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2.
Thorax ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable lung disease and exposure to air pollution are major problems in sub-Saharan Africa. A high burden of chronic respiratory symptoms, spirometric abnormalities and air pollution exposures has been found in Malawian adults; whether the same would be true in children is unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of children aged 6-8 years, in rural Malawi, included households from communities participating in the Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), a trial of cleaner-burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves. We assessed; chronic respiratory symptoms, anthropometry, spirometric abnormalities (using Global Lung Initiative equations) and personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure. Prevalence estimates were calculated, and multivariable analyses were done. RESULTS: We recruited 804 children (mean age 7.1 years, 51.9% female), including 476 (260 intervention; 216 control) from CAPS households. Chronic respiratory symptoms (mainly cough (8.0%) and wheeze (7.1%)) were reported by 16.6% of children. Average height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores were -1.04 and -1.10, respectively. Spirometric abnormalities (7.1% low forced vital capacity (FVC); 6.3% obstruction) were seen in 13.0% of children. Maximum CO exposure and carboxyhaemoglobin levels (COHb) exceeded WHO guidelines in 50.1% and 68.5% of children, respectively. Children from CAPS intervention households had lower COHb (median 3.50% vs 4.85%, p=0.006) and higher FVC z-scores (-0.22 vs -0.44, p=0.05) than controls. CONCLUSION: The substantial burden of chronic respiratory symptoms, abnormal spirometry and air pollution exposures in children in rural Malawi is concerning; effective prevention and control strategies are needed. Our finding of potential benefit in CAPS intervention households calls for further research into clean-air interventions to maximise healthy lung development in children.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025867, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma-related morbidity and mortality in the UK is higher than elsewhere in Europe. Although the reasons for this are largely unclear, one explanation could be a higher prevalence of poorly controlled asthma in the UK. Findings from our earlier study found that, in a sample of 766 children with asthma, 45.7% had poorly controlled asthma. Our earlier study also showed that adherence to inhaled corticosteroids was low. Subsequent focus groups identified concerns regarding embarrassment and bullying as barriers to adherence, as well as forgetfulness and incorrect medication beliefs. Following this, a school-based self-management intervention has been developed, aimed to improve asthma control and self-management behaviours. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The theory-based cluster randomised controlled trial tests an intervention comprising two components: (1) a theatre workshop for all children in years 7 and 8, and (2) self-management workshops for children with asthma. The COM-B model was used to guide the development of the intervention. Questionnaire data will be collected in schools at baseline, immediately post intervention, and 3, 6 and 12 months post intervention. The data collected at 6 months will measure the effect of the intervention against the baseline data. The primary outcome will be asthma control, measured using the Asthma Control Test. All the data will be analysed quantitatively using generalised linear and non-linear mixed effects models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained by the Queen Mary University of London Ethics Committee on 12 April 2018. Regular meetings will be held with key patient and public stakeholders to plan the key messages from this research. Key messages from the study will also be tweeted via the project twitter account (@SchoolsAsthma). The findings of the study will be submitted for presentation at conferences, as well as written into a manuscript. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: MGU0400.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011651, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory condition in children that is characterised by symptoms including wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. Children with asthma may be able to manage their condition more effectively by improving inhaler technique, and by recognising and responding to symptoms. Schools offer a potentially supportive environment for delivering interventions aimed at improving self-management skills among children. The educational ethos aligns with skill and knowledge acquisition and makes it easier to reach children with asthma who do not regularly engage with primary care. Given the multi-faceted nature of self-management interventions, there is a need to understand the combination of intervention features that are associated with successful delivery of asthma self-management programmes. OBJECTIVES: This review has two primary objectives.• To identify the intervention features that are aligned with successful intervention implementation.• To assess effectiveness of school-based interventions provided to improve asthma self-management among children.We addressed the first objective by performing qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a synthesis method described in depth later, of process evaluation studies to identify the combination of intervention components and processes that are aligned with successful intervention implementation.We pursued the second objective by undertaking meta-analyses of outcomes reported by outcome evaluation studies. We explored the link between how well an intervention is implemented and its effectiveness by using separate models, as well as by undertaking additional subgroup analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register for randomised studies. To identify eligible process evaluation studies, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Web of Knowledge, the Database of Promoting Health Effectiveness Reviews (DoPHER), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the International Biography of Social Science (IBSS), Bibliomap, Health Technology Assessment (HTA), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), and Sociological Abstracts (SocAbs). We conducted the latest search on 28 August 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Participants were school-aged children with asthma who received the intervention in school. Interventions were eligible if their purpose was to help children improve management of their asthma by increasing knowledge, enhancing skills, or changing behaviour. Studies relevant to our first objective could be based on an experimental or quasi-experimental design and could use qualitative or quantitative methods of data collection. For the second objective we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where children were allocated individually or in clusters (e.g. classrooms or schools) to self-management interventions or no intervention control. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify intervention features that lead to successful implementation of asthma self-management interventions. We measured implementation success by reviewing reports of attrition, intervention dosage, and treatment adherence, irrespective of effects of the interventions.To measure the effects of interventions, we combined data from eligible studies for our primary outcomes: admission to hospital, emergency department (ED) visits, absence from school, and days of restricted activity due to asthma symptoms. Secondary outcomes included unplanned visits to healthcare providers, daytime and night-time symptoms, use of reliever therapies, and health-related quality of life as measured by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). MAIN RESULTS: We included 55 studies in the review. Thirty-three studies in 14,174 children provided information for the QCA, and 33 RCTs in 12,623 children measured the effects of interventions. Eleven studies contributed to both the QCA and the analysis of effectiveness. Most studies were conducted in North America in socially disadvantaged populations. High school students were better represented among studies contributing to the QCA than in studies contributing to effectiveness evaluations, which more commonly included younger elementary and junior high school students. The interventions all attempted to improve knowledge of asthma, its triggers, and stressed the importance of regular practitioner review, although there was variation in how they were delivered.QCA results highlighted the importance of an intervention being theory driven, along with the importance of factors such as parent involvement, child satisfaction, and running the intervention outside the child's own time as drivers of successful implementation.Compared with no intervention, school-based self-management interventions probably reduce mean hospitalisations by an average of about 0.16 admissions per child over 12 months (SMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.04; 1873 participants; 6 studies, moderate certainty evidence). They may reduce the number of children who visit EDs from 7.5% to 5.4% over 12 months (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92; 3883 participants; 13 studies, low certainty evidence), and probably reduce unplanned visits to hospitals or primary care from 26% to 21% at 6 to 9 months (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90; 3490 participants; 5 studies, moderate certainty evidence). Self-management interventions probably reduce the number of days of restricted activity by just under half a day over a two-week period (MD 0.38 days 95% CI -0.41 to -0.18; 1852 participants; 3 studies, moderate certainty evidence). Effects of interventions on school absence are uncertain due to the variation between the results of the studies (MD 0.4 fewer school days missed per year with self-management (-1.25 to 0.45; 4609 participants; 10 studies, low certainty evidence). Evidence is insufficient to show whether the requirement for reliever medications is affected by these interventions (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.81; 437 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). Self-management interventions probably improve children's asthma-related quality of life by a small amount (MD 0.36 units higher on the Paediatric AQLQ(95% CI 0.06 to 0.64; 2587 participants; 7 studies, moderate certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: School-based asthma self-management interventions probably reduce hospital admission and may slightly reduce ED attendance, although their impact on school attendance could not be measured reliably. They may also reduce the number of days where children experience asthma symptoms, and probably lead to small improvements in asthma-related quality of life. Many of the studies tested the intervention in younger children from socially disadvantaged populations. Interventions that had a theoretical framework, engaged parents and were run outside of children's free time were associated with successful implementation.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Autogestão/métodos , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Thorax ; 74(5): 432-438, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evidence that teaching self-management techniques to children and young people with asthma in schools is effective has not, to date, been the subject of systematic review. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of intervention studies. Studies were eligible if they employed a randomised parallel-group design and were published in English from 1995 onwards. Participants included children with asthma aged 5-18 years who participated within their own school environment. Searches were conducted on the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register. Quantitative data were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Thirty-three outcome evaluation studies were included. School-based interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of emergency department visits (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92; studies=13), and moderately effective in reducing levels of hospitalisations (standardised mean differences [SMD] -0.19, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.04; studies=6). A meta-analysis of three studies suggest that the intervention approach could reduce the number of days of restricted activity (SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.18; studies=3). However, there was uncertainty as to whether school-based self-management interventions impacted on reducing absences from school. CONCLUSIONS: Self-management interventions for children with asthma delivered in schools reduce the number of acute episodes of healthcare usage. We conclude that the school environment is an important space for delivering interventions to improve children's health.

