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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609625

RESUMO

The epigenome is at the interface between environmental factors and the genome, regulating gene transcription, DNA repair and replication. Epigenetic modifications play a crucial role in establishing and maintaining cell identity and are especially crucial for neurology, musculoskeletal integrity, and the function of the immune system. Mutations in genes encoding for the components of the epigenetic machinery lead to the development of distinct disorders, especially involving the central nervous system and host defense. In this review, we focus on the role of epigenetic modifications for the function of the immune system. By studying the immune phenotype of patients with monogenic mutations in components of the epigenetic machinery (Inborn Errors of Epigenetic regulators, IEE), we demonstrate the importance of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, non-coding RNAs, and mRNA processing for immunity. Moreover, we give a short overview on therapeutic strategies targeting the epigenome.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523338

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome caused by dominant-negative loss-of-function mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) (STAT3-HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with multisystem pathology. The quality of life in patients with STAT3-HIES is determined by not only the progressive, life-limiting pulmonary disease, but also significant skin disease including recurrent infections and abscesses requiring surgery. Our early report indicated that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might not be effective in patients with STAT3-HIES, although a few subsequent reports have reported successful outcomes. We update on progress of our patient now with over 18 years of follow-up and report on an additional seven cases, all of whom have survived despite demonstrating significant disease-related pathology prior to transplant. We conclude that effective cure of the immunological aspects of the disease and stabilization of even severe lung involvement may be achieved by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recurrent skin infections and abscesses may be abolished. Donor TH17 cells may produce comparable levels of IL17A to healthy controls. The future challenge will be to determine which patients should best be offered this treatment and at what point in their disease history.

3.
J Exp Med ; 218(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170215

RESUMO

The identification and characterization of rare immune cell populations in humans can be facilitated by their growth advantage in the context of specific genetic diseases. Here, we use autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome to identify a population of FAS-controlled TCRαß+ T cells. They include CD4+, CD8+, and double-negative T cells and can be defined by a CD38+CD45RA+T-BET- expression pattern. These unconventional T cells are present in healthy individuals, are generated before birth, are enriched in lymphoid tissue, and do not expand during acute viral infection. They are characterized by a unique molecular signature that is unambiguously different from other known T cell differentiation subsets and independent of CD4 or CD8 expression. Functionally, FAS-controlled T cells represent highly proliferative, noncytotoxic T cells with an IL-10 cytokine bias. Mechanistically, regulation of this physiological population is mediated by FAS and CTLA4 signaling, and its survival is enhanced by mTOR and STAT3 signals. Genetic alterations in these pathways result in expansion of FAS-controlled T cells, which can cause significant lymphoproliferative disease.

4.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(10): e17420, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Network on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID-NET) utilizes the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry as a platform for collecting data. In the context of PID-NET data, we show how registries based on custom software can be made interoperable for better collaborative access to precollected data. The Open Source Registry System for Rare Diseases (Open-Source-Registersystem für Seltene Erkrankungen [OSSE], in German) provides patient organizations, physicians, scientists, and other parties with open source software for the creation of patient registries. In addition, the necessary interoperability between different registries based on the OSSE, as well as existing registries, is supported, which allows those registries to be confederated at both the national and international levels. OBJECTIVE: Data from the PID-NET registry should be made available in an interoperable manner without losing data sovereignty by extending the existing custom software of the registry using the OSSE registry framework. METHODS: This paper describes the following: (1) the installation and configuration of the OSSE bridgehead, (2) an approach using a free toolchain to set up the required interfaces to connect a registry with the OSSE bridgehead, and (3) the decentralized search, which allows the formulation of inquiries that are sent to a selected set of registries of interest. RESULTS: PID-NET uses the established and highly customized ESID registry software. By setting up a so-called OSSE bridgehead, PID-NET data are made interoperable according to a federated approach, and centrally formulated inquiries for data can be received. As the first registry to use the OSSE bridgehead, the authors introduce an approach using a free toolchain to efficiently implement and maintain the required interfaces. Finally, to test and demonstrate the system, two inquiries are realized using the graphical query builder. By establishing and interconnecting an OSSE bridgehead with the underlying ESID registry, confederated queries for data can be received and, if desired, the inquirer can be contacted to further discuss any requirements for cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: The OSSE offers an infrastructure that provides the possibility of more collaborative and transparent research. The decentralized search functionality includes registries into one search application while still maintaining data sovereignty. The OSSE bridgehead enables any registry software to be integrated into the OSSE network. The proposed toolchain to set up the required interfaces consists of freely available software components that are well documented. The use of the decentralized search is uncomplicated to use and offers a well-structured, yet still improvable, graphical user interface to formulate queries.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1654, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849570

RESUMO

Background: Diarrhoea is the commonest gastrointestinal symptom in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and clinical presentation of chronic and recurrent diarrhoea in the Royal-Free-Hospital (RFH) London CVID cohort, including symptoms, infections, level of inflammation, and microbial diversity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adult CVID patients (139 out of 172 diagnosed with CVID completed the screening questionnaire). Those with diarrhoea ≥6 days/month had stool and blood samples analysed and completed the short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (sIBDQ). BMI, spleen-size, lymphocytes and gut-microbial diversity were compared. Due to logistical and clinical restraints, not all patients could be analysed on all measures. Results: 46/139 (33.1%) patients had current significant diarrhoea. In patients with past or present diarrhoea, BMI was lower (median 23.7 vs. 26, p = 0.005), malabsorption more common (57.97 vs. 35.71%, p = 0.011). CD4+ lymphocytes were higher in patients with diarrhoea (p = 0.028; n = 138), but CD4+ naïve lymphocytes were significantly higher in non-diarrhoea patients (p = 0.009, N = 28). Nine patients had confirmed or probable current gastrointestinal infections. Calprotectin was >60 µg/g in 13/29 with significant diarrhoea including 9 without infection. SIBDQ revealed a low median score of 4.74. Microbial alpha diversity was significantly lower in CVID patients compared to healthy household controls. There was no significant difference in alpha diversity in relation to antibiotic intake during the 6 weeks prior to providing samples. Conclusion: Patients with CVID and significant diarrhoea had infections, raised calprotectin, malabsorption, a lower BMI, an impaired quality of life (comparable to active IBD), and they differed from non-diarrhoea patients in their lymphocyte phenotyping. Furthermore, microbial diversity was altered. These findings strongly imply that there may be an inflammatory nature and a systemic predisposition to diarrhoea in CVID, which necessitates further investigation.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 21(8): 927-937, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632289

RESUMO

In response to pathogenic threats, naive T cells rapidly transition from a quiescent to an activated state, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a pulsed SILAC approach, we investigated the dynamics of mRNA translation kinetics and protein turnover in human naive and activated T cells. Our datasets uncovered that transcription factors maintaining T cell quiescence had constitutively high turnover, which facilitated their depletion following activation. Furthermore, naive T cells maintained a surprisingly large number of idling ribosomes as well as 242 repressed mRNA species and a reservoir of glycolytic enzymes. These components were rapidly engaged following stimulation, promoting an immediate translational and glycolytic switch to ramp up the T cell activation program. Our data elucidate new insights into how T cells maintain a prepared state to mount a rapid immune response, and provide a resource of protein turnover, absolute translation kinetics and protein synthesis rates in T cells ( https://www.immunomics.ch ).


