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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e16683, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to diabetes education and resources for diabetes self-management is limited in rural communities, despite higher rates of diabetes in rural populations compared with urban populations. Technology and mobile health (mHealth) interventions can reduce barriers and improve access to diabetes education in rural communities. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) and financial incentives can be used with mHealth interventions to increase the uptake of diabetes education; however, studies have not examined their combined use for diabetes self-management in rural settings. OBJECTIVE: This two-phase Stage 1 feasibility study aimed to use a mixed methods design to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an mHealth diabetes education program combining SBIRT and financial incentives to engage rural individuals. METHODS: In Phase 1, we aimed to develop, adapt, and refine the intervention protocol. In Phase 2, a 3-month quasi-experimental study was conducted with individuals from 2 rural communities in South Texas. Study participants were individuals who attended free diabetes screening events in their community. Those with low or medium risk received health education material, whereas those with high risk or those with a previous diagnosis of diabetes participated in motivational interviewing and enrolled in the 6-week mHealth Diabetes Self-Management Education Program under either an unconditional or aversion incentive contract. The participants returned for a 3-month follow-up. Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were determined by the rate of participant recruitment and retention, the fidelity of program delivery and compliance, and the participant's satisfaction with the intervention program. RESULTS: Of the 98 screened rural community members in South Texas, 72 individuals met the study eligibility and 62 individuals agreed to enroll in the study. The sample was predominately female and Hispanic, with an average age of 52.6 years. The feedback from study participants indicated high levels of satisfaction with the mHealth diabetes education program. In the poststudy survey, the participants reported high levels of confidence to continue lifestyle modifications, that is, weight loss, physical activity, and diet. The retention rate was 50% at the 3-month follow-up. Participation in the intervention was high at the beginning and dissipated in the later weeks regardless of the incentive contract type. Positive changes were observed in weight (mean -2.64, SD 6.01; P<.05) and glycemic control index (-.30; P<.05) in all participants from baseline to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The finding showed strong feasibility and acceptability of study recruitment and enrollment. The participants' participation and retention were reasonable given the unforeseen events that impacted the study communities during the study period. Combining mHealth with SBIRT has the potential to reach individuals with need to participate in diabetes education in rural communities.

2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(14): 2368-2379, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407958