7.
Lancet Public Health ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low emission zones (LEZ) are an increasingly common, but unevaluated, intervention aimed at improving urban air quality and public health. We investigated the impact of London's LEZ on air quality and children's respiratory health. METHODS: We did a sequential annual cross-sectional study of 2164 children aged 8-9 years attending primary schools between 2009-10 and 2013-14 in central London, UK, following the introduction of London's LEZ in February, 2008. We examined the association between modelled pollutant exposures of nitrogen oxides (including nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2·5 µm (PM2·5) and less than 10 µm (PM10) and lung function: postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, primary outcome), forced vital capacity (FVC), and respiratory or allergic symptoms. We assigned annual exposures by each child's home and school address, as well as spatially resolved estimates for the 3 h (0600-0900 h), 24 h, and 7 days before each child's assessment, to isolate long-term from short-term effects. FINDINGS: The percentage of children living at addresses exceeding the EU limit value for annual NO2 (40 µg/m3) fell from 99% (444/450) in 2009 to 34% (150/441) in 2013. Over this period, we identified a reduction in NO2 at both roadside (median -1·35 µg/m3 per year; 95% CI -2·09 to -0·61; p=0·0004) and background locations (-0·97; -1·56 to -0·38; p=0·0013), but not for PM10. The effect on PM2·5 was equivocal. We found no association between postbronchodilator FEV1 and annual residential pollutant attributions. By contrast, FVC was inversely correlated with annual NO2 (-0·0023 L/µg per m3; -0·0044 to -0·0002; p=0·033) and PM10 (-0·0090 L/µg per m3; -0·0175 to -0·0005; p=0·038). INTERPRETATION: Within London's LEZ, a smaller lung volume in children was associated with higher annual air pollutant exposures. We found no evidence of a reduction in the proportion of children with small lungs over this period, despite small improvements in air quality in highly polluted urban areas during the implementation of London's LEZ. Interventions that deliver larger reductions in emissions might yield improvements in children's health. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust and King's College London, NHS Hackney, Lee Him donation, and Felicity Wilde Charitable Trust.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189674

RESUMO

Household air pollution is estimated to cause half a million deaths from pneumonia in children worldwide. The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) was conducted to determine whether the use of cleaner-burning biomass-fueled cookstoves would reduce household air pollution and thereby the incidence of pneumonia in young children in rural Malawi. Here we report a cross-sectional assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and carboxyhemoglobin (COHgB) levels at recruitment to CAPS. Mean (SD; range) 48-h CO exposure of 1928 participating children was 0.90 (2.3; 0⁻49) ppm and mean (SD; range) COHgB level was 5.8% (3.3; 0⁻20.3). Higher mean CO and COHgB levels were associated with location (Chikhwawa versus Chilumba) (OR 3.55 (1.73⁻7.26)); (OR 2.77 (1.08⁻7.08)). Correlation between mean CO and COHgB was poor (Spearman's ρ = 0.09, p < 0.001). The finding of high COHgB levels in young children in rural Malawi that are at levels at which adverse neurodevelopmental and cognitive effects occur is of concern. Effective approaches for reducing exposure to CO and other constituents of air pollution in rural sub-Saharan African settings are urgently needed.

11.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 60, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191183

RESUMO

Background.  Childhood asthma is a common complex condition whose aetiology is thought to involve gene-environment interactions in early life occurring at the airway epithelium, associated with immune dysmaturation.  It is not clear if abnormal airway epithelium cell (AEC) and cellular immune system functions associated with asthma are primary or secondary.  To explore this, we will (i) recruit a birth cohort and observe the evolution of respiratory symptoms; (ii) recruit children with and without asthma symptoms; and (iii) use existing data from children in established STELAR birth cohorts.    Novel pathways identified in the birth cohort will be sought in the children with established disease.  Our over-arching hypothesis is that epithelium function is abnormal at birth in babies who subsequently develop asthma and progression is driven by abnormal interactions between the epithelium, genetic factors, the developing immune system, and the microbiome in the first years of life. Methods.  One thousand babies will be recruited and nasal AEC collected at 5-10 days after birth for culture.  Transcriptomes in AEC and blood leukocytes and the upper airway microbiome will be determined in babies and again at one and three years of age. In a subset of 100 individuals, AEC transcriptomes and microbiomes will also be assessed at three and six months.  Individuals will be assigned a wheeze category at age three years.  In a cross sectional study, 300 asthmatic and healthy children aged 1 to 16 years will have nasal and bronchial AEC collected for culture and transcriptome analysis, leukocyte transcriptome analysis, and upper and lower airway microbiomes ascertained.  Genetic variants associated with asthma symptoms will be confirmed in the STELAR cohorts.  Conclusions.  This study is the first to comprehensively study the temporal relationship between aberrant AEC and immune cell function and asthma symptoms in the context of early gene-microbiome interactions.

12.
Breathe (Sheff) ; 14(2): 93-98, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875828

RESUMO

The development of new asthma biologics and receptor blockers for the treatment of paediatric severe asthma raises challenges. It is unclear whether there are sufficient children in Europe to recruit into randomised placebo-controlled trials to establish efficacy and safety in this age group. In February 2016, the European Respiratory Society funded a clinical research collaboration entitled "Severe Paediatric Asthma Collaborative in Europe" (SPACE). We now report the SPACE protocol for a prospective pan-European observational study of paediatric severe asthma. Inclusion criteria are: 1) age 6-17 years, 2) severe asthma managed at a specialised centre for ≥6 months, 3)clinical and spirometry evidence of asthma, and 4) reaching a pre-defined treatment threshold. The exclusion criterion is the presence of conditions which mimic asthma symptoms. Eligible children will be prospectively recruited into a registry, recording demographics, comorbidities, quality of life, family history, neonatal history, smoking history, asthma background, investigations, and treatment. Follow-up will provide longitudinal data on asthma control and treatment changes. The SPACE registry, by identifying well-phenotyped children eligible for clinical trials, and the amount of overlap in eligibility criteria, will inform the design of European trials in paediatric severe asthma, and facilitate observational research where data from single centres are limited.

13.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(2)2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850468

RESUMO

In this article, the group chairs of the Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) highlight some of the most interesting findings presented at the 2017 ERS International Congress, which was held in Milan, Italy.

14.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 2(1): e000210, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862329

RESUMO

Air pollution generated in urban areas is a global public health burden since half of the world's population live in either cities, megacities or periurban areas. Its direct effects include initiating and exacerbating disease, with indirect effects on health mediated via climate change putting the basic needs of water, air and food at risk.

15.
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 405-411, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677666

RESUMO

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from burning of biomass for cooking is associated with adverse health effects. It is unknown whether or not cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves reduce the amount of PM inhaled by women compared with traditional open fires. We sought to assess whether airway macrophage black carbon (AMBC) - a marker of inhaled dose of carbonaceous PM from biomass and fossil fuel combustion - is lower in Malawian women using a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove compared with those using open fires for cooking. AMBC was assessed in induced sputum samples using image analysis and personal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and PM were measured using Aprovecho Indoor Air Pollution meters. A fossil-fuel exposed group of UK women was also studied. Induced sputum samples were obtained from 57 women from which AMBC was determined in 31. Median AMBC was 6.87µm2 (IQR 4.47-18.5) and 4.37µm2 (IQR 2.57-7.38) in the open fire (n=11) and cleaner burning cookstove groups (n=20), respectively (p=0.028). There was no difference in personal exposure to CO and PM between the two groups. UK women (n=5) had lower AMBC (median 0.89µm2, IQR 0.56-1.13) compared with both Malawi women using traditional cookstoves (p<0.001) and those using cleaner cookstoves (p=0.022). We conclude that use of a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove reduces inhaled PM dose in a way that is not necessarily reflected by personal exposure monitoring.


Assuntos
Culinária/instrumentação , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fuligem/análise , Adulto , Biomassa , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Culinária/métodos , Feminino , Fogo , Humanos , Macrófagos , Malaui , Material Particulado/análise , Sistema Respiratório
17.
Int J Public Health ; 63(5): 557-565, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, jointly with Public Health England, have developed a guideline on outdoor air pollution and its links to health. The guideline makes recommendations on local interventions that can help improve air quality and prevent a range of adverse health outcomes associated with road-traffic-related air pollution. METHODS: The guideline was based on a rigorous assessment of the scientific evidence by an independent advisory committee, with input from public health professionals and other professional groups. The process included systematics reviews of the literature, expert testimonies and stakeholder consultation. RESULTS: The guideline includes recommendations for local planning, clean air zones, measures to reduce emissions from public sector transport services, smooth driving and speed reduction, active travel, and awareness raising. CONCLUSIONS: The guideline recommends taking a number of actions in combination, because multiple interventions, each producing a small benefit, are likely to act cumulatively to produce significant change. These actions are likely to bring multiple public health benefits, in addition to air quality improvements.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/normas , Poluição do Ar/análise , Guias como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Participação da Comunidade , Inglaterra , Humanos
18.
19.
Eur Respir J ; 51(2)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437942

RESUMO

E-cigarette vapour contains free radicals with the potential to induce oxidative stress. Since oxidative stress in airway cells increases platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) expression, and PAFR is co-opted by pneumococci to adhere to host cells, we hypothesised that E-cigarette vapour increases pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells.Nasal epithelial PAFR was assessed in non-vaping controls, and in adults before and after 5 min of vaping. We determined the effect of vapour on oxidative stress-induced, PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to airway epithelial cells in vitro, and on pneumococcal colonisation in the mouse nasopharynx. Elemental analysis of vapour was done by mass spectrometry, and oxidative potential of vapour assessed by antioxidant depletion in vitroThere was no difference in baseline nasal epithelial PAFR expression between vapers (n=11) and controls (n=6). Vaping increased nasal PAFR expression. Nicotine-containing and nicotine-free E-cigarette vapour increased pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells in vitro Vapour-stimulated adhesion in vitro was attenuated by the PAFR blocker CV3988. Nicotine-containing E-cigarette vapour increased mouse nasal PAFR expression, and nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonisation. Vapour contained redox-active metals, had considerable oxidative activity, and adhesion was attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine.This study suggests that E-cigarette vapour has the potential to increase susceptibility to pneumococcal infection.

20.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 28: 47-54, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361392

RESUMO

Preschool wheeze is a common but poorly understood cause of respiratory morbidity that is both distinct from and overlaps with infantile bronchiolitis and school age asthma. Attempts at classification by epidemiology, pathophysiology, therapeutic response and clinical phenotype are imperfect and yet fundamental to both treatment choice and research design. The four main therapeutic classes for preschool wheeze, namely beta2 agonists, anticholinergics, corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers are employed with variable and often scanty evidence base, with evidence for a genetic influence on response variations. The article will discuss the pharmacogenetics of the various options, summarise current treatment recommendations, and explore future research directions.

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