Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 17 de 17
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 101: 8-14, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28041934

RESUMO

Fatty acid (FA) and element contents were studied in 14 brands of canned (in its own juice and with sunflower oil) saury (Cololabis saira), a popular product of Russian market. Canned saury is a valuable source of essential polyunsaturated FA - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). To obtain personal daily dose of EPA + DHA of 1 g for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, neural and inflammatory disorders one needs to intake from 26 to 76 g of canned saury, as was calculated for studied brands. ICP-OES analysis of 24 elements showed that Pb concentration in one brand and Cd content in most of studied saury samples exceeded standards for fish meat established by the European Commission. However, values of hazard quotient, HQEFA, which estimate benefit-risk ratio of fish intake, indicate that canned saury is safe product for human nutrition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/administração & dosagem , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Humanos , Segurança
2.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 151(2-3): 676-85, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18581263

RESUMO

Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Fezes , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urina , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diálise/métodos , Humanos , Tolerância ao Sal
3.
Adv Space Res ; 35(9): 1559-62, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16175680

RESUMO

Wheat was cultivated on soil-like substrate (SLS) produced by the action of worms and microflora from the inedible biomass of wheat. After the growth of the wheat crop, the inedible biomass was restored in SLS and exposed to decomposition ("biological" combustion) and its mineral compounds were assimilated by plants. Grain was returned to the SLS in the amount equivalent to human solid waste produced by consumption of the grain. Human wastes (urine and feces) after physicochemical processing turned into mineralized form (mineralized urine and mineralized feces) and entered the plants' nutrient solution amounts equal to average daily production. Periodically (once every 60-70 days) the nutrient solution was partly (up to 50%) desalinated by electrodialysis. Due to this NaCl concentration in the nutrient solution was sustained at a fixed level of about 0.26%. The salt concentrate obtained could be used in the human nutrition through NaCl extraction and the residuary elements were returned through the mineralized human liquid wastes into matter turnover. The control wheat cultivation was carried out on peat with use of the Knop nutrient solution. Serial cultivation of several wheat vegetations within 280 days was conducted during the experiment. Grain output varied and yield/harvest depended, in large part, upon the amount of inedible biomass returned to SLS and the speed of its decomposition. After achieving a stationary regime, (when the quantity of wheat inedible biomass utilized during vegetation in SLS is equal to the quantity of biomass introduced into SLS before vegetation) grain harvest in comparison with the control was at most 30% less, and in some cases was comparable to the control harvest values. The investigations carried out on the wheat example demonstrated in principle the possibility of long-term functioning of the LSS photosynthesizing link based on optimizations of biological and physicochemical methods of utilization of the human and plants wastes. The possibilities for the use of these technologies for the creation integrated biological-physicochemical LSS with high closure degree of internal matter turnover are discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Fezes , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Urina
4.
Adv Space Res ; 35(9): 1589-93, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16175688

RESUMO

Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 degrees C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 micromoles/m2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant totaled 8 g. The increase of K quantity in the experimental solutions resulted in an elevated content of the element in the plants. The increase of K uptake in the second experimental variant was accompanied by a 30-50% decrease of Na content in comparison with the other variants. Comparative Na content in the other variants was practically identical. N, Mg and P content in the control and experimental variants was also practically identical. The increase of S quantity in the second experimental variant also increased S uptake by the plants. But Ca quantity, accumulated in aboveground plants biomass in the experimental variants was lower than in the control. NaCl uptake by plants, depending on the concentration of mineral salts in the experimental solutions, ranged from 8 g (maximum salt content) up to 15 g (minimum salt content) on a plant growth area that totaled 0.032 m2. Thus, high concentrations of mineral salts simulating the content of mineral salts contained in urine did not result in a significant decrease of S. europaea productivity. The present work also considers the influence of higher light intensity concentrations on productivity and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants grown on experimental solutions with high salt content.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Biomassa , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacologia , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodiaceae/efeitos da radiação , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Luz , Magnésio/metabolismo , Magnésio/farmacologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/farmacologia , Enxofre/metabolismo , Enxofre/farmacologia , Ureia , Urina
5.
Acta Astronaut ; 53(4-10): 249-57, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14649254