RESUMO

Objectives: Despite college students reporting high rates of substance use and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), few studies have examined ACE-related substance use patterns with diverse student samples. We estimated the prevalence of ACE and substance use and investigated ethnic differences in the relationship between ACE and substance use among college students from two states. Design: Data are responses (N = 7,148) on the National College Health Assessment (in California) and the College Student Health Survey (in Minnesota). Multivariable regression models assessed the associations between individual and accumulated ACE and alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit substance use and binge drinking (adjusting for age, gender, depression, and state) among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, African American/Black, Asian Pacific Islanders, multiracial, and other students. Interaction terms were calculated to test for ethnic differences. Results: In the month preceding the survey, 22% of students used marijuana, 28% used tobacco, 75% drank alcohol; 6% used an illicit drug in the past year and 30% acknowledged past 2-week binge drinking. Although ACE were associated with all substance use behaviors (AORs ranged from 1.19 to 1.54, p < .001), there was significant ethnic variation in ACE exposure (40-52%) and the dose-response relationship between ACE and marijuana and tobacco use and binge drinking. Conclusions: The variability in ACE-related substance use patterns across ethnic groups highlights the need for research that advances our understanding of sociocultural influences in trauma response and the role that campus communities could have in the development of culturally sensitive services that address this issue.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood (ages 18-26) is a time of identity exploration, experimentation, focusing on self or others, and instability, themes captured in the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA). Preliminary evidence suggests that emerging adults (EAs) with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) score differently on transition dimensions than their peers, however, the role of ACE in the IDEA-substance use relationship is unknown. METHOD: Data are from a longitudinal study of acculturation and health among Hispanics in California (N = 1,065). Multivariable regression models assessed the association between IDEA and ACE (no ACE, 1-3 ACE, and ≥ 4 ACE) for substance use behaviors over 2 time points. Interaction terms assessed whether ACE moderated the association between subjective perceptions of IDEA at age 20 and substance use at age 24. RESULTS: ACE-exposed EAs scored higher on identity exploration, instability, self-focus, and experimentation dimensions than their peers (ps < .01-.001). Scores on experimentation, identity exploration, and self-focus at age 20 were associated with divergent patterns of substance use across ACE exposure categories. In comparison to other groups, individuals in ≥ 4 ACE group who strongly identified with these transition themes at age 20 had the highest probability of binge drinking, past 30-day alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drug use at age 24 (adjusted odds ratios = 1.09-1.49, confidence interval [1.02-2.58]). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ACE can affect subjective perceptions of transition themes and increased risk for substance use over time. Implications for substance use prevention efforts tailored to Hispanic EAs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106058, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, there are no existing measures of tobacco or nicotine misuse (i.e., negative consequences). The goal of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a novel scale, the Tobacco and Nicotine Consequences Scale (TANCS) to assess tobacco and nicotine misuse among cigarette smokers and e-cig users. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data using an anonymous survey to assess tobacco and nicotine use expectancies, behaviors, and negative consequences of use. Of the 607 participants who attempted the survey, 491 participants (80.8%) completed the TANCS items. A split-half validation method was used to assess the structure and validity of the TANCS using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The exploratory factor analysis produced a five-factor solution, and the confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structure with results providing an excellent fit to the data (CFI = 0.995, TLI = 0.994, RMSEA = 0.015, SRMR = 0.052). A total of 17 items were retained. The overall scale showed excellent reliability (α = 0.91) with subscale alphas between 0.68 and 0.90. The scale was significantly correlated to nicotine dependence and smoking expectancies, measured by the Fagerstrom Test Cigarette Dependence and Smoking Effects Questionnaire, respectively, suggesting the TANCS is a valid measure of tobacco and nicotine misuse. Total and subscale scores differed between participants preferring cigarettes or e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: The TANCS is a brief, reliable measure of tobacco and nicotine misuse that is correlated to tobacco and nicotine expectancies, use, and dependence. Future work should explore the test-retest reliability and incremental validity of the scale for tobacco use disorder.

5.
Am J Community Psychol ; 64(1-2): 191-201, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968420

RESUMO

Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults; however, contextual risks and cultural factors are rarely studied in the context of ethnic minority suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal attempt (SA). This study assessed the association between familial incarceration and suicide behaviors and examined ethnic identity as a potential moderator. Data from a longitudinal study of health among Hispanics (n = 1,094) in California were used to test associations between familial incarceration, ethnic identity, and SA and SI, adjusting for demographic factors and covariates. Approximately 18% and 8% of respondents reported SI and SA, respectively. Compared to no incarceration, or the incarceration of a relative, parental incarceration was associated with higher odds (AOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.23-3.34) of SI whereas higher affective ethnic identity reduced the odds (AOR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31-0.89) of SA. Ethnic identity moderated the association between parental incarceration and SI (AOR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.79). Incarceration of a family member can set the stage for exclusion from critical institutions and can have long-term consequences for adult mental health. Promoting a positive ethnic identity may be a promising prevention strategy that could bolster resilience among at-risk, urban minority youth.

6.
Am J Addict ; 28(2): 111-118, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prescription opioid misuse has not been well examined in the context of comorbid substance use in representative samples of substance users. Past 30-day comorbid prescription opioid misuse and recreational substance use (eg, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, etc.) was studied in a representative sample of substance users in the United States using the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). METHODS: Prevalence of prescription opioid misuse with and without comorbid substance use was estimated with the 2016 NSDUH. Generalized linear modeling was used to describe demographic correlates of opioid and comorbid substance use and explore the relation of opioid and comorbid substance use with social and behavioral health indicators. RESULTS: The majority of past month prescription opioid misusers reported use of other substances including cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, or hard drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, etc.). Males and younger respondents had a significantly higher risk of reporting past month prescription opioid misuse with illicit drug or polydrug use (p's < .01). Prescription opioid and polydrug users had the greatest odds of stealing property, selling drugs, having suicidal ideations, major depressive episode, and perceived treatment need in the past year compared to all other categories of prescription opioid misuse categories. CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Prescription opioid misuse is likely a part of a larger set of psychological, behavioral, and mental health problems. More attention should be given to the profiles of recreational (non-medical) substance use involving prescription opioids to curtail the current opioid crisis and prevent other similar epidemics in the future. (Am J Addict 2019;XX:1-8).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria)/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Problemas Sociais/prevenção & controle , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; : 1-13, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346915