Assuntos
Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675222

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease causes significant mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Immunosuppressive treatment for graft-versus-host disease can impair the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effect and facilitate malignancy relapse. Therefore, novel approaches that protect and regenerate injured tissues without impeding the donor immune system are needed. Bile acids regulate multiple cellular processes and are in close contact with the intestinal epithelium, a major target of acute graft-versus-host disease. Here, we found that the bile acid pool is reduced following graft-versus-host disease induction in a preclinical model. We evaluated the efficacy of bile acids to protect the intestinal epithelium without reducing anti-tumor immunity. We observed that application of bile acids decreased cytokine-induced cell death in intestinal organoids and cell lines. Systemic prophylactic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, the most potent compound in our in vitro studies, reduced graft-versus-host disease severity in three different murine transplantation models. This effect was mediated by decreased activity of the antigen presentation machinery and subsequent prevention of apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, bile acid administration did not alter the bacterial composition in the intestine suggesting that its effects are cell-specific and independent of the microbiome. Treatment of human and murine leukemic cell lines with tauroursodeoxycholic acid did not interfere with the expression of antigen presentation-related molecules. Systemic T cell expansion and especially their cytotoxic capacity against leukemic cells remained intact. This study establishes a role for bile acids in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease without impairing the graft-versus-leukemia effect. In particular, we provide a scientific rationale for the systematic use of tauroursodeoxycholic acid in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 820-832, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506362

RESUMO

LPS-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder, OMIM (#614700). LRBA deficiency patients suffer from variable manifestations including recurrent infections, immune dysregulation, autoimmunity, cytopenias, and enteropathy. This study describes different clinical phenotypes and immunological characteristics of 18 LRBA deficiency patients diagnosed from Egypt. T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, LRBA, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) expression were evaluated in resting and stimulated T cells using flow cytometry. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify mutations in the LRBA gene. LRBA deficiency patients had significantly lower B cells and increased percentage of memory T cells. CTLA4 levels were lower in LRBA-deficient T regulatory cells in comparison to healthy donors at resting conditions and significantly increased upon stimulation of T cells. We identified 11 novel mutations in LRBA gene ranging from large deletions to point mutations. Finally, we were able to differentiate LRBA-deficient patients from healthy control and common variable immunodeficiency patients using a simple flow cytometry test performed on whole blood and without need to prior stimulation. LRBA deficiency has heterogeneous phenotypes with poor phenotype-genotype correlation since the same mutation may manifest differently even within the same family. Low LRBA expression, low numbers of B cells, increased numbers of memory T cells, and defective CTLA4 expression (which increase to normal level upon T cell stimulation) are useful laboratory tests to establish the diagnosis of LRBA deficiency. Screening of the siblings of affected patients is very important as patients may be asymptomatic at the beginning of the disease course.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 19: 100575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551397

RESUMO

Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous systemic disease that becomes chronic in approximately one third of affected patients resulting in quality of life and functional impairment. Immunosuppressive drugs other than steroids represent alternative therapeutic options, but side effects like liver and bone marrow toxicity or increased susceptibility to infections limit their use. Pathophysiological studies in sarcoidosis patients demonstrate altered regulatory T-cell functions with a reduced expression of CTLA-4 (CD152) and prolonged inflammation. Therefore, interfering with CTLA-4 using abatacept might be a therapeutic option in sarcoidosis similar to rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Methods/design: This is a multicenter prospective open-labeled single arm phase II study addressing the safety of abatacept in sarcoidosis patients. 30 patients with chronic sarcoidosis requiring immunosuppressive therapy beyond 5 mg prednisolone equivalent will be treated with abatacept in combination with corticosteroids for one year in two centers.The primary endpoint is the number and characterization of severe infectious complications under treatment with abatacept.Secondary endpoints are the rate of all infections, patient-related outcomes (assessed by questionnaires), lung function and immunological parameters including alveolar inflammation assessed by bronchoaveolar lavage. Discussion: This is the first trial of abatacept in patients with sarcoidosis. It is hypothesized that administration of abatacept is safe in patients with chronic sarcoidosis and can limit ongoing inflammation. Patients' wellbeing is assessed by established questionnaires. Immunological work-up will highlight the effect of abatacept on inflammatory pathways in sarcoidosis. Trial registration: The trial has been registered at the German Clinical Trial Registry (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien, DRKS) with the identity number DRKS00011660.

10.
Blood ; 136(12): 1442-1455, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542357

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Although currently used GVHD treatment regimens target the donor immune system, we explored here an approach that aims at protecting and regenerating Paneth cells (PCs) and intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Glucagon-like-peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an enteroendocrine tissue hormone produced by intestinal L cells. We observed that acute GVHD reduced intestinal GLP-2 levels in mice and patients developing GVHD. Treatment with the GLP-2 agonist, teduglutide, reduced de novo acute GVHD and steroid-refractory GVHD, without compromising graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects in multiple mouse models. Mechanistically GLP-2 substitution promoted regeneration of PCs and ISCs, which enhanced production of antimicrobial peptides and caused microbiome changes. GLP-2 expanded intestinal organoids and reduced expression of apoptosis-related genes. Low numbers of L cells in intestinal biopsies and high serum levels of GLP-2 were associated with a higher incidence of nonrelapse mortality in patients undergoing allo-HCT. Our findings indicate that L cells are a target of GVHD and that GLP-2-based treatment of acute GVHD restores intestinal homeostasis via an increase of ISCs and PCs without impairing GVL effects. Teduglutide could become a novel combination partner for immunosuppressive GVHD therapy to be tested in clinical trials.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(5): 708-717, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458183

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are a heterogeneous group of fatal genetic disorders, in which the immune response is severely impaired. SCID can be cured if diagnosed early. We aim to determine the incidence of clinically defined SCID cases, acquire data of reported cases and evaluate their possible prediction by newborn screening, before introduction of a general screening program in Germany. METHODS: The German Surveillance Unit for rare Paediatric Diseases (ESPED) prospectively queried the number of incident SCID cases in all German paediatric hospitals in 2014 and 2015. Inclusion criteria were (1) opportunistic or severe infections or clinical features associated with SCID (failure to thrive, lacking thymus or lymphatic tissue, dysregulation of the immune system, graft versus host reaction caused by maternal T cells), (2) dysfunctional T cell immunity or proof of maternal T cells and (3) exclusion of a secondary immunodeficiency such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a capture-recapture analysis, cases were matched with cases reported to the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID). RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were initially reported to ESPED, 24 reports could be confirmed as SCID, 21 patients were less than 1 year old at time of diagnosis. One SCID case was reported to ESID only. The estimated incidence of SCID in Germany is 1.6/100,000 (1:62,500) per year in children less than 1 year of age. Most patients reported were symptomatic and mortality in regard to reported outcome was high (29% (6/22)). The majority of incident SCID cases were considered to be probably detectable by newborn screening. CONCLUSIONS: SCID is a rare disease with significant mortality. Newborn screening may give the opportunity to improve the prognosis in a significant number of children with SCID.

13.
Blood ; 135(17): 1452-1457, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157302

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a disease characterized by increased susceptibility to infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and immune dysregulation. Although CVID is thought to be a disorder of the peripheral B-cell compartment, in 25% of patients, early B-cell development in the bone marrow is impaired. Because poor B-cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been observed, we hypothesized that in some patients the bone marrow environment is not permissive to B-cell development. Studying the differentiation dynamics of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells into immature B cells in vitro allowed us to distinguish patients with B-cell intrinsic defects and patients with a nonpermissive bone marrow environment. In the former, immature B cells did not develop and in the latter CD34+ cells differentiated into immature cells in vitro, but less efficiently in vivo. In a further group of patients, the uncommitted precursors were unable to support the constant development of B cells in vitro, indicating a possible low frequency or exhaustion of the precursor population. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation would result in normal B-cell repopulation in case of intrinsic B-cell defect, but in defective B-cell repopulation in a nonpermissive environment. Our study points to the importance of the bone marrow niche in the pathogenesis of CVID.

14.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207811

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.

16.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108316, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770611

RESUMO

Germline STAT3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been linked to poly-autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Here we studied the impact of 17 different STAT3 GOF mutations on the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway and correlated the molecular results with clinical manifestations. The mutations clustered in three groups. Group 1 mutants showed altered STAT3 phosphorylation kinetics and strong basal transcriptional activity. They were associated with the highest penetrance of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity. Group 2 mutants showed a strongly inducible transcriptional reporter activity and were clinically less penetrant. Group 3 mutants were mostly located in the DNA binding domain and showed the strongest DNA binding affinity despite a poor transcriptional reporter response. Thus, the GOF effect of STAT3 mutations is determined by a heterogeneous response pattern at the molecular level. The correlation of response pattern and clinical penetrance indicates a significant contribution of mutation-determined effects on disease manifestations.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Linfócitos/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Autoimunidade/genética , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Penetrância , Fosforilação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(3): 1047-1062.e6, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) disease in adult common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is rare, and therefore diagnostic and therapeutic protocols are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical information aiming to establish awareness and first experience-based recommendations. METHODS: We reviewed clinical manifestations, genetic and immunological characteristics, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of patients with CVID with abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the CNS disease in our cohort. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with CNS manifestation and a previous diagnosis of CVID were identified. Presenting symptoms of the CNS disease included loss of sensory or motoric function, headache, or epilepsy. Contrast-enhancing lesions of the brain or solely the spinal cord were the most common findings on MRI. The prevalence of splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, interstitial lung disease, and autoimmune cytopenia was significantly increased compared with control CVID patients. In 8 patients, a molecular defect was identified, including mutations in CTLA4, NFKB1, and CECR1. Patients with CVID with CNS involvement generally displayed lymphopenia, skewed CD4+ T-cell subsets, and increased proportions of CD21low B cells in the peripheral blood. CNS involvement usually responded well to high-dose steroids, but regularly required maintenance therapy to prevent relapse. CONCLUSION: CNS disease is a severe but rare complication in CVID disorders, particularly affecting patients with other noninfectious disease symptoms. Diagnostic evaluation needs to rule out infectious causes by all means; a genetic evaluation is recommended given the high probability of an underlying monogenic disorder. Possible treatment consists of steroids with yet to be determined optimal maintenance therapy in case of relapse.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(5): 1452-1463, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803180

RESUMO

Adult-onset primary immunodeficiency is characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and poor antibody response to vaccines. In this study, we have analyzed targeted gene panel sequencing results of 270 patients diagnosed with antibody deficiency and identified five disease-associated variants in NFKB1 in five unrelated families. We detected two single base pair deletions and two single base pair insertions, causing severe protein truncations, and one missense mutation. Immunoblotting, lymphocyte stimulation, immunophenotyping, and ectopic expression assays demonstrated the functional relevance of NFKB1 mutations. Besides antibody deficiency, clinical manifestations included infections, autoimmune features, lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, Addison's disease, type 2 diabetes and asthma. Although partial clinical penetrance was observed in almost all pedigrees, all carriers presented a deficiency in certain serum immunoglobulins and the majority showed a lack of memory B cells (CD19+CD27+). Among all tested genes, NFKB1 alterations were the most common monoallelic cause of antibody deficiency in our cohort.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/imunologia , Linhagem , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Blood ; 134(22): 1941-1950, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537530

RESUMO

Immune system failure in primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) has been linked to recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and cancer, yet clinical judgment is often based on the reactivity to a restricted panel of antigens. Previously, we demonstrated that the human repertoire of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) exhibits modular organization related to glycan epitope structure. The current study compares the glycan-specific IgG repertoires between different PAD entities. Distinct repertoire profiles with extensive qualitative glycan-recognition defects were observed, which are characterized by the common loss of Galα and GalNAc reactivity and disease-specific recognition of microbial antigens, self-antigens, and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. Antibody repertoire analysis may provide a useful tool to elucidate the degree and the clinical implications of immune system failure in individual patients.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/imunologia , Carboidratos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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