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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574860

RESUMO

Outdoor workers are particularly exposed to climate conditions, and in particular, the increase of environmental temperature directly affects their health and productivity. For these reasons, in recent years, heat-health warning systems have been developed for workers generally using heat stress indicators obtained by the combination of meteorological parameters to describe the thermal stress induced by the outdoor environment on the human body. There are several studies on the verification of the parameters predicted by meteorological models, but very few relating to the validation of heat stress indicators. This study aims to verify the performance of two limited area models, with different spatial resolution, potentially applicable in the occupational heat health warning system developed within the WORKLIMATE project for the Italian territory. A comparison between the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature predicted by the models and that obtained by data from 28 weather stations was carried out over about three summer seasons in different daily time slots, using the most common skill of performance. The two meteorological models were overall comparable for much of the Italian explored territory, while major limits have emerged in areas with complex topography. This study demonstrated the applicability of limited area models in occupational heat health warning systems.

2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112263, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339994

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of polyphenolic compounds in cabbage waste, outer green leaves of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), was stimulated by postharvest irradiation with UVB lamps or sunlight. Both treatments boosted the content of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, especially in the basal leaf zone, as determined by the HPLC analysis of leaf extracts and by a non-destructive optical sensor. The destructive analysis of samples irradiated by the sun for 6 days at the end of October 2015 in Skierniewice (Poland) showed an increase of leaf flavonols by 82% with respect to controls. The treatment by a broadband UVB fluorescent lamp, with irradiance of 0.38 W m-2 in the 290-315 nm range (and 0.59 W m-2 in the UVA region) for 12 h per day at 17 °C along with a white light of about 20 µmol m-2 s-1, produced a flavonols increase of 58% with respect to controls. The kinetics of flavonols accumulation in response to the photochemical treatments was monitored with the FLAV non-destructive index. The initial FLAV rate under the sun was proportional to the daily radiation doses with a better correlation for the sun global irradiance (R2 = 0.973), followed by the UVA (R2 = 0.965) and UVB (R2 = 0.899) irradiance. The sunlight turned out to be more efficient than the UVB lamp in increasing the flavonols level of waste leaves, because of a significant role played by UVA and visible solar radiation in the regulation of the flavonoid accumulation in cabbage. The FLAV index increase induced on the adaxial leaf side was accompanied by a lower but still significant FLAV increase on the unirradiated abaxial side, likely due to a systemic signaling by mean of the long-distance movement of macromolecules. Our present investigation provides useful data for the optimization of postharvest photochemical protocols of cabbage waste valorization. It can represent a novel and alternative tool of vegetable waste management for the recovery of beneficial phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 16(9): 1349-1370, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848959

RESUMO

The UV Index was established more than 20 years ago as a tool for sun protection and health care. Shortly after its introduction, UV Index monitoring started in several countries either by newly acquired instruments or by converting measurements from existing instruments into the UV Index. The number of stations and networks has increased over the years. Currently, 160 stations in 25 European countries deliver online values to the public via the Internet. In this paper an overview of these UV Index monitoring sites in Europe is given. The overview includes instruments as well as quality assurance and quality control procedures. Furthermore, some examples are given about how UV Index values are presented to the public. Through these efforts, 57% of the European population is supplied with high quality information, enabling them to adapt behaviour. Although health care, including skin cancer prevention, is cost-effective, a proportion of the European population still doesn't have access to UV Index information.

4.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144468, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26714309

RESUMO

The frequency of natural hazards has been increasing in the last decades in Europe and specifically in Mediterranean regions due to climate change. For example heavy precipitation events can lead to disasters through the interaction with exposed and vulnerable people and natural systems. It is therefore necessary a prevention planning to preserve human health and to reduce economic losses. Prevention should mainly be carried out with more adequate land management, also supported by the development of an appropriate risk prediction tool based on weather forecasts. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between weather types (WTs) and the frequency of floods and landslides that have caused damage to properties, personal injuries, or deaths in the Italian regions over recent decades. In particular, a specific risk index (WT-FLARI) for each WT was developed at national and regional scale. This study has identified a specific risk index associated with each weather type, calibrated for each Italian region and applicable to both annual and seasonal levels. The risk index represents the seasonal and annual vulnerability of each Italian region and indicates that additional preventive actions are necessary for some regions. The results of this study represent a good starting point towards the development of a tool to support policy-makers, local authorities and health agencies in planning actions, mainly in the medium to long term, aimed at the weather damage reduction that represents an important issue of the World Meteorological Organization mission.


Assuntos
Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Deslizamentos de Terra/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Itália , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
5.
Int J Biometeorol ; 59(12): 1799-811, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25935577

RESUMO

Climatic factors and weather type frequencies affecting Tuscany are examined to discriminate between vintages ranked into the upper- and lower-quartile years as a consensus from six rating sources of Chianti wine during the period 1980 to 2011. These rankings represent a considerable improvement on any individual publisher ranking, displaying an overall good consensus for the best and worst vintage years. Climate variables are calculated and weather type frequencies are matched between the eight highest and the eight lowest ranked vintages in the main phenological phases of Sangiovese grapevine. Results show that higher heat units; mean, maximum and minimum temperature; and more days with temperature above 35 °C were the most important discriminators between good- and poor-quality vintages in the spring and summer growth phases, with heat units important during ripening. Precipitation influences on vintage quality are significant only during veraison where low precipitation amounts and precipitation days are important for better quality vintages. In agreement with these findings, weather type analysis shows good vintages are favoured by weather type 4 (more anticyclones over central Mediterranean Europe (CME)), giving warm dry growing season conditions. Poor vintages all relate to higher frequencies of either weather type 3, which, by producing perturbation crossing CME, favours cooler and wetter conditions, and/or weather type 7 which favours cold dry continental air masses from the east and north east over CME. This approach shows there are important weather type frequency differences between good- and poor-quality vintages. Trend analysis shows that changes in weather type frequencies are more important than any due to global warming.


Assuntos
Clima , Vinho , Itália , Estações do Ano , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tempo (Meteorologia)
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 130: 338-48, 2014 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24423784

RESUMO

Erythema is the most familiar short-term symptom of human skin associated with overexposure to unperceivable ultraviolet radiation (UV). However, people are able to perceive the warm infrared component of the solar radiation by means of thermal (dis)comfort. This study investigated the potentiality of perceived outdoor heat stress as a valuable proxy for the unperceivable effect of UV-induced risk of erythema in a Mediterranean city. Meteorological data and UVB (280-320nm) measurements were obtained for the 2004-2012 period by a weather station located in the municipality of Florence. Continuous measurements of erythemally effective UV (UVEry) were performed by means of a broadband temperature-corrected radiometer with the spectral response close to the erythemal action spectrum. Hourly UVEry doses were expressed as Standard Erythemal Doses (SEDs). The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), that represents the state-of-the-art of outdoor thermal (dis)comfort evaluation, was also assessed. Descriptive analyses of the hourly distribution per month of the frequencies of days with heat stress and UVEry exceeding 2.0, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 SEDs were carried out based on the general skin-type characteristics. The association between UVEry and UTCI was analyzed by a two-way contingency table approach. The probability of UVEry exceeding specific SED thresholds when heat stress occurs was often significantly higher than the same probability when no heat stress is perceived. Furthermore, increased magnitudes of the ratios, ranging from the very sensitive to the minimally sensitive skin types, were also found. However, during several months, too many days occur without any signs of heat discomfort, even when people may be exposed to relevant doses of harmful UVEry for the skin of various phototypes. These findings underlie the need for public health authorities to provide differentiated advice per month in relation to potential UV skin damage in the city of Florence.


Assuntos
Eritema/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Software , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Teóricos , Pele/patologia , Pressão de Vapor , Vento
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 37(1): 51-9, 2013.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23585434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of Tuscany Regional project were: to study the sun protection attitude of outdoor workers; to measure solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure in work environment; to describe the frequency of photoaging, precancerous lesions, and skin cancers in outdoor workers; to collect information on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure from incident cases of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) recruited from Tuscany Cancer Registry. DESIGN: Outdoor workers completed a questionnaire devoted to collect information on sun protection attitudes during a typical summer working week. Environmental and personal measurements were carried out. Expert dermatologists examined outdoor workers to assess the frequency of photoaging, precancerous lesions, and skin cancer. A structured questionnaire was mailed to incident cases of NMSC. Information were collected on personal habits and working history, focusing on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Agriculture, construction, quarrying and fishing activities were considered: 292 employees responded to questions about the type of clothing used in the morning and in the afternoon,while working outdoors; 637 outdoor workers underwent skin examination. We contacted 743 cases of NMSC occurred in 2004; 498 subjects accepted to participate in this study. RESULTS: The clothing worn by surveyed subjects was often inadequate compared to the high level of exposure to UV. The skin examination of 637 outdoor workers highlighted 2 melanomas, 7 epitheliomas and 35 actinic keratoses. Among the 498 cases of NMSC, 135 (27%) were diagnosed in outdoor workers. Most represented economic activity sectors were: agriculture, construction, transport, sports. CONCLUSION: The characterization of outside workers revealed unsatisfactory sun protection behaviours. Moreover, previously undetected skin cancers were diagnosed. The study on MNSC confirms the complexity of studying the exposure to UV radiation. The Tuscany Regional project provided useful information on the risk of solar ultraviolet radiation in outdoor workers. Prevention programs are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção , Sistema de Registros , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
8.
Int J Biometeorol ; 57(5): 729-42, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23152193

