hemostasis, mainly through the von Willebrand factor and factor VIII (FVIII) complex, we have conducted a study evaluating the possible role of blood type on the risk of inhibitor development in hemophilia A. A total of 287 consecutive Caucasian patients with severe hemophilia A (202 without FVIII inhibitors and 85 with FVIII inhibitors) followed at seven Italian Hemophilia Treatment Centers belonging to the Italian Association of Hemophilia Centers (AICE) were included in the study. A higher prevalence of O blood group was detected in patients without inhibitors as compared in inhibitor patients (55 vs. 30.6%; p < 0.001). Among the other variables analyzed (age, F8 mutation, type and intensity of treatment and treatment regimen), F8 mutation class (high-risk vs. low-risk), and treatment regimen (on-demand vs. prophylaxis) were significantly correlated with inhibitor development. However, on a multivariate analysis, only the effects of F8 mutation and ABO blood type were independent of other covariates, being that non-O blood type is associated with a 2.89-fold increased risk of inhibitor development. In conclusion, our study supports the protective effect of O blood type on inhibitor risk in severely affected hemophilia A patients.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FVIII inhibitor development is the most serious contemporary treatment complication in haemophilia A, particularly in previously untreated patients (PUPs). No inhibitors developed in clinical trials in previously treated patients treated with simoctocog alfa (Nuwiq), a fourth-generation recombinant FVIII produced in a human cell line. METHODS: The NuProtect study investigated the immunogenicity of simoctocog alfa in PUPs. NuProtect was a prospective, multinational, open-label, non-controlled, phase III study. PUPs with severe haemophilia A (FVIII:C <1%) of any age and ethnicity were treated with simoctocog alfa for 100 exposure days or a maximum of 5 years. Patients were true PUPs without prior exposure to FVIII concentrates or blood components. Inhibitor titres were measured with the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay; cut-off for positivity was 0.6 BU mL-1 (≥0.6 to <5 low-titre, ≥5 high titre). RESULTS: A total of 108 PUPs with a median age at first treatment of 12.0 months (interquartile range: 8.0-23.5) were treated with simoctocog alfa. F8 mutation type was known for 102 patients (94.4%) of whom 90 (88.2%) had null F8 mutations and 12 (11.8%) had non-null mutations. Of 105 PUPs evaluable for inhibitor development, 28 (26.7%) developed inhibitors; 17 high titre (16.2%) and 11 low titre (10.5%). No PUPs with non-null F8 mutations developed inhibitors. CONCLUSION: In the NuProtect study, the rate of inhibitor development in PUPs with severe haemophilia A treated with simoctocog alfa was lower than the rate reported for hamster-cell-derived recombinant factor VIII products in other recent clinical trials. No inhibitors were reported in PUPs with non-null F8 mutations.

3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616877

RESUMO

The risk of ischemic events carried by different clusters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the setting of secondary prevention is not definite and the association between DM and bleeding complications is controversial. We explored these issues in the START-ANTIPLATELET, a multicenter Italian registry including acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Study outcome was 1-year incidence of the net composite endpoint including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or any bleeding and its individual components across different DM strata (no DM, DM with or without insulin). Out of 951 patients, 20.0% had diabetes not on insulin and 2.5% had diabetes on insulin. The rate of the net composite endpoint was highest in patients receiving insulin (39.4 per 100 person-years vs 11.7 in diabetic patients not on insulin vs 14.0 in those without DM; p = 0.007). In DM, the higher risk of MACE was regardless of insulin use (p = 0.36). Conversely, the increase in bleeding complications was limited to patients on insulin (Hazard Ratio 2.31, 95% CI 0.93-5.71 vs no DM; p = 0.0105 across DM strata). On top of aspirin, the rates of the net composite endpoint were similar with ticagrelor/prasugrel or clopidogrel irrespective of DM status (p for interaction 0.63). In conclusion, in ACS patients, type 2 DM enhances the risk of MACE regardless of the DM cluster, whereas the propensity to bleeding related to DM seems confined to insulin-treated patients.

4.
Blood Transfus ; 19(1): 14-23, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370230

RESUMO

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare immune mediated adverse drug reaction occurring after exposure to heparin. It is a serious and potentially fatal condition, which may be associated with the development of arterial or venous thrombotic events. Although known for many years, HIT is still often misdiagnosed. Pre- test clinical probability, screening for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies and documentation of their platelet activating capacity are the cornerstones of diagnosis. However, both clinical algorithms and test modalities have limited predictive values and limited diffusion so that the diagnosis and management is challenging in the clinical practice. For this reason, there is an unmet need for novel rational non-anticoagulant therapies based on the pathogenesis of HIT.The present paper reports the position of the Italian Society on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET) in order to increase awareness of HIT among clinicians and other health care professionals and to provide information on the most appropriate management.

6.
Platelets ; : 1-4, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349108

RESUMO

The frequent finding of thrombocytopenia in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and previous evidence that several viruses enter platelets suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be internalized by platelets of COVID-19. Aim of our study was to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in platelets from hospitalized patients with aconfirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. RNA was extracted from platelets, leukocytes and serum from 24 COVID-19 patients and 3 healthy controls, real-time PCR and ddPCR for viral genes were carried out. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the samples analyzed nor in healthy controls, by either RT-PCR or ddPCR, while RNA samples from nasopharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 patients were correctly identified. Viral RNA was not detected independently of viral load, of positive nasopharyngeal swabs, or viremia, the last detected in only one patient (4.1%). SARS-CoV-2 entry in platelets is not acommon phenomenon in COVID-19 patients, differently from other viral infections.

8.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(9): 772, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137271
9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trial of Rivaroxaban in AntiPhospholipid Syndrome was a prospective randomized, open-label, noninferiority study conducted in 14 centers in Italy. Rivaroxaban was compared with warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and vascular death in high-risk, triple-positive patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to report the events during the 2-year follow-up after the study closure. METHODS: On January 28, 2018, the trial was prematurely stopped by adjudication and safety committee for an excess of events in the rivaroxaban group. Randomized patients were advised on trial results and those randomized to rivaroxaban were solicited to switch to warfarin. All 14 participating centers were asked and accepted to follow their patients for clinical events. This report describes the rate of events that occurred between January 28, 2018, and January 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of 120 randomized patients, 115 were available for follow-up. Outcome events were two in six (33.3%) patients who remained on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and six in 109 (5.7%) patients on warfarin (hazard ratio [HR] 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-34.5, P = .018). The two patients on DOACs (one taking dabigatran and one taking rivaroxaban) suffered from thromboembolic events, whereas of the six patients with composite outcomes on warfarin, three had thromboembolic events (HR for thrombosis 13.3; 95% CI 2.2-79.9, P = .005). CONCLUSION: These data further support the use of warfarin in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

10.
Blood Transfus ; 18(6): 478-485, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000751

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are mostly prescribed to prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). An increasing number of guidelines recommend DOAC in AF patients with preserved renal function for the prevention of thromboembolism, and an increased use of DOAC in daily practice has been recorded also in elderly patients. Ageing is associated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate, and impaired renal function, regardless of the cause, increases the risk of bleeding. Multiple medication use (polypharmacy) for treating superimposed co-morbidities is common in both elderly and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and drug-drug interaction may cause accumulation of DOAC, thereby increasing the risk of bleeding. The safety profile of DOAC in patients with CKD has not been defined with any certainty, particularly in those with severely impaired renal function or end stage renal disease. This has been due to the heterogeneity of studies and the relative paucity of data. This document reports the position of three Italian scientific societies engaged in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation who are treated with DOAC and present with CKD.

11.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920811

RESUMO

COVID-19 is also manifested with hypercoagulability, pulmonary intravascular coagulation, microangiopathy, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) or arterial thrombosis. Predisposing risk factors to severe COVID-19 are male sex, underlying cardiovascular disease, or cardiovascular risk factors including noncontrolled diabetes mellitus or arterial hypertension, obesity, and advanced age. The VAS-European Independent Foundation in Angiology/Vascular Medicine draws attention to patients with vascular disease (VD) and presents an integral strategy for the management of patients with VD or cardiovascular risk factors (VD-CVR) and COVID-19. VAS recommends (1) a COVID-19-oriented primary health care network for patients with VD-CVR for identification of patients with VD-CVR in the community and patients' education for disease symptoms, use of eHealth technology, adherence to the antithrombotic and vascular regulating treatments, and (2) close medical follow-up for efficacious control of VD progression and prompt application of physical and social distancing measures in case of new epidemic waves. For patients with VD-CVR who receive home treatment for COVID-19, VAS recommends assessment for (1) disease worsening risk and prioritized hospitalization of those at high risk and (2) VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban, betrixaban, or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for those at high risk. For hospitalized patients with VD-CVR and COVID-19, VAS recommends (1) routine thromboprophylaxis with weight-adjusted intermediate doses of LMWH (unless contraindication); (2) LMWH as the drug of choice over unfractionated heparin or direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE or hypercoagulability; (3) careful evaluation of the risk for disease worsening and prompt application of targeted antiviral or convalescence treatments; (4) monitoring of D-dimer for optimization of the antithrombotic treatment; and (5) evaluation of the risk of VTE before hospital discharge using the IMPROVE-D-dimer score and prolonged post-discharge thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban, betrixaban, or LMWH.

12.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757171

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are mostly prescribed to prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). An increasing number of guidelines recommend DOAC in AF patients with preserved renal function for the prevention of thromboembolism and an increased use of DOAC in daily practice is recorded also in elderly patients. Aging is associated with a reduction of glomerular filtration rate and impaired renal function, regardless of the cause, increases the risk of bleeding. Multiple medication use (polypharmacy) for treating superimposed co-morbidities is common in both elderly and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and drug-drug interaction may cause accumulation of DOAC, thereby increasing the risk of bleeding. There is uncertainty on the safety profile of DOAC in patients with CKD, particularly in those with severely impaired renal function or end stage renal disease, due to the heterogeneity of studies and the relative paucity of data. This document reports the position of three Italian scientific societies engaged in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation who are treated with DOAC and present with CKD.

13.
Blood ; 136(17): 1956-1967, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693407

RESUMO

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare recessive disorder caused by biallelic variants in NBEAL2 and characterized by bleeding symptoms, the absence of platelet α-granules, splenomegaly, and bone marrow (BM) fibrosis. Due to the rarity of GPS, it has been difficult to fully understand the pathogenic processes that lead to these clinical sequelae. To discern the spectrum of pathologic features, we performed a detailed clinical genotypic and phenotypic study of 47 patients with GPS and identified 32 new etiologic variants in NBEAL2. The GPS patient cohort exhibited known phenotypes, including macrothrombocytopenia, BM fibrosis, megakaryocyte emperipolesis of neutrophils, splenomegaly, and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels. Novel clinical phenotypes were also observed, including reduced leukocyte counts and increased presence of autoimmune disease and positive autoantibodies. There were widespread differences in the transcriptome and proteome of GPS platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD4 lymphocytes. Proteins less abundant in these cells were enriched for constituents of granules, supporting a role for Nbeal2 in the function of these organelles across a wide range of blood cells. Proteomic analysis of GPS plasma showed increased levels of proteins associated with inflammation and immune response. One-quarter of plasma proteins increased in GPS are known to be synthesized outside of hematopoietic cells, predominantly in the liver. In summary, our data show that, in addition to the well-described platelet defects in GPS, there are immune defects. The abnormal immune cells may be the drivers of systemic abnormalities such as autoimmune disease.

14.
Gerontology ; 66(5): 447-459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610336

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis - the pathophysiological mechanism shared by most cardiovascular diseases - can be directly or indirectly assessed by a variety of clinical tests including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, -ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, and coronary -artery calcium. The Prospective Studies of Atherosclerosis -(Proof-ATHERO) consortium (https://clinicalepi.i-med.ac.at/research/proof-athero/) collates de-identified individual-participant data of studies with information on atherosclerosis measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. It currently comprises 74 studies that involve 106,846 participants from 25 countries and over 40 cities. In summary, 21 studies recruited participants from the general population (n = 67,784), 16 from high-risk populations (n = 22,677), and 37 as part of clinical trials (n = 16,385). Baseline years of contributing studies range from April 1980 to July 2014; the latest follow-up was until June 2019. Mean age at baseline was 59 years (standard deviation: 10) and 50% were female. Over a total of 830,619 person-years of follow-up, 17,270 incident cardiovascular events (including coronary heart disease and stroke) and 13,270 deaths were recorded, corresponding to cumulative incidences of 2.1% and 1.6% per annum, respectively. The consortium is coordinated by the Clinical Epidemiology Team at the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria. Contributing studies undergo a detailed data cleaning and harmonisation procedure before being incorporated in the Proof-ATHERO central database. Statistical analyses are being conducted according to pre-defined analysis plans and use established methods for individual-participant data meta-analysis. Capitalising on its large sample size, the multi-institutional collaborative Proof-ATHERO consortium aims to better characterise, understand, and predict the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences.

15.
Circulation ; 142(7): 621-642, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantify the association between effects of interventions on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) progression and their effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We systematically collated data from randomized, controlled trials. cIMT was assessed as the mean value at the common-carotid-artery; if unavailable, the maximum value at the common-carotid-artery or other cIMT measures were used. The primary outcome was a combined CVD end point defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization procedures, or fatal CVD. We estimated intervention effects on cIMT progression and incident CVD for each trial, before relating the 2 using a Bayesian meta-regression approach. RESULTS: We analyzed data of 119 randomized, controlled trials involving 100 667 patients (mean age 62 years, 42% female). Over an average follow-up of 3.7 years, 12 038 patients developed the combined CVD end point. Across all interventions, each 10 µm/y reduction of cIMT progression resulted in a relative risk for CVD of 0.91 (95% Credible Interval, 0.87-0.94), with an additional relative risk for CVD of 0.92 (0.87-0.97) being achieved independent of cIMT progression. Taken together, we estimated that interventions reducing cIMT progression by 10, 20, 30, or 40 µm/y would yield relative risks of 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.76 (0.67-0.85), 0.69 (0.59-0.79), or 0.63 (0.52-0.74), respectively. Results were similar when grouping trials by type of intervention, time of conduct, time to ultrasound follow-up, availability of individual-participant data, primary versus secondary prevention trials, type of cIMT measurement, and proportion of female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of intervention effects on cIMT progression predicted the degree of CVD risk reduction. This provides a missing link supporting the usefulness of cIMT progression as a surrogate marker for CVD risk in clinical trials.

16.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557093

RESUMO

Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) strategy in high-bleeding risk (HBR) patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome remains debated. We sought to investigate the use of clopidogrel versus ticagrelor in HBR patients with acute coronary syndrome and their impact on ischemic and bleeding events at 1 year. In the START-ANTIPLATELET registry (NCT02219984), consecutive patients with ≥ 1 HBR criteria were stratified by DAPT type in clopidogrel versus ticagrelor groups. The primary endpoint was net adverse clinical endpoints (NACE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleeding. Of 1209 patients with 1-year follow-up, 553 were defined at HBR, of whom 383 were considered eligible for the study as on DAPT with clopidogrel (174 or 45.4%) or ticagrelor (209 or 54.6%). Clopidogrel was more often administered in patients at increased ischemic and bleeding risk, while ticagrelor in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Mean DAPT duration was longer in the ticagrelor group. At 1 year, after multivariate adjustment, no difference in NACEs was observed between patients on clopidogrel versus ticagrelor (19% vs. 11%, adjusted hazard ratio 1.27 [95% CI 0.71-2.27], p = 0.429). Age, number of HBR criteria, and mean DAPT duration were independent predictors of NACEs. In a real-world registry of patients with acute coronary syndrome, 45% were at HBR and frequently treated with clopidogrel. After adjustment for potential confounders, the duration of DAPT, but not DAPT type (stratified by clopidogrel vs. ticagrelor), was associated with the risk of ischemic and bleeding events at 1 year.

17.
Int J Hematol ; 112(5): 725-727, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557126

RESUMO

Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer however, due to possible myelotoxicity, it is used with caution in patients with thrombocytopenia, especially when severe. TPO-receptor agonists have been employed for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, however treatment with TPO-receptor agonists to allow chemotherapy in patients with inherited thrombocytopenia has not been reported so far. We report the first successful use of eltrombopag to prevent chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient with MHY9-related disorder and pancreatic cancer. Treatment with eltrombopag allowed to attain a safe and stable platelet count for several months sufficient to permit chemotherapy and to allow the patient to undergo endoscopic placement of a biliary stent with no bleeding complications.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/genética , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Trombopoetina/agonistas , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/congênito
18.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(7): 1169-1181, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405817

RESUMO

Carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAAS) is a common finding in asymptomatic subjects evaluated for cardiovascular (CV)-risk stratification. Besides the careful control of CV-risk factors, antithrombotic agents, and in particular aspirin, may be considered for primary prevention in patients at CV-risk. However, there is strong controversy on the use of aspirin in primary prevention. Even if several studies confirmed the association between CAAS and CV-events, CAAS is not universally recognized as an independent risk factor and the choice to use aspirin as primary prevention in these patients remains a medical dilemma. Here we review the available evidence on the prognostic value of asymptomatic CAAS for major CV-events and on the utility of antithrombotic agents in this population. We conclude that the detection of asymptomatic CAAS can not be considered as a direct indication to carry out primary prophylaxis with antithrombotic drugs, and the choice to use aspirin should be made only after the careful estimate of the individual's CV-and hemorrhagic risk.

19.
Haemophilia ; 26(4): e151-e160, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma-derived FVIII/VWF complex was reported to be less sensitive to inhibitors than FVIII preparations devoid of VWF. AIM: To compare the efficacy of FVIII/VWF complex (Fanhdi) and five different VWF-free FVIII preparations in restoring thrombin generation and activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in haemophilic plasma, with and without inhibitor, and in cell-based models. METHODS: Experiments were performed in haemophilic plasma supplemented with inhibitory IgG or in plasma samples obtained from haemophilia A patients without (n = 11) and with inhibitor (n = 12). Thrombin generation was evaluated by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) under standard conditions, in the presence of activated protein C (APC) or thrombomodulin (TM), and in cell-based models including endothelial cells, either alone or in combination with platelets or tissue factor-expressing blood mononuclear cells. The kinetics of TAFI activation was determined by a two-stage functional assay in the absence and in the presence of APC. RESULTS: In haemophilic plasma without inhibitor, Fanhdi enhanced thrombin generation and TAFI activation as well as recombinant (2nd-4th generation) and plasma-derived FVIII preparations devoid of VWF. On the contrary, in plasma with inhibitor, Fanhdi displayed a greater ability to restore thrombin generation and TAFI activation under all tested conditions. Notably, in cell-based models including endothelial cells, Fanhdi proved more efficient than all other preparations in improving thrombin generation even in the absence of inhibitor. CONCLUSION: The greater pro-haemostatic activity of FVIII/VWF complex, either in haemophilic plasma with inhibitor or in the presence of endothelial cells, may offer therapeutic advantages.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA