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1.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1541-1549, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465152

RESUMO

AIMS: While a centralized system for the care of patients with a sarcoma has been advocated for decades, regional variations in survival remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate regional variations in survival and the impact of national policies in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in the UK. METHODS: The study included 1,775 patients with a STS who were referred to a tertiary sarcoma centre. The geographical variations in survival were evaluated according to the periods before and after the issue of guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2006 and the relevant evolution of regional management. RESULTS: There had been a significant difference in survival between patients referred from the North East, North West, East Midlands, West Midlands, South West, and Wales in the pre-NICE era (five-year disease-specific survival (DSS); South West, 74% vs North East, 47% (p = 0.045) or West Midlands, 54% (p = 0.049)), which was most evident for patients with a high-grade STS. However, this variation disappeared in the post-NICE era, in which the overall DSS for high-grade STS improved from 47% to 68% at five years (p < 0.001). Variation in the size of the tumour closely correlated with the variation in DSS, and the overall size of the tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis also decreased after the national policies were issued. CONCLUSION: The survival of patients with a STS improved and regional variation corrected after the introduction of national policies, as a result of a decreasing size of tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, particularly in patients with a high-grade STS. This highlights the positive impact of national guidelines on regional variation in the presentation, management, and outcome in patients with a STS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1541-1549.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Política de Saúde , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 795-803, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789467

RESUMO

AIMS: Limb salvage for pelvic sarcomas involving the acetabulum is a major surgical challenge. There remains no consensus about what is the optimum type of reconstruction after resection of the tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes in these patients according to the methods of periacetabular reconstruction. METHODS: The study involved a consecutive series of 122 patients with a periacetabular bone sarcoma who underwent limb-salvage surgery involving a custom-made prosthesis in 65 (53%), an ice-cream cone prosthesis in 21 (17%), an extracorporeal irradiated autograft in 18 (15%), and nonskeletal reconstruction in 18 (15%). RESULTS: The rates of major complications necessitating further surgery were 62%, 24%, 56%, and 17% for custom-made prostheses, ice-cream cone prostheses, irradiated autografts and nonskeletal reconstructions, respectively (p = 0.001). The ten-year cumulative incidence of failure of the reconstruction was 19%, 9%, 33%, and 0%, respectively. The major cause of failure was deep infection (11%), followed by local recurrence (6%). The mean functional Musculoskeletal Tumour Society (MSTS) scores were 59%, 74%, 64%, and 72%, respectively. The scores were significantly lower in patients with major complications than in those without complications (mean 52% (SD 20%) vs 74% (SD 19%); p < 0.001). For periacetabular resections involving the ilium, the mean score was the highest with custom-made prostheses (82% (SD 10%)) in patients without any major complication; however, nonskeletal reconstruction resulted in the highest mean scores (78% (SD 12%)) in patients who had major complications. For periacetabular resections not involving the ilium, significantly higher mean scores were obtained with ice-cream cone prostheses (79% (SD 17%); p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Functional outcome following periacetabular reconstruction is closely associated with the occurrence of complications requiring further surgery. For tumours treated with periacetabular and iliac resection, skeletal reconstruction may result in the best outcomes in the absence of complications, whereas nonskeletal reconstruction is a reasonable option if the risk of complications is high. For tumours requiring periacetabular resection without the ilium, reconstruction using an ice-cream cone prosthesis supported by antibiotic-laden cement is a reliable option. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):795-803.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Prótese de Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(3): 569-577, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641420

RESUMO

AIMS: Urgent referral to a specialist centre for patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) has been recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK since 2006. However, the impact of this recommendation on the prognosis for these patients remains unclear. We aimed to determine the impact of the NICE guidelines on the disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients with an STS. METHODS: A total of 2,427 patients with an STS referred to a supraregional centre in the ten-year periods before (n = 1,386) and after (n = 1,041) the issue of the NICE guidelines were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean size of the tumour was significantly smaller at the time of diagnosis (10.3 cm (SD 6.5) vs 9.1 cm (SD 6.2); p < 0.001) and the number of patients who had undergone an inadvertent excision significantly decreased (28% (n = 389) vs 20% (n = 204); p < 0.001) following the introduction of the NICE guidelines. The five-year DSS was 63% in the pre-NICE and 71% in post-NICE groups (p < 0.001). The improved survival was more significant for those with a high-grade tumour (pre-NICE, 48%; post-NICE, 68%; p < 0.001). In those with a high-grade tumour, the mean size of the tumour (11.6 cm (SD 6.2) vs 9.6 cm (SD 5.8); p < 0.001) and the number of patients with metastasis at the time of diagnosis (15% (n = 124 vs 10% (n = 80); p = 0.007) significantly decreased in the post-NICE group. CONCLUSION: An improvement in survival was seen after the introduction of the NICE guidelines, especially in patients with a high-grade STS. More patients were referred at an earlier stage, indicating a clearer pathway after the issue of national policy for the management of STSs in the UK. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):569-577.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(12): 1719-1729, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant-cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a rare, locally aggressive osteoclastogenic stromal tumour of the bone. This phase 2 study aimed to assess the safety and activity of denosumab in patients with surgically salvageable or unsalvageable GCTB. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study done at 30 sites in 12 countries we enrolled adults and skeletally mature adolescents (aged ≥12 years) weighing at least 45 kg with histologically confirmed and radiographically measurable GCTB, Karnofsky performance status 50% or higher (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0, 1, or 2), and measurable active disease within 1 year of study enrolment. Patients had surgically unsalvageable GCTB (cohort 1), had surgically salvageable GCTB with planned surgery expected to result in severe morbidity (cohort 2), or were enrolled from a previous study of denosumab for GCTB (cohort 3). Patients received 120 mg subcutaneous denosumab once every 4 weeks during the treatment phase, with loading doses (120 mg subcutaneously) administered on study days 8 and 15 to patients in cohorts 1 and 2 (patients in cohort 3 did not receive loading doses). The primary endpoint was safety in terms of the type, frequency, and severity of adverse events; secondary endpoints included time to disease progression from cohort 1 and the proportion of patients without surgery at month 6 for cohort 2. The safety analysis set included all enrolled patients who received at least one dose of denosumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00680992, and has been completed. FINDINGS: Between Sept 9, 2008, and Feb 25, 2016, 532 patients were enrolled: 267 in cohort 1, 253 in cohort 2, and 12 in cohort 3. At data cutoff on Feb 24, 2017, median follow-up was 58·1 months (IQR 34·0-74·4) in the overall patient population, and 65·8 months (40·9-82·4) in cohort 1, 53·4 months (28·2-64·1) in cohort 2, and 76·4 months (61·2-76·5) in cohort 3. During the treatment phase, the most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were hypophosphataemia (24 [5%] of 526 patients), osteonecrosis of the jaw (17 [3%], pain in extremity (12 [2%]), and anaemia (11 [2%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 138 (26%) of 526 patients; the most common were osteonecrosis of the jaw (17 [3%]), anaemia (6 [1%]), bone giant cell tumour (6 [1%]), and back pain (5 [1%]). 28 (5%) patients had positively adjudicated osteonecrosis of the jaw, four (1%) had atypical femur fracture, and four (1%) had hypercalcaemia occurring 30 days after denosumab discontinuation. There were four cases (1%) of sarcomatous transformation, consistent with historical data. Ten (2%) treatment-emergent deaths occurred (two of which were considered treatment-related; bone sarcoma in cohort 2 and sarcoma in cohort 1). Median time to progression or recurrence for patients in cohort 1 during the first treatment phase was not reached (28 [11%] of 262 patients had progression or recurrence). 227 (92%; 95% CI 87-95) of 248 patients who received at least one dose of denosumab in cohort 2 had no surgery in the first 6 months of the study. INTERPRETATION: The types and frequencies of adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of denosumab, which showed long-term disease control for patients with GCTB with unresectable and resectable tumours. Our results suggest that the overall risk to benefit ratio for denosumab treatment in patients with GCTB remains favourable. FUNDING: Amgen.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(6): 985-993, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381161

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify which local treatment is oncologically and functionally effective in pelvic Ewing sarcoma (ES). METHODS: A consecutive series of patients who underwent pelvic resections and acetabular reconstructions after chemotherapy between 1986 and 2016 at a supra-regional center were evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 35 patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was 61% and 72%, respectively. Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) and surgery provided an excellent/good histological response in 92% and achieved significantly better OS (5 years, 64%) and LRFS (5 years, 100%) than surgery alone or surgery with postoperative RT. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional scores were significantly better in patients with hip transposition than those with structural reconstructions (74% vs 57%; P = .031) using custom-made prostheses, irradiated autografts, and ice-cream cone prostheses. These scores were significantly lower if patients had deep infection (P = .035), which was the most common complication (28%) in structural reconstructions but did not occur in hip transposition even when performed after preoperative RT. CONCLUSION: Acetabular reconstruction with hip transposition resulted in no deep infection and superior function in patients with pelvic ES even when combined with preoperative RT, which improved tumor necrosis and rate of local control and survival.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Terapia de Salvação , Sarcoma de Ewing/cirurgia , Acetábulo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Ossos Pélvicos/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(4): 704-710, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591310