RESUMO

This study investigates whether Hispanic emerging adults exposed to household incarceration before age 18 report higher rates of past 30-day cigarette, alcohol, binge drinking, marijuana use, and negative substance use consequences, relative to participants not exposed to incarceration of a household member. Respondents were matched on key characteristics to create balanced groups of exposed and nonexposed respondents. Negative binomial regression models assessed primary research questions. There were significant long-term associations between household incarceration and the frequency of past 30-day binge drinking, marijuana use, and number of negative substance use consequences. Policies and health programs addressing household incarceration may be a promising prevention approach to reduce negative substance use outcomes among Hispanic emerging adults.

8.
J Sch Health ; 88(7): 531-537, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative (or continuation) high schools are institutions designed for students at risk for not graduating due to behavioral, educational, or medical problems. The present study explored the relationship between negative substance use consequences (eg, having trouble at school or work) and noncondom use in this at-risk population and whether these associations varied by sex. METHODS: Participants (N = 1101; 62.9% Hispanic; Mage = 16.85) were sampled from 24 alternative high schools in California, and data were analyzed using cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed a relationship between the number of negative substance use consequences and probability of noncondom use at the last sexual encounter for boys (p < .001) but not girls (p > .05). There were significant associations between specific social consequences (missing school/work) and dependence symptoms (selling personal items to get alcohol or drugs) with noncondom use for boys only. There was a similar association between substance use frequency and noncondom use for boys. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that substance use consequences may be a useful and advantageous indicator of risky sexual behaviors such as noncondom use for boys, but not girls, in alternative high school settings. Future research and intervention programming recommendations are discussed.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Addict Behav ; 76: 298-304, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that college students are an especially vulnerable subset of the population for substance use and misuse. However, despite evidence of the high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) among students and the link between family-based ACE and substance use among older adults, this relationship remains understudied in college populations. Moreover, whether ACE represents a shared risk across substance use behaviors and ethnic groups is unknown. METHODS: Data are student responses (n=2953) on the 2015 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) administered at one of the largest, most diverse public universities in California. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models tested the association between individual and accumulated ACE and past 30-day alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drug use, past 12-month prescription medication misuse and polysubstance use. RESULTS: Between 50% and 75% of students involved in substance use were ACE exposed. There was a significant dose-response relationship between ACE and substance use and polysubstance use. Although accumulated ACE increased risk for substance use, there was considerable ethnic variability in these associations. CONCLUSIONS: The graded effects of ACE for substance use underscore the link between family-based stressors and these behaviors in emergent adult college students. Our findings make a compelling case for investing in health initiatives that prioritize ACE screening and access to trauma-informed care in campus communities. Continued research with college populations is needed to replicate findings and clarify the role of ethnicity and culture in trauma response and help seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Addict Dis ; 37(1-2): 87-95, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625032

RESUMO

Background: Stigma and discrimination are often experienced by individuals going through substance use treatment, and can influence treatment seeking, retention, and outcomes including long-term recovery. Aims: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Micro-Condescension Scale (MCS), a newly developed tool to measure individuals' perceptions of microlevel stigma and discrimination for seeking substance use treatment or being in recovery. Methods: The MCS was administered to individuals (n = 90) at the beginning and end of a mindfulness treatment program implemented in a substance use treatment facility in Southern California. Principal components analysis was used to evaluate the factor solution and psychometric analyses were applied to investigate reliability and validity of the MCS. Results: The principal component analysis yielded a single factor solution for the 12-item scale. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 at treatment entry (pretest) and 0.91 at treatment exit (posttest). The scale showed acceptable test-retest reliability and correlated with measures of impulsivity, perceived devaluation-discrimination scores, and self-awareness in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Discussion: Following additional validation research, future studies on discriminatory experiences and substance use treatment outcomes should consider using the MCS due to its brevity and acceptable psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Discriminação Social/psicologia , Estigma Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Atenção Plena , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Gerontol ; 40(2): 130-138, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration in cognitive ability that limits the capacity for independent living. Interventions are needed to target the medical, social, psychological, and knowledge needs of caregivers and patients. This study used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a dementia novela presented in an audio-visual format in improving dementia attitudes, beliefs and knowledge. METHODS: Adults from Los Angeles (N = 42, 83% female, 90% Hispanic/Latino, mean age = 42.2 years, 41.5% with less than a high school education) viewed an audio-visual novela on dementia. Participants completed surveys immediately before and after viewing the material. RESULTS: The novela produced significant improvements in overall knowledge (t(41) = -9.79, p < .0001) and led to positive increases in specific attitudes toward people with dementia but not in beliefs that screening would be beneficial. Qualitative results provided concordant and discordant evidence for the quantitative findings. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that an audio-visual novela can be useful for improving attitudes and knowledge about dementia, but further work is needed to investigate the relation with health disparities in screening and treatment behaviors. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Audio visual novelas are an innovative format for health education and change attitudes and knowledge about dementia.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Demência/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 23(4): 576-582, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of interpersonal violence (IPV), scientific understanding of the risk and protective factors for unidirectional and bidirectional IPV, and especially the role of sociocultural variables in these behaviors, is limited. This study investigates the association between ethnic-identity search, ethnic-identity affirmation, perceived discrimination, and unidirectional (victimization only, perpetration only) and bidirectional (reciprocal violence) IPV behaviors among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults. METHOD: Data are from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a study investigating the effect of psychosocial and sociocultural factors on health behavior among a community sample of Hispanic young adults in Southern California (n = 1,267). RESULTS: Approximately 40% of the sample reported unidirectional or bidirectional IPV, with significant gender differences across the three categories. Compared with men, women had approximately 70% lower odds of victimization (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15-0.71), over twice the odds of perpetration (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.98-3.62), and 35% higher odds (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.81) of bidirectional IPV. Higher ethnic-identity affirmation was protective for victimization (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99) and bidirectional IPV (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.89), whereas higher perceived discrimination scores increased the odds for bidirectional IPV (OR = 1.37 95% CI = 1.26-1.56) and was particularly detrimental for foreign-born participants. CONCLUSION: Intervention strategies should consider gender-specific risk profiles, cultural contexts, and the influence of sociocultural stressors. Addressing the harmful effects of perceived discrimination and leveraging the protective effects of ethnic-identity affirmation may be promising IPV-prevention strategies for Hispanic young adults. Future research directions and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Características Culturais , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Aculturação , Adolescente , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 16(2): 137-154, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26822557

RESUMO

We examine whether peer substance use and cultural factors differentially influence the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence and emerging adulthood (EA) among a community-based sample of Hispanics. Participants provided data in 11th grade (M = 16.8 years old, SD = 0.54) and emerging adulthood (M = 20.3 years old, SD = 0.6). Peer tobacco use had a stronger association with initiation of tobacco use in emerging adulthood (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.89) than in adolescence (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.40), but this pattern was not observed with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use. Cultural orientation is associated with initiation of tobacco use during EA but not with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Infuência dos Pares , Fumar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Adolesc ; 48: 18-35, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26871952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/complicações , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Comportamento Perigoso , Coleta de Dados , Previsões , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia
15.
Subst Use Misuse ; 50(8-9): 1199-204, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774483

RESUMO

Individuals in treatment for substance use continue to smoke at higher rates than the general population of the United States. This editorial presents a different perspective on cigarette smoking that might reflect aspects of the subculture of individuals who, representing a heterogeneous population, smoke while recovering from substance use associated problems. We discuss factors that independently and, in combination, influence cigarette smoking during treatment and recovery from substance use. We conclude that more qualitative research is needed to understand which factors, not typically emphasized in standard tobacco cessation programming, may contribute to cigarette smoking cessation for this population.


Assuntos
Fumar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
16.
Subst Use Misuse ; 50(8-9): 1015-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774990

RESUMO

This op-ed piece comments on the down-side of an otherwise useful 12-step slogan, "First Things First," which generally refers to staying sober (not drinking or using no matter what). While important, there are environmental, microsocial, psychiatric, and neurobiological considerations that may place other needs at an equal or higher priority than sobriety per se. That is, other changes may be needed to set the stage for, or enhance efforts at sobriety, prior to or concurrent with attempting to quit one's drug of choice. Perhaps slogans should be considered in a broader context and not be taken too literally.


Assuntos
Alcoólicos Anônimos , Alcoolismo/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Comportamento Aditivo/complicações , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Meio Social
17.
J Sch Health ; 85(2): 82-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the interplay among quantifiable aspects of peer bonds, friendship types, personal characteristics, and behavioral outcomes in schools in distressed neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to identify compensatory and protective factors that can be promoted in school-based prevention programs. METHODS: The sample was comprised of students in East Los Angeles County (N=184). We investigated the association between 3 measures of social influence (friends in gangs, nominations of schoolmates as friends [out-degree], and the number of nominations received from schoolmates [in-degree]) and social self-control with lifetime alcohol, tobacco, inhalant, "other" drug use, and aggression. RESULTS: Friendships were protective for substance use and aggression and moderated the relationship between social self-control, substance use, and aggression. We found important sex differences; girls who nominated more friends were less likely to report alcohol use and aggression relative to boys but were more likely to have reported drug use as social self-control scores increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have important implications for school-based prevention and intervention programs. We provide preliminary evidence that school ties and perceptions of belongingness can mitigate the effects of several risk factors linked to substance use and aggression.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Agressão , Criança , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Modelos Logísticos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Violência
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 30(11): 1807-27, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25210028

RESUMO

Adolescent aggression and delinquency impede healthy adjustment in early adulthood and may have particularly serious long-term consequences for minority youth. Therefore, prevention research should examine these behaviors within a sociocultural framework among newer immigrant samples to determine whether, and how, adaptation to life in the US affects these behaviors. This study investigated the role of two sociocultural variables-bicultural stress and negative context of reception-on changes in aggression and rule breaking behaviors over two time points among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents residing in Los Angeles (N = 136) and Miami-Dade (N = 142) counties. Linear stepwise regression models were used to assess the associations between predictors and behavioral outcomes. Bicultural stress and negative context of reception both had independent associations, above and beyond parental involvement and delinquent peer associations, with changes in aggressive and rule-breaking behavior during the first year of high school. These findings suggest that social, cultural, and interpersonal processes all influence deviant behaviors in recent-immigrant Hispanic populations. We discuss the implications of these finding for prevention and intervention research and practice. We also recommend that future research continue to examine the role of these factors over the course of adolescence and consider sociocultural influences when designing behavioral interventions for Hispanic immigrant populations.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção Social , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Sch Health ; 84(11): 748-58, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25274175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. METHODS: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research studies with AHS youth. RESULTS: For the AHS population, 23 ATOD misuse prevention or cessation program evaluations were located. This review indicated that successful efforts have focused on instruction in motivation enhancement, life coping skills, and decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse prevention and cessation programming for AHSs is effective, delivered in the classroom or as a school-based clinic. There is little evidence, though, that this programming is effective when delivered through other modalities such as via computer or bridging beyond the school setting. More research and application of evidence-based programming are recommended for youth in AHS settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Tabaco
20.
Subst Use Misuse ; 49(8): 1025-38, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779502

RESUMO

Using data collected between 2005 and 2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural, and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Aculturação , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevenção Primária , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
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