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1.
COPD ; 16(1): 58-65, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032662

RESUMO

The relationship of body mass index (BMI) with lung function and COPD has been previously described in several high-income settings. However, few studies have examined this relationship in resource-limited settings where being underweight is more common. We evaluated the association between BMI and lung function outcomes across 14 diverse low- and middle-income countries. We included data from 12,396 participants aged 35-95 years and used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between BMI with either COPD and lung function while adjusting for known risk factors. An inflection point was observed at a BMI of 19.8 kg/m2. Participants with BMI < 19.8 kg/m2 had a 2.28 greater odds (95% CI 1.83-2.86) of having COPD and had a 0.21 (0.13-0.30) lower FEV1 and 0.34 (0.27-0.41) lower FEV1/FVC z-score compared to those with BMI ≥ 19.8 kg/m2. The association with lung function remained even after excluding participants with COPD. Individuals with lower BMI were more likely to have COPD and had lower lung function compared to those in higher BMI. The association with lung function remained positive even after excluding participants with COPD, suggesting that being underweight may also play a role in having worse lung function.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) represents the confluence of bronchial airway hyperreactivity and chronic airflow limitation and has been described as leading to worse lung function and quality of life than found with either singular disease process. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors for ACO among adults across 6 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We compiled cross-sectional data for 11,923 participants aged 35 to 92 years from 4 population-based studies in 12 settings. We defined COPD as postbronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio below the lower limit of normal, asthma as wheeze or medication use in 12 months or self-reported physician diagnosis, and ACO as having both. RESULTS: The prevalence of ACO was 3.8% (0% in rural Puno, Peru, to 7.8% in Matlab, Bangladesh). The odds of having ACO were higher with household exposure to biomass fuel smoke (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 0.98-2.23), smoking tobacco (OR, 1.28 per 10 pack-years; 95% CI, 1.22-1.34), and having primary or less education (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) as compared to nonobstructed nonasthma individuals. ACO was associated with severe obstruction (FEV1 %, <50; 31.6% of ACO vs 10.9% of COPD alone) and severe spirometric deficits compared with participants with asthma (-1.61 z scores FEV1; 95% CI, -1.48 to -1.75) or COPD alone (-0.94 z scores; 95% CI, -0.78 to -1.10). CONCLUSIONS: ACO may be as prevalent and more severe in LMICs than has been reported in high-income settings. Exposure to biomass fuel smoke may be an overlooked risk factor, and we favor diagnostic criteria for ACO that include environmental exposures common to LMICs.

3.
Thorax ; 73(12): 1120-1127, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease is a leading contributor to the global disease burden; however, beyond tobacco smoke, we do not fully understand what risk factors contribute to lung function decline in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We collected sociodemographic and clinical data in a randomly selected, age-stratified, sex-stratified and site-stratified population-based sample of 3048 adults aged ≥35 years from four resource-poor settings in Peru. We assessed baseline and annual pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator lung function over 3 years. We used linear mixed-effects models to assess biological, socioeconomic and environmental risk factors associated with accelerated lung function decline. RESULTS: Mean±SD enrolment age was 55.4±12.5 years, 49.2% were male and mean follow-up time was 2.36 (SD 0.61) years. Mean annual pre-bronchodilator FEV1 decline was 30.3 mL/year (95% CI 28.6 to 32.0) and pre-bronchodilator FVC decline was 32.2 mL/year (30.0 to 34.4). Using multivariable linear mixed-effects regression, we found that urban living, high-altitude dwelling and having hypertension accounted for 25.9% (95% CI 15.7% to 36.1%), 21.3% (11.1% to 31.5%) and 15.7% (3.7% to 26.9%) of the overall mean annual decline in pre-bronchodilator FEV1/height2, respectively. Corresponding estimates for pre-bronchodilator FVC/height2 were 42.1% (95% CI% 29.8% to 54.4%), 36.0% (23.7% to 48.2%) and 15.8% (2.6% to 28.9%) of the overall mean annual decline, respectively. CONCLUSION: Urbanisation, living at high altitude and hypertension were associated with accelerated lung function decline in a population with low daily smoking prevalence.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 5(1): e000276, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018764

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will soon be the third leading global cause of death and is increasing rapidly in low/middle-income countries. There is a need for local validation of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), which can be used to identify those experiencing lifestyle impairment due to their breathing. Methods: The SGRQ was professionally translated into Luganda and reviewed by our field staff and a local pulmonologist. Participants included a COPD-confirmed clinic sample and COPD-positive and negative members of the community who were enrolled in the Lung Function in Nakaseke and Kampala (LiNK) Study. SGRQs were assembled from all participants, while demographic and spirometry data were additionally collected from LiNK participants. Results: In total, 103 questionnaires were included in analysis: 49 with COPD from clinic, 34 community COPD-negative and 20 community COPD-positive. SGRQ score varied by group: 53.5 for clinic, 34.4 for community COPD-positive and 4.1 for community COPD-negative (p<0.001). The cross-validated c statistic for SGRQ total score predicting COPD was 0.87 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.00). SGRQ total score was associated with COPD severity (forced expiratory volume in 1 s per cent of predicted), with an r coefficient of -0.60 (-0.75, -0.39). SGRQ score was associated with dyspnoea (OR 1.05/point; 1.01, 1.09) and cough (1.07; 1.03, 1.11). Conclusion: Our Luganda language SGRQ accurately distinguishes between COPD-positive and negative community members in rural Uganda. Scores were correlated with COPD severity and were associated with odds of dyspnoea and cough. We find that it can be successfully used as a respiratory questionnaire for obstructed adults in Uganda.

5.
Lung ; 196(3): 277-284, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Body composition is known to influence the development and progression of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). We sought to characterize the unique anthropometric phenotypes that present with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru. METHODS: We collected sociodemographic, clinical history, and spirometry data from 2959 participants from Lima, Tumbes, and rural and urban Puno. We compared the prevalence of CRDs among different study sites and described disease phenotypes. We used single and multivariable linear regression to model the influence of CRD status on various descriptors of body composition. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CRDs varied across sites with the highest prevalence of asthma in Lima (14.5%) and the highest prevalence of COPD in rural Puno (9.9%). Measures of body composition also varied across sites, with highest mean body mass index (BMI) in Lima (28.4 kg/m2) and the lowest mean BMI in rural Puno (25.2 kg/m2). Participants with COPD had the lowest mean fat mass index (FMI) (10.5 kg/m2) and waist circumference (88.3 cm), whereas participants with asthma had the highest mean FMI (14.5 kg/m2), and waist circumference (94.8 cm). In multivariable analysis, participants with COPD had a lower waist circumference (adjusted mean - 2.97 cm, 95% CI 4.62 to - 1.32 cm) when compared to non-CRD participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that asthma and chronic bronchitis are more likely to be associated with obesity and higher fat mass, while COPD is associated with being underweight and having less lean mass.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483933

RESUMO

Background: Literature surrounding the statistical modeling of childhood growth data involves a diverse set of potential models from which investigators can choose. However, the lack of a comprehensive framework for comparing non-nested models leads to difficulty in assessing model performance. This paper proposes a framework for comparing non-nested growth models using novel metrics of predictive accuracy based on modifications of the mean squared error criteria. Methods: Three metrics were created: normalized, age-adjusted, and weighted mean squared error (MSE). Predictive performance metrics were used to compare linear mixed effects models and functional regression models. Prediction accuracy was assessed by partitioning the observed data into training and test datasets. This partitioning was constructed to assess prediction accuracy for backward (i.e., early growth), forward (i.e., late growth), in-range, and on new-individuals. Analyses were done with height measurements from 215 Peruvian children with data spanning from near birth to 2 years of age. Results: Functional models outperformed linear mixed effects models in all scenarios tested. In particular, prediction errors for functional concurrent regression (FCR) and functional principal component analysis models were approximately 6% lower when compared to linear mixed effects models. When we weighted subject-specific MSEs according to subject-specific growth rates during infancy, we found that FCR was the best performer in all scenarios. Conclusion: With this novel approach, we can quantitatively compare non-nested models and weight subgroups of interest to select the best performing growth model for a particular application or problem at hand.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(5): 611-620, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323928

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Forty percent of households worldwide burn biomass fuels for energy, which may be the most important contributor to household air pollution. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between household air pollution exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes in 13 resource-poor settings. METHODS: We analyzed data from 12,396 adult participants living in 13 resource-poor, population-based settings. Household air pollution exposure was defined as using biomass materials as the primary fuel source in the home. We used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes, evaluated for interactions, and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our findings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Average age was 54.9 years (44.2-59.6 yr across settings), 48.5% were women (38.3-54.5%), prevalence of household air pollution exposure was 38% (0.5-99.6%), and 8.8% (1.7-15.5%) had COPD. Participants with household air pollution exposure were 41% more likely to have COPD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.68) than those without the exposure, and 13.5% (6.4-20.6%) of COPD prevalence may be caused by household air pollution exposure, compared with 12.4% caused by cigarette smoking. The association between household air pollution exposure and COPD was stronger in women (1.70; 1.24-2.32) than in men (1.21; 0.92-1.58). CONCLUSIONS: Household air pollution exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of COPD, particularly among women, and it is likely a leading population-attributable risk factor for COPD in resource-poor settings.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1580-1587.e2, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies have characterized the burden among adults. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders in urban and rural Uganda. METHODS: We present a cross-sectional analysis of enrollment data from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥35 years in urban and rural Uganda. Sociodemographic and both lifetime and 12-month respiratory symptoms data were collected and spirometry was conducted following standard guidelines. RESULTS: In 1,308 adults (median age 43.8 years and 52.3% female), we found an age-adjusted prevalence of 6.8% for asthma (9.8% urban, 4.3% rural; P < .001), 11.9% for allergic rhinitis (16.4% urban, 7.8% rural; P < .001), and 8.2% for eczema (9.9% urban, 7.8% rural; P = .15). Urbanization was the primary driver of asthma, accounting for 61.4% of cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.0% to 83.4%), and was the strongest risk factor for any allergic illness (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87, 95% CI 1.39-2.51). Parental asthma was not associated with allergic illness. Asthma was associated with a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by 0.56 z scores (95% CI 0.33-0.80). We found a dose-response association between lower quintiles of the FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio and both hospitalization (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.59) and impairment in daily activities (1.65, 1.20-2.27). CONCLUSIONS: Asthma and allergic rhinitis were twice as prevalent in urban settings. Asthma was associated with greater impairment and worse lung function outcomes. We identified a high prevalence of allergic disorders in Uganda, which can be expected to increase due to urbanization and resultant exposures throughout early development.

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