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1.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 45(2): 111-118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382799

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify and assess all existing randomized studies on treatment interventions for hand fractures and joint injuries, to inform practice and plan future research. PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase were searched. We identified 78 randomized controlled trials published over 35 years, covering seven anatomical areas of the hand. We report on sources of bias, sample size, follow-up length and retention, outcome measures and reporting. In terms of interventions studied, the trials were extremely heterogeneous, so it is difficult to draw conclusions on individual treatments. The published randomized controlled clinical trial evidence for hand fractures and joint injuries is narrow in scope and of generally low methodological quality. Mapping provides a useful resource and stepping-stone for planning further research. There is a need for high-quality, collaborative research to guide management of a wider range of common hand injuries.

4.
Hand (N Y) ; : 1558944718815244, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral 1B tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) can result in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. In the context of associated DRUJ instability, combined evidence supports successful outcomes for peripheral tear repair. METHODS: The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to compare the surgical treatment of 1B TFCC tears via arthroscopic versus open methods of repair. The primary outcome measure was restored DRUJ stability. The secondary outcome measures included patient-reported outcomes and clinical outcome measures. An electronic database search of Ovid Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed to cover a 20-year period. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and extracted data. RESULTS: Only 3 studies met the strict inclusion criteria, highlighting the poor evidence base for TFCC 1B repairs. Hence, a "secondary analysis" group was developed with modified inclusion criteria which included a further 7 studies for analysis. Pooled data from the primary and secondary analysis groups demonstrated that postoperative DRUJ stability was achieved following open repair in 84% (76/90) of cases and following arthroscopic repair in 86% (129/150) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: This SR demonstrates a current lack of high-quality evidence required to draw firm conclusions on the merits of arthroscopic versus open repair of 1B TFCC tears. There is no scientific evidence to suggest superiority of one technique over the other, albeit some surgeons and authors may express a strong personal view.

5.
JB JS Open Access ; 3(3): e0065, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533597

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of the present study was to systematically evaluate the completeness of trial registration and the extent of outcome-reporting bias in modern randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relating to the treatment of distal radial fracture. Methods: With use of 4 databases (PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, and PEDro), this systematic review identified all RCTs of distal radial fracture treatment published from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. We independently determined the registration status of these trials in a public trial registry and compared the characteristics of registered and non-registered trials. We assessed the quality and consistency of primary outcome measure (POM) reporting between the registration data and the final published studies. Results: Ninety studies met the inclusion criteria. Of those, only 28 (31%) were registered, and only 3 (3%) were "appropriately registered" (i.e., prospectively registered and identifying and fully describing the POM). Registered trials had larger sample sizes and were more likely to be multicenter, to report funding sources, and to be published in higher-impact-factor journals. Sixteen (18%) of the 90 registered RCTs named a POM in the registry; 7 (44%) of those 16 registered RCTs stated a different POM, an additional POM, or no POM at all in the final publication than was stated in the registry data. Additionally, 13 (81%) of those 16 registered RCTs had discrepancies in the time point reported for the POM. Conclusions: In an attempt to address publication and outcome-reporting bias, prospective trial registration in a public registry has been deemed a condition for publication by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2005. This study shows poor registration rates as well as inconsistencies in the reporting of POMs of recent trials relating to the treatment of distal radial fracture, one of the most common and most investigated injuries in orthopaedic practice. Clinical Relevance: The problems of registration and outcome-reporting bias in RCTs are important to highlight and address, and to find a solution will require the cooperation of researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. Increasing the transparency and consistency of reporting will help to increase the quality of research, which can impact patient care through evidence-based guidelines.

6.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e023097, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease with differing clinical presentations. Many attempts have been made to identify uniform subtypes, or phenotypes, of atopic dermatitis in order to identify different aetiologies, improve diagnosis, estimate more accurate clinical prognoses, inform treatment andmanagement or predict treatment efficacy andeffectiveness. However, no consensus yet exists on exactly what defines these phenotypes or how many there are and whether they are genuine or statistical artefacts. This review aims to identify previously reported phenotypes of atopic dermatitis, the features used to define them and any characteristics or clinical outcomes significantly associated with them. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Ovid Embase, Ovid MEDLINE and Web of Science from inception to the latest available date at the time of the search for studies attempting to classify atopic dermatitis in humans using any cross-sectional or longitudinal epidemiological or interventional design. Primary outcomes are atopic dermatitis phenotypes, features used to define them and characteristics associated with them in subsequent analyses. A secondary outcome is the methodological approach used to derive them. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, extract data and assess study quality. We will present the results of this review descriptively and with frequencies where possible. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this study as it is a systematic review. We will report results from this systematic review in a peer-reviewed journal. The main value of this study will be to inform further research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018087500.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/classificação , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Humanos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 209-227, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330676

RESUMO

Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Única , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/normas
9.
Vet Sci ; 4(4)2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165371

