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1.
Acta Naturae ; 13(2): 85-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377559

RESUMO

Kozlovskaya et al. [1] and Grigoriev et al. [2] showed that enormous loss of muscle stiffness (atonia) develops in humans under true (space flight) and simulated microgravity conditions as early as after the first days of exposure. This phenomenon is attributed to the inactivation of slow motor units and called reflectory atonia. However, a lot of evidence indicating that even isolated muscle or a single fiber possesses substantial stiffness was published at the end of the 20th century. This intrinsic stiffness is determined by the active component, i.e. the ability to form actin-myosin cross-bridges during muscle stretch and contraction, as well as by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins, capable of resisting muscle stretch. The main facts on intrinsic muscle stiffness under conditions of gravitational unloading are considered in this review. The data obtained in studies of humans under dry immersion and rodent hindlimb suspension is analyzed. The results and hypotheses regarding reduced probability of cross-bridge formation in an atrophying muscle due to increased interfilament spacing are described. The evidence of cytoskeletal protein (titin, nebulin, etc.) degradation during gravitational unloading is also discussed. The possible mechanisms underlying structural changes in skeletal muscle collagen and its role in reducing intrinsic muscle stiffness are presented. The molecular mechanisms of changes in intrinsic stiffness during space flight and simulated microgravity are reviewed.

2.
Biomed Khim ; 66(3): 216-223, 2020 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588827

RESUMO

In the frame of the work, data on the implementation of metabolomics tests in medicine have been systematized. Based on the obtained data, a set of protocols was proposed, the sequential realization of which makes it possible to conduct a blood metabolome analysis for medical purposes. Using this analysis and the number of blood samples from healthy volunteers, a prototype of a healthy person's metabolomic image has been developed; it allows visually and digitally to assess the compliance of the human blood metabolome with the norm. At the same time, 99% of the metabolic processes reflected in the blood plasma are estimated. If abnormalities are detected, the metabolomic image allows to get the value of these deviations of metabolic processes in digital terms.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Plasma
3.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 479(1): 69-71, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779099

RESUMO

The dynamics of the expression of genes encoding adhesion molecules, molecules of the connective tissue matrix, and its remodeling enzymes was studied in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue after interaction with cord blood hematopoietic progenitors (HSPCs). An upregulation of ICAM1 and VCAM1, directly proportional to the coculture time (24-72 h), was found. After 72 h of culturing, a downregulation of the genes encoding the majority of matrix molecules (SPP1; COL6A2,7A1; MMP1,3; TIMP1,3; and HAS1) and cell-matrix adhesion molecules (ITGs) was revealed. The detected changes may ensure the realization of the stromal MSC function due to improvement of adhesion and transmigration of HSPCs into the subcellular space.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Humanos
4.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 476(1): 326-328, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101746

RESUMO

Quantitative proteomic analysis of 50 blood plasma samples of healthy volunteers who underwent a comprehensive medical examination and were found eligible for space flights was performed. As a result of directed mass spectrometric analysis, signals for 128 proteins, which accounted for nearly 40% of the total number of chromosome 13 gene products, were detected. The analysis of interindividual variation of concentrations of chromosome 13 proteins showed the presence of a pool comprising 41 proteins with a low variation (CV < 30%), which can potentially be used as biomarkers.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Proteômica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos
5.
Acta Naturae ; 8(3): 6-16, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27795840

RESUMO

Transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells is currently widely used in modern cell therapy. However, the limited number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and prolonged time of recovery after the transplantation are significant limitations in the use of cord blood. Ex vivo expansion with various cytokine combinations is one of the most common approaches for increasing the number of HSPCs from one cord blood unit. In addition, there are protocols that enable ex vivo amplification of cord blood cells based on native hematopoietic microenvironmental cues, including stromal components and the tissue-relevant oxygen level. The newest techniques for ex vivo expansion of HSPCs are based on data from the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms governing the hematopoietic niche function. Application of these methods has provided an improvement of several important clinical outcomes. Alternative methods of cord blood transplantation enhancement based on optimization of HPSC homing and engraftment in patient tissues have also been successful. The goal of the present review is to analyze recent methodological approaches to cord blood HSPC ex vivo amplification.

6.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 80(9): 1117-26, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26555465

RESUMO

The detection of miRNAs in plasma and other body fluids opened up a fascinating possibility that animal noncoding RNAs can act as extracellular signaling molecules. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the field including the ability of miRNAs to participate in intercellular communication in vitro and in vivo, and the application of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic markers of a wide range of diseases. Special attention is paid to the relevance of the development and unification of current techniques for isolation of circulating miRNAs.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/sangue , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Patologia Molecular
7.
Acta Naturae ; 7(1): 48-59, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25927001

RESUMO

The coactivator PGC-1α is the key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle expresses several PGC-1α isoforms. This review covers the functional role of PGC-1α isoforms and the regulation of their exercise-associated expression in skeletal muscle. The patterns of PGC-1α mRNA expression may markedly differ at rest and after muscle activity. Different signaling pathways are activated by different physiological stimuli, which regulate the expression of the PGC-1α gene from the canonical and alternative promoters: expression from a canonical (proximal) promoter is regulated by activation of the AMPK; expression from an alternative promoter, via a ß2-adrenergic receptor. All transcripts from both promoters are subject to alternative splicing. As a result, truncated isoforms that possess different properties are translated: truncated isoforms are more stable and predominantly activate angiogenesis, whereas full-length isoforms manly regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. The existence of several isoforms partially explains the broad-spectrum function of this protein and allows the organism to adapt to different physiological stimuli. Regulation of the PGC-1α gene expression by different signaling pathways provides ample opportunity for pharmacological influence on the expression of this gene. Those opportunities might be important for the treatment and prevention of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of the PGC-1α gene expression and their functional role may provide an opportunity to control the expression of different isoforms through exercise and/or pharmacological intervention.

8.
Aviakosm Ekolog Med ; 48(1): 7-14, 2014.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25033609

RESUMO

Biosatellite BION-M1 was launched on April 19 and landed on May 19, 2013. The mission program was largely a continuation of the earlier flown 11 BION projects, FOTON-M2 and FOTON-M3. The biosatellite was inhabited by a great variety of living organisms used for experiments and studies in gravitational physiology, gravitational biology, biotechnology, astrobiology and radiation biology, dosimetry and spectrometry. This was the first time in the history of national biology and physiology when male mice C57bl/6 were chosen for a long-term space experiment focused upon molecular biology investigations. Unfortunately, because of technical failures during the flight a part of the animals were lost. However, the major objectives were attained through reconsideration of biomaterial division among investigators and completion of virtually the total scope of investigations.


Assuntos
Gravitação , Voo Espacial , Astronave , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Federação Russa , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 116(5): 1129-36, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24517235

RESUMO

AIM: To study the effects exerted by argon microwave nonthermal plasma (NTP) on cell wall-lacking Mollicutes bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: 10(8) CFU ml(-1) agar plated Mycoplasma hominis and Acholeplasma laidlawii were treated with the nonthermal microwave argon plasma for 30-300 s. The maximal 10- and 100-fold drop was observed for A. laidlawii and Myc. hominis, respectively. Similarly treated Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated the 10(5) and 10(3) drop, respectively. Removal of cholesterol affected resistance of A. laidlawii. 10 mmol l(-1) antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene decreased mortality by a factor of 25-200. UV radiation alone caused 25-85% mortality in comparison with the whole NTP. Exogenously added hydrogen peroxide H2O2 did not cause mortality. NTP treatment of Myc. hominis triggered growth of microcolonies, which were several tenfold smaller than a typical colony. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of cell wall, A. laidlawii and Myc. hominis were more resistant to argon microwave NTP than other tested bacteria. Mycoplasma hominis formed microcolonies upon NTP treatment. A role of UV and active species was demonstrated. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The first study of NTP effects on Mollicutes revealed importance of a membrane composition for bacterial resistance to NTP. New specific Myc. hominis morphological forms were observed. The study confirmed importance of the concerted action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with UV and other plasma bioactive agents for NTP bactericidal action.


Assuntos
Acholeplasma laidlawii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mycoplasma hominis/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Argônio , Colesterol/fisiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Micro-Ondas , Mycoplasma hominis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycoplasma hominis/ultraestrutura , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Acta Naturae ; 5(3): 116-25, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24303207

RESUMO

A metagenomic analysis of the dynamic changes of the composition of the intestinal microbiome of five participants of the MARS-500 experiment was performed. DNA samples were isolated from the feces of the participants taken just before the experiment, upon 14, 30, 210, 363 and 510 days of isolation in the experimental module, and two weeks upon completion of the experiment. The taxonomic composition of the microbiome was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both the taxonomic and functional gene content of the microbiome of one participant were analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing using the SOLiD technique. Each participant had a specific microbiome that could be assigned to one of three recognized enterotypes. Two participants had enterotype I microbiomes characterized by the prevalence of Bacteroides, while the microbiomes of two others, assigned to type II, were dominated by Prevotella. One participant had a microbiome of mixed type. It was found that (1) changes in the taxonimic composition of the microbiomes occurred in the course of the experiment, but the enterotypes remained the same; (2) significant changes in the compositions of the microbiomes occurred just 14-30 days after the beginning of the experiment, presumably indicating the influence of stress factors in the first stage of the experiment; (3) a tendency toward a reversion of the microbiomes to their initial composition was observed two weeks after the end of the experiment, but complete recovery was not achieved. The metagenomic analysis of the microbiome of one of the participants showed that in spite of variations in the taxonomic compositions of microbiomes, the "functional" genetic composition was much more stable for most of the functional gene categories. Probably in the course of the experiment the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome was adaptively changed to reflect the individual response to the experimental conditions. A new, balanced taxonomic composition of the microbiome was formed to ensure a stable gene content of the community as a whole without negative consequences for the health of the participants.

11.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 78(6): 638-50, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23980890

RESUMO

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are one of the most abundant and well-studied groups of non-coding RNAs. snoRNAs are mostly engaged in processing of rRNA. However, recent data indicate that snoRNAs are also involved in other processes including regulation of alternative splicing, translation and oxidative stress. snoRNAs are also involved in pathogenesis of some hereditary diseases and cancer. Therefore, the range of snoRNAs' functions is significantly wider than it has been assumed earlier.


Assuntos
RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética
12.
Acta Naturae ; 4(3): 82-7, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23150806

RESUMO

Non-thermal plasma (NTP) consists of a huge amount of biologically active particles, whereas its temperature is close to ambient. This combination allows one to use NTP as a perspective tool for solving different biomedical tasks, including antitumor therapy. The treatment of tumor cells with NTP caused dose-dependent effects, such as growth arrest and apoptosis. However, while the outcome of NTP treatment has been established, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between NTP and eukaryotic cells have not been thoroughly studied thus far. In this work, the mechanisms and the type of death of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells upon application of non-thermal argon plasma were studied. The effect of NTP on the major stress-activated protein p53 was investigated. The results demonstrate that the viability of HCT116 cells upon plasma treatment is dependent on the functional p53 protein. NTP treatment caused an increase in the intracellular concentration of p53 and the induction of the p53-controlled regulon. The p53-dependent accumulation of active proapoptotic caspase-3 was shown in NTP-treated cells. The study was the first to demonstrate that treatment of human colon carcinoma cells with NTP results in p53-dependent apoptosis. The results obtained contribute to our understanding of the applicability of NTP in antitumor therapy.

13.
Acta Naturae ; 2(2): 59-66, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22649641

RESUMO

Adult skeletal muscle fiber is a symplast multinuclear structure developed in ontogenesis by the fusion of the myoblasts (muscle progenitor cells). The nuclei of a muscle fiber (myonuclei) are those located at the periphery of fiber in the space between myofibrils and sarcolemma. In theory, a mass change in skeletal muscle during exercise or unloading may be associated with the altered myonuclear number, ratio of the transcription, and translation and proteolysis rates. Here we review the literature data related to the phenomenology and hypothetical mechanisms of the myonuclear number alterations during enhanced or reduced muscle contractile activity. In many cases (during severe muscle and systemic diseases and gravitational unloading), muscle atrophy is accompanied by a reduction in the amount of myonuclei. Such reduction is usually explained by the development of myonuclear apoptosis. A myonuclear number increase may be provided only by the satellite cell nuclei incorporation via cell fusion with the adjacent myofiber. It is believed that it is these cells which supply fiber with additional nuclei, providing postnatal growth, work hypertrophy, and repair processes. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms controlling satellite cell proliferation during exercise, functional unloading, and passive stretch.

14.
J Hist Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 19-29, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17365549

RESUMO

Using quotations from Russian (e.g., Mechnikov and Pavlov) and western European (e.g., Ludwig) sources of his friends and colleagues, as well as from his autobiography, this paper describes the life and personality of Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov (1829-1905), who became well known because of his central inhibition theory (1862). He trained in several European centers, including Vienna, were he worked with Carl Ludwig (1816-1895), with whom he corresponded for several decades.


Assuntos
Neurofisiologia/história , Fisiologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Federação Russa
16.
J Gravit Physiol ; 11(2): P57-60, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16231455

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) responses to insulin induced hypoglycemia (ITT) 3 weeks before the space flight (SF), on the 5th day of SF, on the 2nd and 16th days after the landing in the first Slovak astronaut, and before and on the 5th day of prolonged subsequent head-down (-6 degrees) bed rest (BR) in 15 military aircraft pilots. Blood samples during the test were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transferred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Insulin hypoglycemia was induced by i.v. administration of 0.1 IU/kg BW insulin (Actrapid HM) in bolus. Insulin administration led to a comparable hypoglycemia in pre-flight, in-flight conditions and before and after bed rest. ITT led to a pronounced increase in EPI levels and moderate increase in NE in pre-flight studies. However, an evidently reduced EPI response was found after insulin administration during SF and during BR. Thus, during the real microgravity in SF and simulated microgravity in BR, insulin-induced hypoglycemia activates the adrenomedullary system to less extent than at conditions of the Earth gravitation. Post-flight changes in EPI and NE levels did not significantly differ from those of pre-flight since SF was relatively short (8 days) and the readaptation to Earth gravitation was fast. It seems, that an increased blood flow in brain might be responsible for the reduced EPI response to insulin. Responses to ITT in physically fit subjects indicate the stimulus specificity of deconditioning effect of 5 days bed rest on stress response. Thus, the data indicate that catecholamine responses to ITT are reduced after exposure to real as well as simulated microgravity.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/fisiopatologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Voo Espacial , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Ausência de Peso , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Repouso em Cama , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Epinefrina/sangue , Decúbito Inclinado com Rebaixamento da Cabeça , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Norepinefrina/sangue , Resistência Física , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiopatologia
17.
J Gravit Physiol ; 11(2): P79-80, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16235423

RESUMO

The investigation of long-term space flight (SF) effect on the blood cells function is of great importance for modern space biology and medicine. We established that the number of discocytes decreased in the period of early rehabilitation after long-term SF. After SF plasma membrane fluidity and phospholipid content decreased and cholesterol content increased. After SF the amount of haemoglobin decreased and the parameters characterizing haemoglobin haemoporyphyrin (HH) conformation changed. We suppose that erythrocyte shape, membrane fluidity and HH conformation are among factors affecting oxygen transfer during and after space flight.


Assuntos
Membrana Eritrocítica/fisiologia , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Fluidez de Membrana , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Colesterol/sangue , Deformação Eritrocítica , Hemoglobinas/fisiologia , Humanos , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Porfirinas/sangue , Porfirinas/fisiologia
18.
Adv Space Res ; 31(6): 1605-10, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12971416

RESUMO

The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transferred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Voo Espacial , Estresse Fisiológico/metabolismo , Ausência de Peso , Adaptação Fisiológica , Medicina Aeroespacial , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Epinefrina/sangue , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/sangue , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Prolactina/sangue , Prolactina/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/sangue
19.
Aviat Space Environ Med ; 73(4): 379-84, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11952060

RESUMO

The main medical and biological problems associated with a piloted mission to Mars are discussed. Prerequisites for the mission are described, based on our experience with biomedical support of prolonged piloted missions. The most important factors are developing countermeasures against the prolonged effects of microgravity and hypogravity; solving a complex of psychological problems; developing methods to protect against cosmic radiation; and creating effective and reliable life support systems. Some aspects of the likely risks involved in such a mission are also reviewed.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Planetas , Voo Espacial , Física Médica , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Ausência de Peso
20.
J Gravit Physiol ; 9(1): P79-80, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14977002

RESUMO

Changes of plasma hormone levels were investigated in human subjects after exposure to physical exercise (WL) and insulin induced hypoglycemia (ITT) during space flight or after head down bed rest (HDBR). Exaggerated responses of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE) and aldosterone (ALD) were observed after WL during space flight as compared to preflight response. Hypoglycemia during space flight induced attenuated responses of EPI, NE and augmented response of ALD. Exposure to WL during HDBR was followed by significantly exaggerated responses of plasma EPI, NE, ALD, PRA and cortisol. In HDBR the responses of plasma EPI, NE and cortisol were reduced and PRA response was exaggerated during ITT. These data indicate that hormonal responses to ITT and WL are similar at real and simulated microgravity.

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