RESUMO

Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large-scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of precipitation in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine, weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall, i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over the Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that atmospheric pattern persistencies can be used as precursors for wine quality forecast.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vinho/classificação , Vinho/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Itália , Região do Mediterrâneo
9.
Photochem Photobiol ; 85(1): 313-20, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18811625

RESUMO

The safest protection from UV radiation (UVR) exposure is offered by clothing and its protectiveness depends on fabric composition (natural, artificial or synthetic fibers), fabric parameters (porosity, weight and thickness) and dyeing (natural or synthetic dyes, dye concentration, UV absorbing properties, etc.). In this study the UV protection properties of two fabrics made of natural fibers (flax and hemp) dyed with some of the most common natural dyes were investigated. UVR transmittance of fabrics was measured by two methods: one based on the utilization of a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere (in vitro test), and the other based on outdoor measurements taken by a spectroradiometer. Transmittance measurements were used to calculate the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). Experimental results revealed that natural dyes could confer good UV protection, depending mainly on their different UVR-absorbing properties, provided that the fabric construction already guaranteed good cover. An increase in cover factor caused by the dyeing process was also detected. Weld-dyed fabrics gave the highest protection level. The comparison between the two methods applied to measure fabric transmittance pointed out that the UPFs calculated by in vitro measurements were generally lower than those based on outdoor data, indicating an underestimation of the actual protection level of tested fabrics assessed by the in vitro test.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Cannabis/química , Vestuário , Corantes/química , Protetores contra Radiação/efeitos da radiação , Têxteis/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos da radiação , Cannabis/efeitos da radiação , Corantes/efeitos da radiação , Protetores contra Radiação/química
10.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 16(6): 427-37, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17164169

RESUMO

In solar UV irradiance monitoring and forecasting services UV information is generally expressed in terms of its effect on erythema and referred to horizontal surface. In this work we define the UV radiative regime, in terms of biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBE) for skin and eye, under full sun and shaded conditions, over a mountainous tourist area of central Italy by means of two all-day measurements (summer and early spring) with different ground albedo (grass and snow cover respectively). UV irradiance was monitored on tilted surfaces (the most frequent for people standing and walking). Results show the significant contribution of ground albedo and sun position in determining the incident UVBE irradiance. On early spring days the UVBE irradiance measured on horizontal surface was much lower than on tilted ones; the opposite condition was observed in summer. The highest UVBE irradiance values, in particular conditions of sun elevation and ground cover, were reached in periods different from the summer both in full sun and shaded condition.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Eritema/etiologia , Olho , Previsões , Geografia , Humanos , Itália , Doses de Radiação , Estações do Ano , Pele , Neve , Queimadura Solar/etiologia , Viagem
11.
Environ Res ; 102(1): 52-60, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16460725

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the risk of hospital admission for myocardial infarction (MI) and the daily weather conditions during the winters of 1998-2003, according to an air-mass-based synoptic climatological approach. The effects of time lag and 2-day sequences with specific air mass types were also investigated. Studies concerning the relationship between atmospheric conditions and human health need to take into consideration simultaneous effects of many weather variables. At the moment few studies have surveyed these effects on hospitalizations for MI. Analyses were concentrated on winter, when the maximum peak of hospitalization occurred. An objective daily air mass classification by means of statistical analyses based on ground meteorological data was carried out. A comparison between air mass classification and hospital admissions was made by the calculation of a MI admission index, and to detect significant relationships the Mann-Whitney U test, the analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni test were used. Significant increases in hospital admissions for MI were evident 24h after a day characterized by an anticyclonic continental air mass and 6 days after a day characterized by a cyclonic air mass. Increased risk of hospitalization was found even when specific 2-day air mass sequences occurred. These results represent an important step in identifying reliable linkages between weather and health.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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