RESUMO

Rabbits and guinea pigs are increasingly popular pets in the UK, yet little is known about their common ailments, or how these relate to what appears in the published literature. The aim of this study was to characterise the common conditions of rabbits and guinea pigs, and to compare these with the topics found in the published literature. Information about the common conditions seen in rabbits and guinea pigs in clinical practice was obtained from a survey of UK veterinarians. The common conditions seen were compared with results from a structured literature search. Conditions relating to the dental (29.9%), and skin (37.6%) body systems were commonly nominated by veterinarians for rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. A total of 655 rabbit and 1086 guinea pig citations were examined and there appeared to be a mismatch between the conditions nominated in the veterinary questionnaire, and those found in the literature. This is the first time that the published literature has been compared to the nominated caseload of veterinarians in practice, and there is concern that the literature about rabbits and guinea pigs may not be representative of, or relevant to the caseload seen in clinical practice. This is of importance for clinicians being able to apply an objective, evidence-based approach. The publishing of clinically-relevant, research-based evidence should be prioritised.

10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 47(3): 697-710, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27691977

RESUMO

Wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii) are threatened with extinction. In order to help maintain a self-sustaining zoo population, clinicians require a sound understanding of the diseases with which they might be presented. To provide an up-to-date perspective on great ape morbidity and mortality, a systematic review of the zoological and veterinary literature of great apes from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. This is the first review of the great ape literature published since 1990 and the first-ever systematic literature review of great ape morbidity and mortality. The following databases were searched for relevant articles: CAB Abstracts, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record. A total of 189 articles reporting on the causes of morbidity and mortality among captive great apes were selected and divided into comparative morbidity-mortality studies and case reports-series or single-disease prevalence studies. The content and main findings of the morbidity-mortality studies were reviewed and the main limitations identified. The case reports-case series and single-disease prevalence studies were categorized and coded according to taxa, etiology, and body system. Subsequent analysis allowed the amount of literature coverage afforded to each category to be calculated and the main diseases and disorders reported within the literature to be identified. This review concludes that reports of idiopathic and infectious diseases along with disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal body systems were particularly prominent within the great ape literature during 1990-2014. However, recent and accurate prevalence figures are lacking and there are flaws in those reviews that do exist. There is therefore a critical need for a robust, widespread, and more up-to-date review of mortality among captive great apes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/mortalidade , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Hominidae , Animais
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 10, 2014 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wider adoption of reporting guidelines by veterinary journals could improve the quality of published veterinary research. The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge and views of veterinary Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines, identify the policies of their journals, and determine their information needs. Editors-in-Chief of 185 journals on the contact list for the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE) were surveyed in April 2012 using an online questionnaire which contained both closed and open questions. RESULTS: The response rate was 36.8% (68/185). Thirty-six of 68 editors (52.9%) stated they knew what a reporting guideline was before receiving the questionnaire. Editors said they had found out about reporting guidelines primarily through articles in other journals, via the Internet and through their own journal. Twenty of 57 respondents (35.1%) said their journal referred to reporting guidelines in its instructions to authors. CONSORT, REFLECT, and ARRIVE were the most frequently cited. Forty-four of 68 respondents (68.2%) believed that reporting guidelines should be adopted by all refereed veterinary journals. Qualitative analysis of the open questions revealed that lack of knowledge, fear, resistance to change, and difficulty in implementation were perceived as barriers to the adoption of reporting guidelines by journals. Editors suggested that reporting guidelines be promoted through communication and education of the veterinary community, with roles for the IAVE and universities. Many respondents believed a consensus policy on guideline implementation was needed for veterinary journals. CONCLUSIONS: Further communication and education about reporting guidelines for editors, authors and reviewers has the potential to increase their adoption by veterinary journals in the future.


Assuntos
Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Editoração/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Coleta de Dados , Guias como Assunto , Conhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 9: 121, 2013 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are a number of different methods that can be used when estimating the size of the owned cat and dog population in a region, leading to varying population estimates. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the methods that have been used for estimating the sizes of owned cat and dog populations and to assess the biases associated with those methods.A comprehensive, systematic search of seven electronic bibliographic databases and the Google search engine was carried out using a range of different search terms for cats, dogs and population. The inclusion criteria were that the studies had involved owned or pet domestic dogs and/or cats, provided an estimate of the size of the owned dog or cat population, collected raw data on dog and cat ownership, and analysed primary data. Data relating to study methodology were extracted and assessed for biases. RESULTS: Seven papers were included in the final analysis. Collection methods used to select participants in the included studies were: mailed surveys using a commercial list of contacts, door to door surveys, random digit dialled telephone surveys, and randomised telephone surveys using a commercial list of numbers. Analytical and statistical methods used to estimate the pet population size were: mean number of dogs/cats per household multiplied by the number of households in an area, human density multiplied by number of dogs per human, and calculations using predictors of pet ownership. CONCLUSION: The main biases of the studies included selection bias, non-response bias, measurement bias and biases associated with length of sampling time. Careful design and planning of studies is a necessity before executing a study to estimate pet populations.


