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2.
Anesthesiology ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and pilot clinical data suggest that spontaneously breathing patients with sepsis and septic shock may present increased respiratory drive and effort, even in the absence of pulmonary infection. The study hypothesis was that respiratory drive and effort may be increased in septic patients and correlated with extrapulmonary determinant and that high-flow nasal cannula may modulate drive and effort. METHODS: Twenty-five nonintubated patients with extrapulmonary sepsis or septic shock were enrolled. Each patient underwent three consecutive steps: low-flow oxygen at baseline, high-flow nasal cannula, and then low-flow oxygen again. Arterial blood gases, esophageal pressure, and electrical impedance tomography data were recorded toward the end of each step. Respiratory effort was measured as the negative swing of esophageal pressure (ΔPes); drive was quantified as the change in esophageal pressure during the first 500 ms from start of inspiration (P0.5). Dynamic lung compliance was calculated as the tidal volume measured by electrical impedance tomography, divided by ΔPes. The results are presented as medians [25th to 75th percentile]. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (52%) were in septic shock. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 [4 to 9]. During low-flow oxygen at baseline, respiratory drive and effort were elevated and significantly correlated with arterial lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.034) and inversely with dynamic lung compliance (r = -0.735, P < 0.001). Noninvasive support by high-flow nasal cannula induced a significant decrease of respiratory drive (P0.5: 6.0 [4.4 to 9.0] vs. 4.3 [3.5 to 6.6] vs. 6.6 [4.9 to 10.7] cm H2O, P < 0.001) and effort (ΔPes: 8.0 [6.0 to 11.5] vs. 5.5 [4.5 to 8.0] vs. 7.5 [6.0 to 12.6] cm H2O, P < 0.001). Oxygenation and arterial carbon dioxide levels remained stable during all study phases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sepsis and septic shock of extrapulmonary origin present elevated respiratory drive and effort, which can be effectively reduced by high-flow nasal cannula.

3.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572414

RESUMO

The synergic combination of D-dimer (as proxy of thrombotic/vascular injury) and static compliance (as proxy of parenchymal injury) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ARDS has not been systematically evaluated. The objective is to determine whether the combination of elevated D-dimer and low static compliance can predict mortality in patients with COVID-19-ARDS. A "training sample" (March-June 2020) and a "testing sample" (September 2020-January 2021) of adult patients invasively ventilated for COVID-19-ARDS were collected in nine hospitals. D-dimer and compliance in the first 24 h were recorded. Study outcome was all-cause mortality at 28-days. Cut-offs for D-dimer and compliance were identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Mutually exclusive groups were selected using classification tree analysis with chi-square automatic interaction detection. Time to death in the resulting groups was estimated with Cox regression adjusted for SOFA, sex, age, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and sample (training/testing). "Training" and "testing" samples amounted to 347 and 296 patients, respectively. Three groups were identified: D-dimer ≤ 1880 ng/mL (LD); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance > 41 mL/cmH2O (LD-HC); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance ≤ 41 mL/cmH2O (HD-LC). 28-days mortality progressively increased in the three groups (from 24% to 35% and 57% (training) and from 27% to 39% and 60% (testing), respectively; p < 0.01). Adjusted mortality was significantly higher in HD-LC group compared with LD (HR = 0.479, p < 0.001) and HD-HC (HR = 0.542, p < 0.01); no difference was found between LD and HD-HC. In conclusion, combination of high D-dimer and low static compliance identifies a clinical phenotype with high mortality in COVID-19-ARDS.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 851-866, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232336

RESUMO

The role of non-invasive respiratory support (high-flow nasal oxygen and noninvasive ventilation) in the management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome is debated. The oxygenation improvement coupled with lung and diaphragm protection produced by non-invasive support may help to avoid endotracheal intubation, which prevents the complications of sedation and invasive mechanical ventilation. However, spontaneous breathing in patients with lung injury carries the risk that vigorous inspiratory effort, combined or not with mechanical increases in inspiratory airway pressure, produces high transpulmonary pressure swings and local lung overstretch. This ultimately results in additional lung damage (patient self-inflicted lung injury), so that patients intubated after a trial of noninvasive support are burdened by increased mortality. Reducing inspiratory effort by high-flow nasal oxygen or delivery of sustained positive end-expiratory pressure through the helmet interface may reduce these risks. In this physiology-to-bedside review, we provide an updated overview about the role of noninvasive respiratory support strategies as early treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure in the intensive care unit. Noninvasive strategies appear safe and effective in mild-to-moderate hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 > 150 mmHg), while they can yield delayed intubation with increased mortality in a significant proportion of moderate-to-severe (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 150 mmHg) cases. High-flow nasal oxygen and helmet noninvasive ventilation represent the most promising techniques for first-line treatment of severe patients. However, no conclusive evidence allows to recommend a single approach over the others in case of moderate-to-severe hypoxemia. During any treatment, strict physiological monitoring remains of paramount importance to promptly detect the need for endotracheal intubation and not delay protective ventilation.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal , Oxigênio , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 219, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A correlation between unsuccessful noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and poor outcome has been suggested in de-novo Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) patients. Consequently, it is of paramount importance to identify accurate predictors of NIV outcome. The aim of our preliminary study is to evaluate the Diaphragmatic Thickening Fraction (DTF) and the respiratory rate/DTF ratio as predictors of NIV outcome in de-novo ARF patients. METHODS: Over 36 months, we studied patients admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of de-novo ARF and requiring NIV treatment. DTF and respiratory rate/DTF ratio were measured by 2 trained operators at baseline, at 1, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of NIV treatment and/or until NIV discontinuation or intubation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the ability of DTF and respiratory rate/DTF ratio to distinguish between patients who were successfully weaned and those who failed. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included. We found overall good repeatability of DTF assessment, with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.72-0.88). The cut-off values of DTF for prediction of NIV failure were < 36.3% and < 37.1% for the operator 1 and 2 (p < 0.0001), respectively. The cut-off value of respiratory rate/DTF ratio for prediction of NIV failure was > 0.6 for both operators (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: DTF and respiratory rate/DTF ratio may both represent valid, feasible and noninvasive tools to predict NIV outcome in patients with de-novo ARF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02976233, registered 26 November 2016.


Assuntos
Diafragma/anatomia & histologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 197, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS (Rome, Italy), who developed SA-VAP between 20 March 2020 and 30 October 2020 (thereafter referred to as cases). After 1:2 matching based on the simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, cases were compared with SA-VAP patients without COVID-19 (controls). Clinical, microbiological, and lung microbiota data were analyzed. RESULTS: We studied two groups of patients (40 COVID-19 and 80 non-COVID-19). COVID-19 patients had a higher rate of late-onset (87.5% versus 63.8%; p = 0.01), methicillin-resistant (65.0% vs 27.5%; p < 0.01) or bacteremic (47.5% vs 6.3%; p < 0.01) infections compared with non-COVID-19 patients. No statistically significant differences between the patient groups were observed in ICU mortality (p = 0.12), clinical cure (p = 0.20) and microbiological eradication (p = 0.31). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, SAPS II and initial inappropriate antimicrobial therapy were independently associated with ICU mortality. Then, lung microbiota characterization in 10 COVID-19 and 16 non-COVID-19 patients revealed that the overall microbial community composition was significantly different between the patient groups (unweighted UniFrac distance, R2 0.15349; p < 0.01). Species diversity was lower in COVID-19 than in non COVID-19 patients (94.4 ± 44.9 vs 152.5 ± 41.8; p < 0.01). Interestingly, we found that S. aureus (log2 fold change, 29.5), Streptococcus anginosus subspecies anginosus (log2 fold change, 24.9), and Olsenella (log2 fold change, 25.7) were significantly enriched in the COVID-19 group compared to the non-COVID-19 group of SA-VAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, COVID-19 seemed to significantly affect microbiological and clinical features of SA-VAP as well as to be associated with a peculiar lung microbiota composition.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072649

RESUMO

Sepsis is triggered by infection-induced immune alteration and may be theoretically improved by pharmacological and extracorporeal immune modulating therapies. Pharmacological immune modulation may have long lasting clinical effects, that may even worsen patient-related outcomes. On the other hand, extracorporeal immune modulation allows short-term removal of inflammatory mediators from the bloodstream. Although such therapies have been widely used in clinical practice, the role of immune modulation in critically ill septic patients remains unclear and little evidence supports the role of immune modulation in this clinical context. Accordingly, further research should be carried out by an evidence-based and personalized approach in order to improve the management of critically ill septic patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Sepse , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Sepse/terapia
8.
J Crit Care ; 64: 173-175, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957578

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 causes a wide degree of organ dysfunction and is associated with bacterial secondary infections. We reported lung microbiota dynamics in a critically ill patient with coronavirus disease 2019, who developed severe Hafnia alvei ventilator-associated pneumonia and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Hafnia alvei/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , COVID-19/microbiologia , Disbiose , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875492

RESUMO

This study investigated dyspnea intensity and respiratory muscles ultrasound early after extubation to predict extubation failure.It was conducted prospectively in two intensive care units in France and Canada. Patients intubated for at least 48 h were studied within 2 h after an extubation following a successful spontaneous breathing trial. Dyspnea was evaluated by the Dyspnea-Visual Analog Scale from 0 to 10 cm (VAS) and the Intensive Care - Respiratory Distress Observational Scale (range 0-10). The ultrasound thickening fraction of the parasternal intercostal and the diaphragm were measured; limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score (MRC) (range 0-60).Extubation failure occurred in 21 of the 122 enrolled patients (17%). Dyspnea-VAS and Intensive Care - Respiratory Distress Observational scale were higher in patients with extubation failure versus success: 7 (5-9) cm versus 3 (1-5) cm respectively (p<0.001) and 4.4 (2.5-6.5) versus 2.4 (2.1-2.8) respectively (p<0.001). The ratio of intercostal muscle to diaphragm thickening fraction was significantly higher and MRC was lower in patients with failure (0.9 [0.4-3.0] versus 0.3 [0.2-0.5], p<0.001, and 45 [36-50] versus 52 [44-60], p=0.012). The thickening fraction of the intercostal and its ratio to diaphragm thickening showed the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for an early prediction of extubation failure (0.81). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Dyspnea-VAS and Intensive Care - Respiratory Distress Observational scale reached 0.78 and 0.74 respectively.Respiratory muscle ultrasound and dyspnea measured within 2 h after extubation predict subsequent extubation failure.

10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 128, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the use of prone position in intubated, invasively ventilated patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Aim of this study is to investigate the use and effect of prone position in this population during the first 2020 pandemic wave. METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre, national cohort study conducted between February 24 and June 14, 2020, in 24 Italian Intensive Care Units (ICU) on adult patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission. Information regarding the use of prone position was collected daily. Follow-up for patient outcomes was performed on July 15, 2020. The respiratory effects of the first prone position were studied in a subset of 78 patients. Patients were classified as Oxygen Responders if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased ≥ 20 mmHg during prone position and as Carbon Dioxide Responders if the ventilatory ratio was reduced during prone position. RESULTS: Of 1057 included patients, mild, moderate and severe ARDS was present in 15, 50 and 35% of patients, respectively, and had a resulting mortality of 25, 33 and 41%. Prone position was applied in 61% of the patients. Patients placed prone had a more severe disease and died significantly more (45% vs. 33%, p < 0.001). Overall, prone position induced a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, while no change in respiratory system compliance or ventilatory ratio was observed. Seventy-eight % of the subset of 78 patients were Oxygen Responders. Non-Responders had a more severe respiratory failure and died more often in the ICU (65% vs. 38%, p = 0.047). Forty-seven % of patients were defined as Carbon Dioxide Responders. These patients were older and had more comorbidities; however, no difference in terms of ICU mortality was observed (51% vs. 37%, p = 0.189 for Carbon Dioxide Responders and Non-Responders, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, prone position has been widely adopted to treat mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure. The majority of patients improved their oxygenation during prone position, most likely due to a better ventilation perfusion matching. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT04388670.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Intubação/normas , Posicionamento do Paciente/normas , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial/normas , Decúbito Dorsal , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
JAMA ; 325(17): 1731-1743, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764378

RESUMO

Importance: High-flow nasal oxygen is recommended as initial treatment for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and is widely applied in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To assess whether helmet noninvasive ventilation can increase the days free of respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial in 4 intensive care units (ICUs) in Italy between October and December 2020, end of follow-up February 11, 2021, including 109 patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ≤200). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to receive continuous treatment with helmet noninvasive ventilation (positive end-expiratory pressure, 10-12 cm H2O; pressure support, 10-12 cm H2O) for at least 48 hours eventually followed by high-flow nasal oxygen (n = 54) or high-flow oxygen alone (60 L/min) (n = 55). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days free of respiratory support within 28 days after enrollment. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who required endotracheal intubation within 28 days from study enrollment, the number of days free of invasive mechanical ventilation at day 28, the number of days free of invasive mechanical ventilation at day 60, in-ICU mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, 60-day mortality, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay. Results: Among 110 patients who were randomized, 109 (99%) completed the trial (median age, 65 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 55-70]; 21 women [19%]). The median days free of respiratory support within 28 days after randomization were 20 (IQR, 0-25) in the helmet group and 18 (IQR, 0-22) in the high-flow nasal oxygen group, a difference that was not statistically significant (mean difference, 2 days [95% CI, -2 to 6]; P = .26). Of 9 prespecified secondary outcomes reported, 7 showed no significant difference. The rate of endotracheal intubation was significantly lower in the helmet group than in the high-flow nasal oxygen group (30% vs 51%; difference, -21% [95% CI, -38% to -3%]; P = .03). The median number of days free of invasive mechanical ventilation within 28 days was significantly higher in the helmet group than in the high-flow nasal oxygen group (28 [IQR, 13-28] vs 25 [IQR 4-28]; mean difference, 3 days [95% CI, 0-7]; P = .04). The rate of in-hospital mortality was 24% in the helmet group and 25% in the high-flow nasal oxygen group (absolute difference, -1% [95% CI, -17% to 15%]; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe hypoxemia, treatment with helmet noninvasive ventilation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen, resulted in no significant difference in the number of days free of respiratory support within 28 days. Further research is warranted to determine effects on other outcomes, including the need for endotracheal intubation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04502576.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Falha de Tratamento
12.
Respir Care ; 66(5): 705-714, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of noninvasive oxygenation strategies (NIOS) in treating COVID-19 disease is unknown. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the rate of NIOS failure in subjects treated in the ICU for hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. METHODS: Patients receiving first-line treatment NIOS for hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 in the ICU of a university hospital were included in this study; laboratory data were collected upon arrival, and 28-d outcome was recorded. After propensity score matching based on Simplified Acute Physiology (SAPS) II score, age, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at arrival, the NIOS failure rate in subjects with COVID-19 was compared to a previously published cohort who received NIOS during hypoxemic respiratory failure due to other causes. RESULTS: A total of 85 subjects received first-line treatment with NIOS. The most frequently used methods were helmet noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula; of these, 52 subjects (61%) required endotracheal intubation. Independent factors associated with NIOS failure were SAPS II score (P = .009) and serum lactate dehydrogenase at enrollment (P = .02); the combination of SAPS II score ≥ 33 with serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 405 units/L at ICU admission had 91% specificity in predicting the need for endotracheal intubation. In the propensity-matched cohorts (54 pairs), subjects with COVID-19 showed higher risk of NIOS failure than those with other causes of hypoxemic respiratory failure (59% vs 35%, P = .02), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2 (95% CI 1.1-3.6, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to hypoxemic respiratory failure due to other etiologies, subjects with COVID-19 who were treated with NIOS in the ICU were burdened by a 2-fold higher risk of failure. Subjects with a SAPS II score ≥ 33 and serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 405 units/L represent the population with the greatest risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(2): 142-150, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470666

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the evidence on the use of noninvasive respiratory supports (noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy) in patients with acute respiratory failure because of severe community-acquired pneumonia. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive ventilation is strongly advised for the treatment of hypercapnic respiratory failure and recent evidence justifies its use in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure when delivered by helmet. Indeed, such interface allows alveolar recruitment by providing high level of positive end-expiratory pressure, which improves hypoxemia. On the other hand, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is effective in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure and some articles support its use in patients with hypercapnia. However, early identification of noninvasive respiratory supports treatment failure is crucial to prevent delayed orotracheal intubation and protective invasive mechanical ventilation. SUMMARY: Noninvasive ventilation is the first-line therapy in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure because of pneumonia. Although an increasing amount of evidence investigated the application of noninvasive respiratory support to hypoxemic respiratory failure, the optimal ventilatory strategy in this setting is uncertain. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation delivered by helmet and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy appear as promising tools but their role needs to be confirmed by future research.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pneumonia/metabolismo
15.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 113-118, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470661

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review pathophysiological pathways of immune system response to infections, which may justify mediators removal by extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBPTs) in critically ill septic patients. Moreover, we presented an overview of the EBPTs mostly used in clinical practice with the aim to modulate immune system dysfunction in sepsis. RECENT FINDINGS: Sepsis is a life-threatening disease and recent findings showed that its pathophysiology relies on dysregulated immune system response to pathogen invasion of the body. In the light of this view, EBPTs have been demonstrated effective to remove specific mediators and foster balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. SUMMARY: EBPTs have been widely used in clinical practice, with the aim to modulate immune system dysfunction by the removal of pathogens and inflammatory mediators in critically ill patients with sepsis. Such therapies are characterised by specific structural features, which allow selective and nonselective removal of mediators by adsorption. However, few evidences support their role in the management of critically ill patients with sepsis. Accordingly, an evidence-based and personalized approach to EBPTs in sepsis is strongly advocated, in order to solve controversies in this field and optimise the management of critically ill septic patients.


Assuntos
Hemadsorção , Sepse , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Sepse/terapia
16.
Neurocrit Care ; 34(1): 21-30, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limiting tidal volume (VT), plateau pressure, and driving pressure is essential during the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but may be challenging when brain injury coexists due to the risk of hypercapnia. Because lowering dead space enhances CO2 clearance, we conducted a study to determine whether and to what extent replacing heat and moisture exchangers (HME) with heated humidifiers (HH) facilitate safe VT lowering in brain-injured patients with ARDS. METHODS: Brain-injured patients (head trauma or spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage with Glasgow Coma Scale at admission < 9) with mild and moderate ARDS received three ventilatory strategies in a sequential order during continuous paralysis: (1) HME with VT to obtain a PaCO2 within 30-35 mmHg (HME1); (2) HH with VT titrated to obtain the same PaCO2 (HH); and (3) HME1 settings resumed (HME2). Arterial blood gases, static and quasi-static respiratory mechanics, alveolar recruitment by multiple pressure-volume curves, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, mean arterial pressure, and mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery by transcranial Doppler were recorded. Dead space was measured and partitioned by volumetric capnography. RESULTS: Eighteen brain-injured patients were studied: 7 (39%) had mild and 11 (61%) had moderate ARDS. At inclusion, median [interquartile range] PaO2/FiO2 was 173 [146-213] and median PEEP was 8 cmH2O [5-9]. HH allowed to reduce VT by 120 ml [95% CI: 98-144], VT/kg predicted body weight by 1.8 ml/kg [95% CI: 1.5-2.1], plateau pressure and driving pressure by 3.7 cmH2O [2.9-4.3], without affecting PaCO2, alveolar recruitment, and oxygenation. This was permitted by lower airway (- 84 ml [95% CI: - 79 to - 89]) and total dead space (- 86 ml [95% CI: - 73 to - 98]). Sixteen patients (89%) showed driving pressure equal or lower than 14 cmH2O while on HH, as compared to 7 (39%) and 8 (44%) during HME1 and HME2 (p < 0.001). No changes in mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, intracranial pressure, and middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity were documented during HH. CONCLUSION: The dead space reduction provided by HH allows to safely reduce VT without modifying PaCO2 nor cerebral perfusion. This permits to provide a wider proportion of brain-injured ARDS patients with less injurious ventilation.

17.
Chest ; 159(4): 1426-1436, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sigh is a cyclic brief recruitment maneuver: previous physiologic studies showed that its use could be an interesting addition to pressure support ventilation to improve lung elastance, decrease regional heterogeneity, and increase release of surfactant. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the clinical application of sigh during pressure support ventilation (PSV) feasible? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter noninferiority randomized clinical trial on adult intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or ARDS undergoing PSV. Patients were randomized to the no-sigh group and treated by PSV alone, or to the sigh group, treated by PSV plus sigh (increase in airway pressure to 30 cm H2O for 3 s once per minute) until day 28 or death or successful spontaneous breathing trial. The primary end point of the study was feasibility, assessed as noninferiority (5% tolerance) in the proportion of patients failing assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included safety, physiologic parameters in the first week from randomization, 28-day mortality, and ventilator-free days. RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty-eight patients (31% women; median age, 65 [54-75] years) were enrolled. In the sigh group, 23% of patients failed to remain on assisted ventilation vs 30% in the no-sigh group (absolute difference, -7%; 95% CI, -18% to 4%; P = .015 for noninferiority). Adverse events occurred in 12% vs 13% in the sigh vs no-sigh group (P = .852). Oxygenation was improved whereas tidal volume, respiratory rate, and corrected minute ventilation were lower over the first 7 days from randomization in the sigh vs no-sigh group. There was no significant difference in terms of mortality (16% vs 21%; P = .337) and ventilator-free days (22 [7-26] vs 22 [3-25] days; P = .300) for the sigh vs no-sigh group. INTERPRETATION: Among hypoxemic intubated ICU patients, application of sigh was feasible and without increased risk. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03201263; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

18.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 550, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: (1,3)-ß-D-Glucan has been widely used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of invasive Candida infections. However, such serum biomarker showed potential to guide antimicrobial therapy in order to reduce the duration of empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill septic patients with suspected invasive candidiasis. METHODS: This was a single-centre, randomized, open-label clinical trial in which critically ill patients were enrolled during the admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). All septic patients who presented invasive Candida infection risk factors and for whom an empirical antifungal therapy was commenced were randomly assigned (1:1) in those stopping antifungal therapy if (1,3)-ß-D-glucan was negative ((1,3)-ß-D-glucan group) or those continuing the antifungal therapy based on clinical rules (control group). Serum 1,3-ß-D-glucan was measured at the enrolment and every 48/72 h over 14 days afterwards. The primary endpoint was the duration of antifungal treatment in the first 30 days after enrolment. RESULTS: We randomized 108 patients into the (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (n = 53) and control (n = 55) groups. Median [IQR] duration of antifungal treatment was 2 days [1-3] in the (1,3)-ß-D-glucan group vs. 10 days [6-13] in the control group (between-group absolute difference in means, 6.29 days [95% CI 3.94-8.65], p < 0.001). Thirty-day mortality was similar (28.3% [(1,3)-ß-D-glucan group] vs. 27.3% [control group], p = 0.92) as well as the overall rate of documented candidiasis (11.3% [(1,3)-ß-D-glucan group] vs. 12.7% [control group], p = 0.94), the length of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.97) and ICU stay (p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill septic patients admitted to the ICU at risk of invasive candidiasis, a (1,3)-ß-D-glucan-guided strategy could reduce the duration of empirical antifungal therapy. However, the safety of this algorithm needs to be confirmed in future, multicentre clinical trial with a larger population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03117439 , retrospectively registered on 18 April 2017.


Assuntos
Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Proteoglicanas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteoglicanas/uso terapêutico
19.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 529, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether respiratory physiology of COVID-19-induced respiratory failure is different from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of other etiologies is unclear. We conducted a single-center study to describe respiratory mechanics and response to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in COVID-19 ARDS and to compare COVID-19 patients to matched-control subjects with ARDS from other causes. METHODS: Thirty consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Rome, Italy, and fulfilling moderate-to-severe ARDS criteria were enrolled within 24 h from endotracheal intubation. Gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and ventilatory ratio were measured at PEEP of 15 and 5 cmH2O. A single-breath derecruitment maneuver was performed to assess recruitability. After 1:1 matching based on PaO2/FiO2, FiO2, PEEP, and tidal volume, COVID-19 patients were compared to subjects affected by ARDS of other etiologies who underwent the same procedures in a previous study. RESULTS: Thirty COVID-19 patients were successfully matched with 30 ARDS from other etiologies. At low PEEP, median [25th-75th percentiles] PaO2/FiO2 in the two groups was 119 mmHg [101-142] and 116 mmHg [87-154]. Average compliance (41 ml/cmH2O [32-52] vs. 36 ml/cmH2O [27-42], p = 0.045) and ventilatory ratio (2.1 [1.7-2.3] vs. 1.6 [1.4-2.1], p = 0.032) were slightly higher in COVID-19 patients. Inter-individual variability (ratio of standard deviation to mean) of compliance was 36% in COVID-19 patients and 31% in other ARDS. In COVID-19 patients, PaO2/FiO2 was linearly correlated with respiratory system compliance (r = 0.52 p = 0.003). High PEEP improved PaO2/FiO2 in both cohorts, but more remarkably in COVID-19 patients (p = 0.005). Recruitability was not different between cohorts (p = 0.39) and was highly inter-individually variable (72% in COVID-19 patients and 64% in ARDS from other causes). In COVID-19 patients, recruitability was independent from oxygenation and respiratory mechanics changes due to PEEP. CONCLUSIONS: Early after establishment of mechanical ventilation, COVID-19 patients follow ARDS physiology, with compliance reduction related to the degree of hypoxemia, and inter-individually variable respiratory mechanics and recruitability. Physiological differences between ARDS from COVID-19 and other causes appear small.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(12): 1201-1208, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the functional and morphological features of COVID-19-associated ARDS and to compare these with the characteristics of ARDS unrelated to COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective observational study was done at seven hospitals in Italy. We enrolled consecutive, mechanically ventilated patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and who met Berlin criteria for ARDS, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between March 9 and March 22, 2020. All patients were sedated, paralysed, and ventilated in volume-control mode with standard ICU ventilators. Static respiratory system compliance, the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air, ventilatory ratio (a surrogate of dead space), and D-dimer concentrations were measured within 24 h of ICU admission. Lung CT scans and CT angiograms were done when clinically indicated. A dataset for ARDS unrelated to COVID-19 was created from previous ARDS studies. Survival to day 28 was assessed. FINDINGS: Between March 9 and March 22, 2020, 301 patients with COVID-19 met the Berlin criteria for ARDS at participating hospitals. Median static compliance was 41 mL/cm H2O (33-52), which was 28% higher than in the cohort of patients with ARDS unrelated to COVID-19 (32 mL/cm H2O [25-43]; p<0·0001). 17 (6%) of 297 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS had compliances greater than the 95th percentile of the classical ARDS cohort. Total lung weight did not differ between the two cohorts. CT pulmonary angiograms (obtained in 23 [8%] patients with COVID-19-related ARDS) showed that 15 (94%) of 16 patients with D-dimer concentrations greater than the median had bilateral areas of hypoperfusion, consistent with thromboembolic disease. Patients with D-dimer concentrations equal to or less than the median had ventilatory ratios lower than those of patients with D-dimer concentrations greater than the median (1·66 [1·32-1·95] vs 1·90 [1·50-2·33]; p=0·0001). Patients with static compliance equal to or less than the median and D-dimer concentrations greater than the median had markedly increased 28-day mortality compared with other patient subgroups (40 [56%] of 71 with high D-dimers and low compliance vs 18 [27%] of 67 with low D-dimers and high compliance, 13 [22%] of 60 with low D-dimers and low compliance, and 22 [35%] of 63 with high D-dimers and high compliance, all p=0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS have a form of injury that, in many aspects, is similar to that of those with ARDS unrelated to COVID-19. Notably, patients with COVID-19-related ARDS who have a reduction in respiratory system compliance together with increased D-dimer concentrations have high mortality rates. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2
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