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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(9): e1286-e1295, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People in humanitarian emergencies are likely to experience excess mortality but information on the causes of death is often unreliable or non-existent. This study aimed to provide evidence on the causes of death among children younger than 5 years in camps for internally displaced people in southern Somalia, during periods of protracted displacement and emergency influx amid the 2017 drought and health emergency. METHODS: We did a prospective, cohort study in 25 camps in the Afgooye corridor, on the outskirts of Mogadishu, Somalia. All internally displaced children aged 6-59 months were included and followed up with monthly household visits by community health workers. Nutrition, health, and vaccination status were ascertained and verbal autopsy interviews were done with the caregivers of deceased children. We calculated death rates in these children and used verbal autopsy to establish the cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF). Bayesian InterVA software was used to assign likely causes to each death. FINDINGS: Between March, 2016, and March, 2018, 3898 children were followed up. 153 deaths were recorded during 34 746 person-months of observation. The death rate among children younger than 5 years exceeded emergency thresholds (>2 deaths per 10 000 children per day), reaching a peak of seven deaths per 10 000 children per day during the emergency influx. Verbal autopsy data were gathered for 80% of deaths, and the CSMF for the three leading causes of death were diarrhoeal diseases (25·9%), measles (17·8%), and severe malnutrition (8·8%). Coverage of measles vaccination during the first 3 months of the emergency was 42% and the CSMF for measles doubled during the influx. During protracted displacement, symptoms that could be attributable to HIV/AIDS related deaths accounted for 1·6% of the CSMF. INTERPRETATION: It is feasible to establish a health and nutrition surveillance system that ascertains causes of death, using verbal autopsy, in this humanitarian context. These data can inform policy, response planning, and priority setting. The high mortality rate from infectious diseases and malnutrition among children younger than 5 years suggests the need for strengthening a range of public health interventions, including vaccination and provision of water, sanitation, and hygiene. FUNDING: UK Department of International Development.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Mortalidade da Criança , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Somália/epidemiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444646

RESUMO

A poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF, and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza
3.
PLoS Med ; 15(10): e1002684, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somalia has been affected by conflict since 1991, with children aged <5 years presenting a high acute malnutrition prevalence. Cash-based interventions (CBIs) have been used in this context since 2011, despite sparse evidence of their nutritional impact. We aimed to understand whether a CBI would reduce acute malnutrition and its risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We implemented a non-randomised cluster trial in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, located in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. Within 10 IDP camps (henceforth clusters) selected using a humanitarian vulnerability assessment, all households were targeted for the CBI. Ten additional clusters located adjacent to the intervention clusters were selected as controls. The CBI comprised a monthly unconditional cash transfer of US$84.00 for 5 months, a once-only distribution of a non-food-items kit, and the provision of piped water free of charge. The cash transfers started in May 2016. Cash recipients were female household representatives. In March and September 2016, from a cohort of randomly selected households in the intervention (n = 111) and control (n = 117) arms (household cohort), we collected household and individual level data from children aged 6-59 months (155 in the intervention and 177 in the control arms) and their mothers/primary carers, to measure known malnutrition risk factors. In addition, between June and November 2016, data to assess acute malnutrition incidence were collected monthly from a cohort of children aged 6-59 months, exhaustively sampled from the intervention (n = 759) and control (n = 1,379) arms (child cohort). Primary outcomes were the mean Child Dietary Diversity Score in the household cohort and the incidence of first episode of acute malnutrition in the child cohort, defined by a mid-upper arm circumference < 12.5 cm and/or oedema. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. For the household cohort we assessed differences-in-differences, for the child cohort we used Cox proportional hazards ratios. In the household cohort, the CBI appeared to increase the Child Dietary Diversity Score by 0.53 (95% CI 0.01; 1.05). In the child cohort, the acute malnutrition incidence rate (cases/100 child-months) was 0.77 (95% CI 0.70; 1.21) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.53; 1.14) in intervention and control arms, respectively. The CBI did not appear to reduce the risk of acute malnutrition: unadjusted hazard ratio 0.83 (95% CI 0.48; 1.42) and hazard ratio adjusted for age and sex 0.94 (95% CI 0.51; 1.74). The CBI appeared to increase the monthly household expenditure by US$29.60 (95% CI 3.51; 55.68), increase the household Food Consumption Score by 14.8 (95% CI 4.83; 24.8), and decrease the Reduced Coping Strategies Index by 11.6 (95% CI 17.5; 5.96). The study limitations were as follows: the study was not randomised, insecurity in the field limited the household cohort sample size and collection of other anthropometric measurements in the child cohort, the humanitarian vulnerability assessment data used to allocate the intervention were not available for analysis, food market data were not available to aid results interpretation, and the malnutrition incidence observed was lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: The CBI appeared to improve beneficiaries' wealth and food security but did not appear to reduce acute malnutrition risk in IDP camp children. Further studies are needed to assess whether changing this intervention, e.g., including specific nutritious foods or social and behaviour change communication, would improve its nutritional impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registy ISRCTN29521514.


Assuntos
Dieta , Apoio Financeiro , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Campos de Refugiados , Doença Aguda , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Motivação , Refugiados/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Somália/epidemiologia
4.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(10): 888-895, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's groups interventions in Bangladesh reduced neonatal deaths by 38% and improved hygienic delivery, newborn care practices and breast feeding. We explore the longer-term impact of exposure to women's groups during pregnancy on child growth at 2-4 years. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of child anthropometric measures (analysed as z-scores) among children born to women who had participated in the women's groups interventions while pregnant, compared with an age-matched and sex-matched sample of children born to control mothers. Results were stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI) and adjusted for possible confounding effects of maternal education, household asset ownership and, in a separate model, mother-child height difference, a proxy for improved survival of small babies in intervention groups. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 2587 mother-child pairs (91% response). After adjustment for asset ownership, maternal education and potential survival effects, children whose mothers were exposed to the women's group intervention had higher head (0.16 (0.04 to 0.28)), mid-upper arm (0.11 (0.04 to 0.19)), abdominal (0.13 (0.00 to 0.26)) and chest (0.18 (0.08 to 0.29)) circumferences than their control counterparts. No significant differences in subcutaneous fat (subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness) were observed. When stratified by maternal BMI, intervention children had higher weight, BMI and circumferences, and these effects decreased with increasing maternal BMI category. CONCLUSIONS: Women's groups appear to have had a lasting, positive impact on child anthropometric outcomes, with most significant results clustering in children of underweight mothers. Observed differences are likely to be of public health significance in terms of the nutritional and metabolic development of children.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mães/educação , Antropometria , Bangladesh , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(4): e12615, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740973

RESUMO

Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) are used as a humanitarian intervention to prevent acute malnutrition, despite a lack of evidence about their effectiveness. In Niger, UCT and supplementary feeding are given during the June-September "lean season," although admissions of malnourished children to feeding programmes may rise from March/April. We hypothesised that earlier initiation of the UCT would reduce the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) in children 6-59 months old in beneficiary households and at population level. We conducted a 2-armed cluster-randomised controlled trial in which the poorest households received either the standard UCT (4 transfers between June and September) or a modified UCT (6 transfers from April); both providing 130,000 FCFA/£144 in total. Eligible individuals (pregnant and lactating women and children 6-<24 months old) in beneficiary households in both arms also received supplementary food between June and September. We collected data in March/April and October/November 2015. The modified UCT plus 4 months supplementary feeding did not reduce the prevalence of GAM compared with the standard UCT plus 4 months supplementary feeding (adjusted odds ratios 1.09 (95% CI [0.77, 1.55], p = 0.630) and 0.93 (95% CI [0.58, 1.49], p = 0.759) among beneficiaries and the population, respectively). More beneficiaries receiving the modified UCT plus supplementary feeding reported adequate food access in April and May (p < 0.001) but there was no difference in endline food security between arms. In both arms and samples, the baseline prevalence of GAM remained elevated at endline (p > 0.05), despite improved food security (p < 0.05), possibly driven by increased fever/malaria in children (p < 0.001). Nonfood related drivers of malnutrition, such as disease, may limit the effectiveness of UCTs plus supplementary feeding to prevent malnutrition in this context. Caution is required in applying the findings of this study to periods of severe food insecurity.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/economia , Socorro em Desastres/economia , Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/economia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Níger
6.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 632, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP) are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. METHODS/DESIGN: A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6-59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP) in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6-59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide funding for this study. The European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations will fund the intervention. Concern Worldwide will implement the intervention as part of their humanitarian programming. DISCUSSION: This non-randomised cluster controlled trial will provide needed evidence on the role of unconditional CTP in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among IDP in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN29521514 . Registered 19 January 2016.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Assistência Pública , Refugiados , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Emergências , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Grupos Populacionais , Prevalência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Somália , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Matern Child Nutr ; 13(3)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453170

RESUMO

Evidence on the management of acute malnutrition in infants aged less than 6 months (infants <6mo) is scarce. To understand outcomes using current protocols, we analysed a sample of 24 045 children aged 0-60 months from 21 datasets of inpatient therapeutic care programmes in 10 countries. We compared the proportion of admissions, the anthropometric profile at admission and the discharge outcomes between infants <6mo and children aged 6-60 months (older children). Infants <6mo accounted for 12% of admissions. The quality of anthropometric data at admission was more problematic in infants <6mo than in older children with a greater proportion of missing data (a 6.9 percentage point difference for length values, 95% CI: 6.0; 7.9, P < 0.01), anthropometric measures that could not be converted to indices (a 15.6 percentage point difference for weight-for-length z-score values, 95% CI: 14.3; 16.9, P < 0.01) and anthropometric indices that were flagged as outliers (a 2.7 percentage point difference for any anthropometric index being flagged as an outlier, 95% CI: 1.7; 3.8, P < 0.01). A high proportion of both infants <6mo and older children were discharged as recovered. Infants <6mo showed a greater risk of death during treatment (risk ratio 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09; 1.56, P < 0.01). Infants <6mo represent an important proportion of admissions to therapeutic feeding programmes, and there are crucial challenges associated with their care. Systematic compilation and analysis of routine data for infants <6mo is necessary for monitoring programme performance and should be promoted as a tool to monitor the impact of new guidelines on care.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am J Hum Biol ; 28(4): 555-65, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26848931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Growth patterns in early life are increasingly linked with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk, but the underlying mechanisms require elucidation. We have developed a theoretical model of blood pressure, treating it as a function of homeostatic metabolic capacity, and antagonistic metabolic load. We sought to differentiate prenatal and postnatal components of metabolic capacity, and to identify intergenerational contributions to offspring capacity and load. METHODS: We followed up at 8 years a cohort of children originally recruited into a randomized trial of maternal micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy. Maternal anthropometry was measured at recruitment. Offspring anthropometry was measured at birth, 2 years and 8 years. Offspring blood pressure, kidney size, and body composition were measured at 8 years. Regression analysis was used to investigate potential associations of maternal phenotype, birth phenotype, and current body composition with kidney size and blood pressure. RESULTS: Blood pressure was positively associated with body fat, but negatively associated with birth weight and relative leg length. Kidney size was positively associated with birth weight but not with relative leg length. Adjusting for adiposity, blood pressure was independently negatively associated with birth weight, relative leg length, and kidney length. Maternal height and BMI predicted offspring size at birth and at 8 years, but not blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide support for the capacity-load model of blood pressure in Nepalese children. Fetal and postnatal growth and kidney dimensions all contribute to metabolic capacity. Maternal phenotype contributed to offspring capacity and load, but these associations did not propagate to blood pressure. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:555-565, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hereditariedade , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Modelos Teóricos , Mães , Nepal , Tamanho do Órgão , Análise de Regressão
9.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 1289, 2015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global burden of acute malnutrition among children remains high, and prevalence rates are highest in humanitarian contexts such as Niger. Unconditional cash transfers are increasingly used to prevent acute malnutrition in emergencies but lack a strong evidence base. In Niger, non-governmental organisations give unconditional cash transfers to the poorest households from June to September; the 'hunger gap'. However, rising admissions to feeding programmes from March/April suggest the intervention may be late. METHODS/DESIGN: This cluster-randomised controlled trial will compare two types of unconditional cash transfer for 'very poor' households in 'vulnerable' villages defined and identified by the implementing organisation. 3,500 children (6-59 months) and 2,500 women (15-49 years) will be recruited exhaustively from households targeted for cash and from a random sample of non-recipient households in 40 villages in Tahoua district. Clusters of villages with a common cash distribution point will be assigned to either a control group which will receive the standard intervention (n = 10), or a modified intervention group (n = 10). The standard intervention is 32,500 FCFA/month for 4 months, June to September, given cash-in-hand to female representatives of 'very poor' households. The modified intervention is 21,500 FCFA/month for 5 months, April, May, July, August, September, and 22,500 FCFA in June, providing the same total amount. In both arms the recipient women attend an education session, women and children are screened and referred for acute malnutrition treatment, and the households receive nutrition supplements for children 6-23 months and pregnant and lactating women. The trial will evaluate whether the modified unconditional cash transfer leads to a reduction in acute malnutrition among children 6-59 months old compared to the standard intervention. The sample size provides power to detect a 5 percentage point difference in prevalence of acute malnutrition between trial arms. Quantitative and qualitative process evaluation data will be prospectively collected and programme costs will be collected and cost-effectiveness ratios calculated. DISCUSSION: This randomised study design with a concurrent process evaluation will provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of earlier initiation of seasonal unconditional cash transfer for the prevention of acute malnutrition, which will be generalisable to similar humanitarian situations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25360839, registered March 19, 2015.


Assuntos
Proteção da Criança/economia , Programas Governamentais/economia , Desnutrição/economia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Proteção da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Emergências , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níger/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 102(3): 593-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26224296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) <115 mm and weight-for-height z score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. RESULTS: At all ages, length showed consistently strong positive correlations with the MUAC but not with the WLZ. Adjustment for length reduced observed correlation coefficients of FM and FFM with the MUAC but increased those for the WLZ. At all ages, both length-adjusted FM and FFM showed an independent association with the WLZ and MUAC with higher regression coefficients for the WLZ. Conversely, length showed greater regression coefficients for the MUAC. At all ages, the MUAC was shown to be more influenced than was the WLZ by the FM variability relative to the FFM variability. CONCLUSIONS: The MUAC and WLZ have different associations with body composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Braço , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Valores de Referência , Análise de Regressão
11.
PeerJ ; 3: e785, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25780755

RESUMO

Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations. Objectives. (1) To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM) from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7-9 years. (2) To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy. Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls) using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced. Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R (2) 93%). The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42). Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution. Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

12.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e56078, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23405253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2005, it was estimated that hypertension affected 26.4% of the adult population worldwide. By 2025, it is predicted that it will affect about 60% of adults, a total of 1.56 billion. Both pre- and postnatal growth patterns have been associated with later blood pressure (BP), but in contrasting directions. These inconsistent associations of growth during different developmental periods merit elucidation. We tested a theoretical model treating birth weight as a marker of homeostatic metabolic capacity, and childhood height, lean mass and fat mass as independent indices of metabolic load. We predicted that decreased capacity and increased load would be independently associated with increased BP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from the ALSPAC cohort on growth from birth to 7 years, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BP at 9 years, were analysed (n = 6579). Data were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS) or standardised regression residuals (SRR). BP was independently and positively associated with each of height, lean mass and fat mass. In a joint model systolic BP was positively associated with conditional weight velocity [males 0.40 (95%CI: 0.37-0.44) & females 0.44 (95%CI: 0.40-0.47) SDS/SRR], but not birth weight [0.00 (95%CI: -0.03-0.04) & 0.03 (95%CI: -0.01-0.07) SDS/SDS]. Adjusting for height, lean mass and fat mass, the association of systolic BP and conditional weight velocity attenuated [0.00(95%CI: -0.09-0.08) & -0.06(95%CI: -0.14-0.03) SDS/SRR], whereas that with birth weight became negative [-0.10 (95%CI: -0.14-0.06) & -0.09 (95%CI: -0.13-0.05) SDS/SDS]. Similar results were obtained for diastolic BP and pulse pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with our theoretical model, high metabolic load relative to metabolic capacity is associated with increased BP. Our data demonstrate the contribution of different growth and body composition components to BP variance, and clarify the developmental aetiology of hypertension.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Estatura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ganho de Peso
13.
PLoS Med ; 9(10): e1001320, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23055833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Households from vulnerable groups experiencing epidemiological transitions are known to be affected concomitantly by under-nutrition and obesity. Yet, it is unknown to what extent this double burden affects refugee populations dependent on food assistance. We assessed the double burden of malnutrition among Western Sahara refugees living in a protracted emergency. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We implemented a stratified nutrition survey in October-November 2010 in the four Western Sahara refugee camps in Algeria. We sampled 2,005 households, collecting anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist circumference) in 1,608 children (6-59 mo) and 1,781 women (15-49 y). We estimated the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM), stunting, underweight, and overweight in children; and stunting, underweight, overweight, and central obesity in women. To assess the burden of malnutrition within households, households were first classified according to the presence of each type of malnutrition. Households were then classified as undernourished, overweight, or affected by the double burden if they presented members with under-nutrition, overweight, or both, respectively. The prevalence of GAM in children was 9.1%, 29.1% were stunted, 18.6% were underweight, and 2.4% were overweight; among the women, 14.8% were stunted, 53.7% were overweight or obese, and 71.4% had central obesity. Central obesity (47.2%) and overweight (38.8%) in women affected a higher proportion of households than did GAM (7.0%), stunting (19.5%), or underweight (13.3%) in children. Overall, households classified as overweight (31.5%) were most common, followed by undernourished (25.8%), and then double burden-affected (24.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The double burden of obesity and under-nutrition is highly prevalent in households among Western Sahara refugees. The results highlight the need to focus more attention on non-communicable diseases in this population and balance obesity prevention and management with interventions to tackle under-nutrition. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 12: 725, 2012 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22938147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe dental caries and the treatment thereof are reported to affect growth and well-being of young children. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of extraction of severely decayed pulpally involved primary teeth on weight and height in underweight preschool Filipino children. METHODS: Underweight preschool Filipino children with severe dental decay had their pulpally involved primary teeth extracted during a stepped wedge cluster randomized clinical trial. Day care centers were randomly divided into two groups; children from Group A day care centers received treatment as soon as practical, whereas children from Group B day care centers were treated four months after Group A. Clinical oral examinations using WHO criteria and the pufa-index were carried out. Anthropometric measurements were done on both groups immediately before treatment of Group A and at follow-up four months later. Height and weight z-scores were calculated using 2006 and 2007 WHO Growth Standards. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the effect of dental extractions on changes in anthropometric measurements after dental treatment. RESULTS: Data on 164 children (85 in Group A and 79 in Group B), mean age 59.9 months, were analyzed. Both groups gained weight and height during the trial period. Children in Group A significantly increased their BMI (p < 0.001), and their weight-for-age (p < 0.01) and BMI-for-age z-scores (p < 0.001) after dental treatment, whereas untreated children in Group B did not. Children in Group A had significantly more weight gain (p < 0.01) compared to untreated children in Group B. However, children in Group A had an inverse change in height gain (p < 0.001). Adjustment for the time interval between the two visits had little effect on the results. CONCLUSIONS: The extraction of severely decayed primary teeth resulted in significant weight gain in underweight Filipino children. Untreated dental decay should be considered an important co-factor affecting child growth and should be considered when planning for interventions to improve child growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN90779069 http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/isrctn_loa.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Magreza , Extração Dentária , Dente Decíduo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Cárie Dentária/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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