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoprostheses in the treatment of extremity sarcomas are associated with late complications including periprosthetic infection. This study analysed the incidence of infection in patients undergoing endoprosthetic replacement (EPR) with a silver-coated prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective single centre study of 394 consecutive patients treated with resection and EPR for primary extremity bone tumours. RESULTS: 89 patients at risk for infection were treated with a silver-coated (Agluna®) EPR (22.6%), compared to 305 patients treated with a non-silver EPR (77.4%). The incidence of periprosthetic infection, requiring revision as the primary endpoint was 34/394 (8.6%); 11 patients (12.4%) in the silver group and 23 patients (7.5%) in the non-silver group (p = 0.154). Overall implant survival was 90.9% and 95.3% at 1-year and 86.8% and 91.8% at 5-years in the silver-coated and non-silver coated group, respectively (p = 0.193). Infection was treated in the silver group by washout of the prosthesis in 2/11, debridement and implant retention (DAIR) in 1/11 and single-stage revision in 1/11, and in the non-silver group by washout in 1/23 or DAIR in 2/23. Two-stage revision was successful in 2/11in the silver group, and in 11/23 in the non-silver group. Amputation was required in 4/11 in the silver group and 9/23 in the non-silver group. One patient in the silver group died due to disease with an infected EPR. CONCLUSIONS: Silver-coated prostheses in high risk patients show similar infection free survival as non-silver coated prosthesis in standard sites in primary bone tumours of the extremities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Prata/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desbridamento , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Irrigação Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Sarcoma Res ; 8: 23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559960

RESUMO

Background: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas (CS) are a high-grade variant of CS that confers a 5-year survival of around 10-24%. Dedifferentiated CS arising from the pelvis confers an even worse prognosis. Questions: (1) What is the prognosis of patients with dedifferentiated CS of the pelvis? (2) Do wide margins or type of surgical intervention influence outcome? (3) Does the use of adjuvant therapy affect outcome? Methods: Patients were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively collated musculoskeletal oncology database from 1995 to 2016. Thirty-one cases of dedifferentiated CS arising from the pelvis were included. Wide margins were defined as greater than 4 mm. The mean age was 55.6 years (range 33 to 76 years) and there were 19 males (61.3%) and 12 females (38.7%). Results: The disease presented at a locally or systemically advanced stage in 13 patients (41.9%). Eighteen patients (58.1%) underwent surgery with curative intent. Overall survival at 12 months was 15.4% for patients treated with palliative intent and 50% for those treated with surgery. In the surgical group, there were higher rates of disease-free survival in patients who underwent hindquarter amputation and those who received wide surgical margins (p = 0.047 and p = 0.019, respectively). Those who underwent hindquarter amputation were more likely to achieve wide margins (p = 0.05). Time to recurrent disease (local or systemic) was always less than 24 months. No hindquarter amputation for recurrent disease resulted in disease-free survival. No patient who received adjuvant therapy for palliative or recurrent disease had disease control. Conclusions: Pelvic dedifferentiated CS often presents at an advanced local or systemic stage and confers a poor prognosis. Achieving wide surgical margins (> 4 mm) provided the highest rate of long-term disease-free survival. Failing to achieve wide margins results in rapid disease recurrence, conferring deleterious consequences.