RESUMO

The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotrophic block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas exchange in such a system consists of respiratory gas exchange of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas exchange dynamics of high plants--SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas exchange and PAR irradiance and age of plants has been established. Nitrogen and iron were found to the first to limit plants' growth on SLS when process conditions are deranged. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances--products of exchange of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Voo Espacial , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiologia Ambiental , Hidroponia , Incineração , Fotossíntese , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Ausência de Peso
6.
Adv Space Res ; 31(7): 1711-20, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14503509

RESUMO

An experimental model of a biological life support system was used to evaluate qualitative and quantitative parameters of the internal mass exchange. The photosynthesizing unit included the higher plant component (wheat and radish), and the heterotrophic unit consisted of a soil-like substrate, California worms, mushrooms and microbial microflora. The gas mass exchange involved evolution of oxygen by the photosynthesizing component and its uptake by the heterotroph component along with the formation and maintaining of the SLS structure, growth of mushrooms and California worms, human respiration, and some other processes. Human presence in the system in the form of "virtual human" that at regular intervals took part in the respirative gas exchange during the experiment. Experimental data demonstrated good oxygen/carbon dioxide balance, and the closure of the cycles of these gases was almost complete. The water cycle was nearly 100% closed. The main components in the water mass exchange were transpiration water and the watering solution with mineral elements. Human consumption of the edible plant biomass (grains and roots) was simulated by processing these products by a unique physicochemical method of oxidizing them to inorganic mineral compounds, which were then returned into the system and fully assimilated by the plants. The oxidation was achieved by "wet combustion" of organic biomass, using hydrogen peroxide following a special procedure, which does not require high temperature and pressure. Hydrogen peroxide is produced from the water inside the system. The closure of the cycle was estimated for individual elements and compounds. Stoichiometric proportions are given for the main components included in the experimental model of the system. Approaches to the mathematical modeling of the cycling processes are discussed, using the data of the experimental model. Nitrogen, as a representative of biogenic elements, shows an almost 100% closure of the cycle inside the system. The proposed experimental model of a biological system is discussed as a candidate for potential application in the investigations aimed at creating ecosystems with largely closed cycles of the internal mass exchange. The formation and maintenance of sustainable cycling of vitally important chemical elements and compounds in biological life support systems (BLSS) is an extremely pressing problem. To attain the stable functioning of biological life support systems (BLSS) and to maintain a high degree of closure of material cycles in than, it is essential to understand the character of mass exchange processes and stoichiometnc proportions of the initial and synthesized components of the system.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 41(2): 157-62, 2001 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11462139

RESUMO

During three field seasons (June--September) of 1997--99 contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Al, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined in compartments of ecosystem (surrounding soils, bottom sediments, water, zoobenthos, macrophytes, and fish) of a fish and recreation pond situated at the edge of Krasnoyarsk City (Siberia, Russia). Contents of most parts of metals in soils, water, and macrophytes significantly correlated with each other. As concluded, their contents were determined by natural, general, geochemical peculiarities of the region. Heavy metals, contents of which were higher than federal upper limits of concentration, were revealed. In muscles of fish with different feeding spectra--crucian and perch--concentrations of some metals differed significantly; correlation graphs for metals also had different structures. Comparison of our data with those on diverse aquatic ecosystems of Siberia, Europe, North America, and China published in the last decade was carried out. It was concluded that a distribution of heavy metals in the compartments of an aquatic ecosystem presently have to be determined for each particular water body until general regularities are discovered.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Invertebrados , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Plantas , Poluentes da Água/farmacocinética
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 78(3): 273-5, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11341687

RESUMO

The feasibility of a two-stage bioconversion of inedible potato biomass into biohumus by oyster mushroom followed by worms was tested. As a raw material for biohumus production the inedible potato biomass in certain properties ranked below wheat straw. The most feasible method to convert the potato wastes into biohumus was to mix them with wheat straw at the mass ratio of 1:3 and then treat with mushrooms followed by worms. This gave a good yield of mushrooms. The biohumus produced from the mixture was suitable for use as a plant growth medium.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Resíduos Industriais , Solanum tuberosum , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Triticum
13.
Acta Astronaut ; 46(9): 585-9, 2000 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11543386