Assuntos
Gatos , Cães , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Viés , Métodos Epidemiológicos/veterinária , Humanos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e58484, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23505516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many research studies have been published on atopic eczema and these are often summarised in systematic reviews (SRs). Identifying SRs can be time-consuming for health professionals, and researchers. In order to facilitate the identification of important research, we have compiled an on-line resource that includes all relevant eczema reviews published since 2000. METHODS: SRs were searched for in MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and NHS Evidence. Selected SRs were assessed against the pre-defined eligibility criteria and relevant articles were grouped by treatment category for the included interventions. All identified systematic reviews are included in the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT) database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk) and key clinical messages are summarised here. RESULTS: A total of 128 SRs reviews were identified, including three clinical guidelines. Of these, 46 (36%) were found in the Cochrane Library. No single database contained all of the SRs found. The number of SRs published per year has increased substantially over the last thirteen years, and reviews were published in a variety of clinical journals. Of the 128 SRs, 1 (1%) was on mechanism, 37 (29%) were on epidemiology, 40 (31%) were on eczema prevention, 29 (23%) were on topical treatments, 31 (24%) were on systemic treatments, and 24 (19%) were on other treatments. All SRs included searches of MEDLINE in their search methods. One hundred six SRs (83%) searched more than one electronic database. There were no language restrictions reported in the search methods of 52 of the SRs (41%). CONCLUSIONS: This mapping of atopic eczema reviews is a valuable resource. It will help healthcare practitioners, guideline writers, information specialists, and researchers to quickly identify relevant up-to-date evidence in the field for improving patient care.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Recursos em Saúde , Internet , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Software
15.
J Vet Med Educ ; 39(4): 404-12, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23187034

RESUMO

A thorough search of the literature to find the best evidence is central to the practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine. This requires knowing which databases to search to maximize journal coverage. The aim of the present study was to compare the coverage of active veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases to inform future systematic reviews and other evidence-based searches. Coverage was assessed using lists of included journals produced by the database providers. For 121 active veterinary journals in the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials, Third Edition," the percentage coverage was the highest for Scopus (98.3%) and CAB Abstracts (97.5%). For an extensive list of 1,139 journals with significant veterinary content compiled from a variety of sources, coverage was much greater in CAB Abstracts (90.2%) than in any other database, the next highest coverage being in Scopus (58.3%). The maximum coverage of the extensive journal list that could be obtained in a search without including CAB Abstracts was 69.8%. It was concluded that to maximize journal coverage and avoid missing potentially relevant evidence, CAB Abstracts should be included in any veterinary literature search.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Medicina Veterinária/normas
16.
Trials ; 11: 77, 2010 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20624287

RESUMO

In the course of producing the 2009 NHS Evidence--skin disorders Annual Evidence Update on Acne Vulgaris, 25 randomised controlled trials were examined. From these, at least 12 potentially serious problems of trial reporting were identified. Several trials concluded no effect of a treatment yet they were insufficiently powered to exclude potentially useful benefits. There were examples of duplicate publication and "salami publication", as well as two trials being combined and reported as one. In some cases, an incorrect "within-groups" statistical comparison was made and one trial report omitted original efficacy data and included only P values. Both of the non-inferiority studies examined failed to pre-specify a non-inferiority margin. Trials reported as "double-blind" compared treatments that were dissimilar in appearance or had differing adverse effect profiles. In one case an intention-to-treat analysis was not performed and there was a failure to account for all of the randomized participants. Trial results were made to sound more impressive by selective outcome reporting, emphasizing the statistical significance of treatment effects that were clinically insignificant, and by the use of larger-sounding odds ratios rather than rate ratios for common events. Most of the reporting problems could have been avoided by use of the CONSORT guidelines and prospective trial registration on a public clinical trials database.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/métodos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Padrões de Referência
17.
BMC Dermatol ; 5: 4, 2005 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15854224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper introduces the new National Library for Health Skin Conditions Specialist Library http://www.library.nhs.uk/skin. DESCRIPTION: The aims, scope and audience of the new NLH Skin Conditions Specialist Library, and the composition and functions of its core Project Team, Editorial Team and Stakeholders Group are described. The Library's collection building strategy, resource and information types, editorial policies, quality checklist, taxonomy for content indexing, organisation and navigation, and user interface are all presented in detail. The paper also explores the expected impact and utility of the new Library, as well as some possible future directions for further development. CONCLUSION: The Skin Conditions Specialist Library is not just another new Web site that dermatologists might want to add to their Internet favourites then forget about it. It is intended to be a practical, "one-stop shop" dermatology information service for everyday practical use, offering high quality, up-to-date resources, and adopting robust evidence-based and knowledge management approaches.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/educação , Internet , Bibliotecas Digitais , Bibliotecas Médicas , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Serviços de Informação/normas , Bibliotecas Digitais/normas , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Bibliotecas Médicas/normas , Reino Unido , Interface Usuário-Computador
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