9.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 44(9): 1412-1418, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chondrosarcoma (CS) is the second most common primary bone sarcoma with no clear role for adjuvant therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the relationship between surgical excision margins and local recurrence free survival (LRFS), and (2) the role of local recurrence (LR) in disease specific survival (DSS) in CS of the extremity and pelvis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 341 pelvic and extremity CS diagnosed between 2003 and 2015 were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: LR developed in 23% of cases. Pelvic location, pathologic fracture, margin and grade were significant factors for LR after univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed surgical margin and pelvic location as positive factors for LR, and grade-1 and 2 CS as negative factors for LR. Pathologic fracture, central versus peripheral, grade, and LR were significant factors with univariate analysis for DSS; and grade was significant after multivariate analysis for all patients for DSS. After competing risk analysis, LR was statistically significant for DSS in grade-2 and grade-3 tumors. CONCLUSION: Surgical margins determine LR in all CS grades, but LR affects DSS only in grade-2 and grade-3 tumors. Although narrow margins are acceptable in grade-1 tumors, since biopsy is unreliable in predicting final grade, a minimum 4-mm margin should be the aim in all cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Condrossarcoma/cirurgia , Extremidades , Margens de Excisão , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ossos Pélvicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Criança , Condrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Condrossarcoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sarcoma ; 2018: 3504075, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681761

RESUMO

Introduction: Indications discussed for the implantation of expandable prostheses in bone sarcoma patients are unclear. This survey aimed to analyse common practice with this implant type in orthopaedic oncology. Methods: A web-based survey was sent to 98 orthopaedic oncology surgeons. Factors reported in literature to influence the decision on the implantation of a growing prosthesis were covered in individual questions and three case scenarios. Results: The completion rate of the survey was 45% (n = 44). Twenty-seven of 44 surgeons (61%) had implanted between 1 and 15 expandable prostheses within three years. The minimum median patient age was 6.5 years, and 3-5 cm of predicted growth deficit was the minimum before implanting a growing prosthesis. One-third of surgeons do not use growth calculation methods. Two out of three surgeons would rather not implant a growing prosthesis in children with metastatic disease. Conclusions: Our survey confirmed the literature with 3-4 cm as the minimum estimated growth deficit. The minimum age for the implantation of a growing prosthesis is approx. 6.6 years, and therefore the patients are younger than those reported in previous publications. One-quarter of orthopaedic surgeons do not use growing prostheses at all. It remains unclear whether growing prostheses are indicated in patients with metastatic disease.

11.
Indian J Orthop ; 52(1): 81-86, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416175

RESUMO

Background: Current practice in our unit is to perform clinical assessment and plain film radiographs at regular intervals following treatment of a bone or soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Cross-sectional imaging is used in cases with a clinical suspicion of recurrence. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of this protocol to determine if earlier detection may have been possible had more intensive imaging been undertaken, and whether this may have affected outcome. Materials and Methods: We reviewed clinical records and imaging of all patients with diagnosed local recurrence (LR) in the previous 5 years to investigate: how it was diagnosed, the site and size of recurrence, and management. A value judgment was then made as to whether earlier diagnosis may have altered treatment and/or outcome. Results: 161 patients with LR were identified: 87 with a STS and 74 with bone sarcoma. Median time from diagnosis to LR was 17.8 months for STS and 20.1 months for bone sarcoma. One hundred and fifteen cases (71%) were identified by the patient, 28 by routine imaging (17%), 13 by a doctor (8%), and five diagnosed by other methods. Median size of LR was 5.5 cm for STS and 5 cm for bone sarcomas. Seventy nine of the patients (49%) could have had their LR diagnosed earlier with routine imaging. Of these, 53 would have received the same treatment, but 26 (33%) could have had different treatment. Conclusion: Earlier diagnosis could have led to altered management in one-third of those patients with the potential to have their LR diagnosed earlier. If all patients had regular magnetic resonance imaging, it would cost £6987 per recurrence where management was altered in imaging costs alone. We suggest a stratified approach whereby patients at highest risk of LR and those in whom early detection of LR may be easily treatable are prioritised for more intensive followup.

12.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(3): 676-682, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proximal tibia is one of the most challenging anatomic sites for extremity reconstructions after bone tumor resection. Because bone tumors are rare and large case series of reconstructions of the proximal tibia are lacking, we undertook this study to compare two major reconstructive approaches at two large sarcoma centers. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to compare groups of patients treated with endoprosthetic replacement or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction for proximal tibia bone tumors in terms of (1) limb salvage reconstruction failures and risk of amputation of the limb; (2) causes of failure; and (3) functional results. METHODS: Between 1990 and 2012, two oncologic centers treated 385 patients with proximal tibial resections and reconstruction. During that time, the general indications for those types of reconstruction were proximal tibia malignant tumors or bone destruction with articular surface damage or collapse. Patients who matched the inclusion criteria (age between 15 and 60 years old, diagnosis of a primary bone tumor of the proximal tibia treated with limb salvage surgery and reconstructed with endoprosthetic replacement or osteoarticular allograft) were included for analysis (n = 149). In those groups (endoprosthetic or allograft), of the patients not known to have reached an endpoint (death, reconstructive failure, or limb loss) before 2 years, 85% (88 of 104) and 100% (45 of 45) were available for followup at a minimum of 2 years. A total of 88 patients were included in the endoprosthetic group and 45 patients in the osteoarticular allograft group. Followup was at a mean of 9.5 (SD 6.72) years (range, 2-24 years) for patients with endoprosthetic reconstructions, and 7.4 (SD 5.94) years for patients treated with allografts (range, 2-21 years). The following variables were compared: limb salvage reconstruction failure rates, risk of limb amputation, type of failures according to the Henderson et al. classification, and functional results assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society system. RESULTS: With the numbers available, after competitive risk analysis, the probability of failure for endoprosthetic replacement of the proximal tibia was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.75-27.46) at 5 years and 44% (95% CI, 31.67-55.62) at 10 years and for osteoarticular allograft reconstruction was 27% (95% CI, 14.73-40.16) at 5 years and 32% (95% CI, 18.65-46.18) at 10 years. There were no differences in terms of risk of failures at 5 years (p = 0.26) or 10 years (p = 0.20) between the two groups. Fifty-one of 88 patients (58%) with proximal tibia endoprostheses developed a reconstruction failure with mechanical causes being the most prevalent (32 of 51 patients [63%]). A total of 19 of 45 osteoarticular allograft reconstructions failed (42%) and nine of 19 (47%) of them were caused by early infection. Ten-year risk of amputation after failure for endoprosthetic reconstruction was 10% (95% CI, 5.13-18.12) and 11% (95% CI, 4.01-22.28) for osteoarticular allograft with no difference between the groups (p = 0.91). With the numbers available, there were no differences between the groups in terms of the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score (26.58, SD 2.99, range, 19-30 versus 27.52, SD 1.91, range, 22-30; p = 0.13; 95% CI, -2,3 to 0.32). Mean extension lag was more severe in the endoprosthetic group than the osteoarticular allograft group: 13.56° (SD 18.73; range, 0°-80°) versus 2.41° (SD 5.76; range, 0°-30°; p < 0.001; 95% CI, 5.8-16.4). CONCLUSIONS: Reconstruction of the proximal tibia with either endoprosthetic replacement or osteoarticular allograft appears to offer similar reconstruction failures rates. The primary cause of failure for allograft was infection and for endoprosthesis was mechanical complications. We believe that the treating surgeon should have both options available for treatment of patients with malignant or aggressive tumors of the proximal tibia. (S)he might consider an allograft in a younger patient to achieve better extensor mechanism function, whereas in an older patient or one with a poorer prognosis where return to function and ambulation quickly is desired, an endoprosthesis may be advantageous. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Prótese do Joelho , Osteotomia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Amputação , Argentina , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Transplante Ósseo/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(3): 634-640, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resection of pelvic and sacral tumors can cause severe blood loss, complications, and even postoperative death. Hypotensive epidural anesthesia has been used to mitigate blood loss after elective arthroplasty, but to our knowledge, it has not been studied as an approach that might make resection of pelvic and sacral tumors safer. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the blood loss and blood product use for patients undergoing pelvic and sacral tumor surgery under standard anesthesia or hypotensive epidural anesthesia; (2) to assess the frequency of end-organ damage with the two techniques; and (3) to compare 90-day mortality between the two techniques. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2014, 285 major pelvic and sacral resections were performed at one center. A total of 174 (61%) had complete data sets for analysis of blood loss, transfusion use, complications, and mortality at 90 days. Of those, 102 (59%) underwent hypotensive epidural anesthesia, whereas the remainder received standard anesthetic care. The anesthetic approach was determined by the anesthetists in charge of the case with hypotensive epidural anesthesia exclusively performed by one of two subspecialty trained anesthetists as their routine for major pelvic or sacral surgery. The groups were comparable in terms of potential confounding variables such as age, gender, tumor volume, and operation performed. Hypotensive epidural anesthesia was defined as a technique using an extensive epidural block up to T2-3 dermatome, peripherally administered low-concentration intravenous adrenaline infusion, and using unimpeded spontaneous respiration to achieve controlled hypotension, precise rate control of the heart, and enhanced velocity of venous return, all aggregated thus to minimize blood loss during pelvic surgery while preserving vital perfusion. The groups were assessed for perioperative blood loss calculated from pre- and postsurgery hemoglobin and transfusion use as well as postoperative complications, morbidity, and mortality at 90 days. RESULTS: There was less mean blood loss in the hypotensive epidural anesthesia group (1457 mL, SD 1721, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1114-1801 versus 2421 mL, SD 2297, 95% CI, 1877-2965; p = 0.003). Patients in the hypotensive epidural anesthesia group on average received fewer packed red cell transfusions (2.7 units, SD 2.9, 95% CI, 2.1-3.2 versus 3.9 units, SD 4.4, 95% CI, 2.9-5.0; p = 0.03). There were no differences in the proportions of patients experiencing end-organ injury (7%, n = seven of 102 versus 6%, n = four of 72; p = 0.72). With the numbers available, there was no difference in 90-day mortality rate between groups (1.9%, n = two of 102 versus 1.3%, n = one of 72; p = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: We found that hypotensive epidural anesthesia resulted in less blood loss, fewer transfusions, and no apparent increase in serious complications in pelvic and sacral tumor surgery performed in the setting of a high-volume tertiary sarcoma referral hospital. We recommend that further collaborative studies be undertaken to confirm our results with hypotensive epidural anesthesia in surgery for pelvic tumors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Hipotensão , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Neoplasias Pélvicas/cirurgia , Sacro/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Epidural/mortalidade , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pélvicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pélvicas/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sacro/patologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
SICOT J ; 2: 34, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27739400

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The scapula is not an uncommon site for bone and soft tissue tumours and can be difficult to delineate on examination. Furthermore, these lesions can be potentially challenging to biopsy due to its close anatomical relationship with important structures. We present an epidemiological survey of all the scapular and periscapular lesions presenting to our institution. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study with data obtained from a prospectively held electronic database over a 30-year period. Demographic and clinical data was obtained and various subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 418 scapular lesions were included in the study where 132 lesions were found to be of soft tissue origin and 286 were osseous. Fifty-eight percent (n = 241) of all these lesions were malignant, of which 47% (n = 113) were primary sarcomas. The commonest malignant lesions were bone sarcomas (n = 96) followed by metastases (n = 88). The commonest primary bone sarcoma was chondrosarcoma (45%), whereas the commonest soft tissue sarcoma was high grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (18%). The most common benign osseous and soft tissue lesions were osteochondroma (70%) and lipoma (26%), respectively. We noted that the incidence of malignancy increased with increasing age, however, the incidence of primary bone sarcomas was fairly consistent across different age groups. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings we recommend that suspicious lesions arising from the scapula should be dealt with in a specialist sarcoma unit with involvement of a multidisciplinary team to offer appropriate management and advice for optimum outcome.

15.
Clin Sarcoma Res ; 6(1): 15, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651889

RESUMO

Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody to RANK ligand approved for use in giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone. Due to its efficacy, Denosumab is recommended as the first option in inoperable or metastatic GCT. Denosumab has also been used pre-operatively to downstage tumours with large soft tissue extension to allow for less morbid surgery. The role of Denosumab for conventional limb GCT of bone is yet to be defined. Further studies are required to determine whether local recurrence rates will be decreased with the adjuvant use of Denosumab along with surgery. The long term use and toxicity of this agent is unknown as is the proportion of patients with primary or secondary resistance. It is advised that complicated cases of GCT requiring Denosumab treatment should be referred and followed up at expert centres. Collaborative studies involving further clinical trials and rigorous data collection are strongly recommended to identify the optimum use of this drug.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 115(8): 1000-1007, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas are heterogeneous and a major complication in their management is that the existing classification scheme is not definitive and is still evolving. Leiomyosarcomas, a major histologic category of soft tissue sarcomas, are malignant tumours displaying smooth muscle differentiation. Although defined as a single group, they exhibit a wide range of clinical behaviour. We aimed to carry out molecular classification to identify new molecular subgroups with clinical relevance. METHODS: We used gene expression profiling on 20 extra-uterine leiomyosarcomas and cross-study analyses for molecular classification of leiomyosarcomas. Clinical significance of the subgroupings was investigated. RESULTS: We have identified two distinct molecular subgroups of leiomyosarcomas. One group was characterised by high expression of 26 genes that included many genes from the sub-classification gene cluster proposed by Nielsen et al. These sub-classification genes include genes that have importance structurally, as well as in cell signalling. Notably, we found a statistically significant association of the subgroupings with tumour grade. Further refinement led to a group of 15 genes that could recapitulate the tumour subgroupings in our data set and in a second independent sarcoma set. Remarkably, cross-study analyses suggested that these molecular subgroups could be found in four independent data sets, providing strong support for their existence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study strongly supported the existence of distinct leiomyosarcoma molecular subgroups, which have clinical association with tumour grade. Our findings will aid in advancing the classification of leiomyosarcomas and lead to more individualised and better management of the disease.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Leiomiossarcoma/classificação , Neoplasias Abdominais/genética , Idoso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Extremidades , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomiossarcoma/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/genética , Neoplasias Torácicas/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos
17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 22(9): 2860-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26033180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical resection with curative intent for giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) may be associated with severe morbidity. This interim analysis evaluated reduction in surgical invasiveness after denosumab treatment in patients with resectable GCTB. METHODS: Patients with primary or recurrent GCTB, for whom the initially planned surgery was associated with functional compromise or morbidity, received denosumab 120 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks (additional doses on days 8 and 15 of the first cycle). Planned and actual GCTB-related surgical procedures before and after denosumab treatment were reported. Patients were followed for surgical outcome, adverse events, and recurrence following resection. RESULTS: Overall, 222 patients were evaluable for surgical downstaging (54 % were women; median age 34 years). Lesions (67 % primary and 33 % recurrent) were located in the axial (15 %) and appendicular skeleton (85 %). At the data cutoff date, most patients had not yet undergone surgery (n = 106; 48 %) or had a less morbid procedure (n = 84; 38 %) than originally planned. Median (interquartile range) time on denosumab was 19.5 (12.4-28.6) months for the 106 patients who had not undergone surgery and were continuing on monthly denosumab. Native joint preservation was 96 % (n = 24/25) for patients with planned joint/prosthesis replacement and 86 % (n = 30/35) for patients with planned joint resection/fusion. Of the 116 patients who had surgery (median postsurgical follow-up 13.0 [8.5-17.9] months), local recurrence occurred in 17 (15 %) patients. CONCLUSION: For patients with resectable GCTB, neoadjuvant denosumab therapy resulted in beneficial surgical downstaging, including either no surgery or a less morbid surgical procedure.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/cirurgia , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Int Orthop ; 39(5): 943-6, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25711397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report overall survival, local recurrence and development of metastasis in a group of patients with femur chondrosarcoma that presented with or without a pathological fracture. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed, and 182 patients (39 pathological fractures) that had been treated by oncologic surgery for femoral chondrosarcoma were included. The mean age of the series was 50 years (range, eight to 90) and 114 patients were male (63%). Mean follow-up was 113 months (range, three to 216). Cancer-specific overall survival, development of metastasis and local recurrence were analysed, grouping patients by grade (grade I / grade 2-3 / dedifferentiated). RESULTS: Disease-specific survival in the entire group of chondrosarcoma of the femur was 69% (CI95% 63-76) at 5 years. Five-year disease-specific survival in the fracture group was 49% lower than in the control group 75% (p = 0.0001). Survival of patients with grade 1 chondrosarcoma with fracture was significantly less than those without fracture (p = 0.02) but there was no difference in those with grade 2-3 (p = 0.49) and dedifferentiated tumours (p = 0.09). The local recurrence rate of the entire series was 27%. Only dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas with an associated pathological fracture had a significantly higher rate of local recurrence. There was no relationship between development of metastases and fracture. CONCLUSION: A pathological fracture of the femur has a negative prognostic influence in grade 1 chondrosarcoma and increases the risk of local recurrence in dedifferentiated femur chondrosarcomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Fêmur/patologia , Fraturas Espontâneas/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Criança , Condrossarcoma/complicações , Condrossarcoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2015(1)2015 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600129

RESUMO

We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with a lump in the mid-third of the left clavicle, which had recently increased in size to 10 cm in diameter. Plain X-ray, computed tomography and bone scans suggested that the lump was a parosteal osteosarcoma. Due to the expected 30% functional loss from claviculectomy [Wood in The results of total claviculectomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1986; 207: :186-90.], the patient opted for excision of the tumour plus the adjacent clavicle, irradiation and reimplantation of the bone with internal fixation. On 2-year follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence or complications, with a good range of movement of the joint. On 4-year follow-up, the patient was found to have discomfort, and X-rays showed that the clavicle had fractured, which was managed symptomatically.

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