RESUMO

"Man-plants-physical-chemical unit" system designed for space stations or terrestrial ecohabitats to close steady-state mineral, water and gas exchange is proposed. The physical-chemical unit is to mineralize all inedible plant wastes and physiological human wastes (feces, urine, gray water) by electromagnetically activated hydrogen peroxide in an oxidation reactor. The final product is a mineralized solution containing all elements balanced for plants' requirements. The solution has been successfully used in experiments to grow wheat, beans and radish. The solution was reusable: the evaporated moisture was replenished by the phytotron condensate. Sodium salination of plants was precluded by evaporating reactor-mineralized urine to sodium saturation concentration to crystallize out NaCl which can be used as food for the crew. The remaining mineralized product was brought back for nutrition of plants. The gas composition of the reactor comprises O2, N2, CO2, NH3, H2. At the reactor's output hydrogen and oxygen were catalyzed into water, NH3 was converted in a water trap into NH4 and used for nutrition of plants. A special accessory at the reactor's output may produce hydrogen peroxide from intrasystem water and gas which makes possible to close gas loops between LSS components.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/instrumentação , Minerais/análise , Plantas Medicinais , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Amônia/química , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacocinética , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/síntese química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Minerais/química , Minerais/farmacocinética , Oxirredução , Cloreto de Sódio/síntese química , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Acta Astronaut ; 41(3): 193-6, 1997 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11540774

RESUMO

Available methods for mineralizing wastes of human activity and inedible biomass of plants used in this country and abroad are divided into two types: dry mineralization at high temperatures up to 1270 K with subsequent partial dissolution of the ash and the other--wet oxidation by acids. In this case mineralization is performed at a temperature of 470-460 K and a pressure of 220-270 atmospheres in pure oxygen with the output of mineral solution and dissoluble sediments in the form of scale. The drawback of the first method is the formation of dioxins, CO, SO2, NO2 and other toxic compounds. The latter method is too sophisticated and is presently confined to bench testing. The here proposed method to mineralize the wastes is in mid-position between the thermal and physical chemical methods. At a temperature of 80-90 degrees C the mixture was exposed to a controlled electromagnetic field at normal atmospheric pressure. The method merits simplicity, reliability, produces no dissoluble sediment or emissions noxious for human and plants. The basic difference from the above said methods is to employ as an oxidizer atomic oxygen, its active forms including OH-radicals with hydrogen peroxide as the source. Hydrogen peroxide can be produced with electric power from water inside the Life Support System (LSS).


Assuntos
Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/instrumentação , Voo Espacial/instrumentação , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Elementos , Fezes , Humanos , Oxirredução , Plantas , Urina , Resíduos
15.
Adv Space Res ; 20(10): 1801-4, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11542553

RESUMO

Model experiments in phytotrons have shown that urea is able to cover 70% of the demand in nitrogen of the conveyer cultivated wheat. At the same time wheat plants can directly utilize human liquid wastes. In this article by human liquid wastes the authors mean human urine only. In a long-term experiment on "man-higher plants" system with two crewmen, plants covered 63 m2, with wheat planted to--39.6 m2. For 103 days, complete human urine (total amount--210.7 l) was supplied into the nutrient solution for wheat. In a month and a half NaCl supply into the nutrient solution stabilized at 0.9-1.65 g/l. This salination had no marked effect on wheat production. The experiment revealed the realistic feasibility to directly involve liquid wastes into the biological turnover of the life support system. The closure of the system, in terms of water, increased by 15.7% and the supply of nutrients for wheat plants into the system was decreased.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Meios de Cultura , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Urina , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
16.
Adv Space Res ; 20(10): 2045-8, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11542588

RESUMO

Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of "Bios-3" life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human-metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide icon a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degrees C controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/instrumentação , Minerais/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Biomassa , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Elementos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Minerais/química , Oxirredução , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
17.
Adv Space Res ; 18(4-5): 93-7, 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11538819

RESUMO

Two methods of extracting mineral elements from otherwise deadlock products of a life-support system are presented. We describe first optimum conditions for recovering elements by water extraction from dry wastes of plants, biomass ash, and solid human wastes after passing them through the catalytic furnace; and, second, we describe acid extracts of biogenous elements by 1N and 2N HNO3 from these products. Ways to use the extracts of elements in plant nutrition are considered in order to increase the extent to which the mineral loop of a life-support system can be closed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/instrumentação , Minerais/análise , Plantas/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ácido Nítrico/química , Resíduos , Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA