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1.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.10, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717113

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of Subdoluseps herberti from southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia and S. samajaya from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo) recovers the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter. The analyses recover the three southernmost populations of S. herberti in Peninsular Malaysia as conspecific and the sister lineage of S. samajaya, whereas S. herberti from Thailand and northern Peninsular Malaysia constitute the sister species to S. samajaya plus the southern three Peninsular Malaysian populations. As such, the southern populations are described herein as S. malayana sp. nov. and all three species are referred to as the S. herberti group. Clade boundaries and breaks within this group on the Thai-Malay Peninsula occurring at the Isthmus of Kra, across the Kangar-Pattani line, and between the Thai-Malay Peninsula and Borneo are consistent with phylogeographic patterns of other Sundaic taxa. The discovery of S. malayana sp. nov. continues to underscore the fact that, despite the well-studied nature of the lizard fauna of Peninsular Malaysia, much of it still remains unrealized and for conservation efforts to move forward, field research followed by expeditiously revised taxonomies must continue.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Bornéu , Malásia , Filogenia , Tailândia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.1, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712473

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Ptychozoon lionotum group across its range in Indochina and Sundaland recovers P. lionotum sensu lato Annandale, 1905 as paraphyletic with respect to P. popaense Grismer, Wood, Thura, Grismer, Brown, Stuart, 2018a and composed of four allopatric, genetically divergent, ND2 mitochondrial lineages. Multivariate and univariate analyses of continuous and discrete morphological and color pattern characters statistically and discretely diagnose each lineage from one another and together, with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, provide the foundation for the recognition of each lineage as a new species-hypotheses corroborated with a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent species delimitation analysis. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. ranges throughout Peninsular Malaysia to Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia; P. kabkaebin sp. nov. is endemic to northern and central Laos; and P. tokehos sp. nov. ranges from southern Thailand south of the Isthmus of Kra northward to Chiang Mai, fringing the Chao Phraya Basin and ranging southward through Cambodia to southern Vietnam. Ptychozoon lionotum sensu stricto ranges from northwestern Laos through southern Myanmar to eastern India. The phylogeographic structure within each species varies considerably with P. lionotum s.s. showing no genetic divergence across its 1,100 km range compared to P. cicakterbang sp. nov. showing upwards of 8.2% sequence divergence between syntopic individuals. Significant phylogeographic structure exists within P. tokehos sp. nov. and increased sampling throughout Thailand may require additional taxonomic changes within this species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Indochina
3.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.3, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715722

RESUMO

Two new species of Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group are described from foothill areas occurring on opposite sides of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Cyrtodactylus nyinyikyawi sp. nov. from the Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary, Magway Region in the east and C. pyadalinensis sp. nov. from the Panluang-Pyadalin Wildlife Sanctuary, Shan State in the west bear unique suits of morphological and color pattern character states separating them from all species in the peguensis group. Additionally, a molecular phylogeny based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that neither species is nested within, nor sister to any known species in the group. This study augments recent and ongoing studies showing that the Ayeyarwady Basin is herpetologically more diverse than previously considered and should be incorporated into ongoing discussions concerning conservation efforts in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Cor , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4576(3): zootaxa.4576.3.4, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715749

RESUMO

Only a single known specimen of Cnemaspis timoriensis (Duméril Bibron, 1836) exists, the holotype in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France. Purportedly collected by Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré in the year 1818 on Timor Island in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago during the circumnavigation of the globe by the vessel L'Uranie, intensive research on Timor has failed to produce additional specimens or any similarly appointed gecko. Using a series of detailed morphological comparisons, we provide irrefutable evidence that the animal in question is not a member of Cnemaspis but of the neotropical genus Gonatodes. Furthermore, we ascertained that C. timoriensis is conspecific with G. humeralis, a widely distributed South American species. We also show that a specimen labeled with the timoriensis name in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany is not conspecific and not part of a type series. While the taxon name timoriensis has nomenclatural priority over the two-decades-younger name humeralis, usage would dictate that to preserve the nomenclatural stability of neotropical geckos the junior synonym should be retained. An application to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to this effect is in preparation.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Austrália , Berlim , França , Alemanha , Indonésia , Ilhas , Paris
5.
Zootaxa ; 4683(3): zootaxa.4683.3.4, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715918

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species-S. preylangensis sp. nov.-is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Camboja , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia , Vietnã
6.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.1, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716208

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Cyrtodactylus linnwayensis group of the Shan Plateau recovered two new populations from isolated karst habitats near Pinlaung Town, Shan State as a new species, C. pinlaungensis sp. nov. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. is most closely related to a clade comprising C. linnwayensis and C. ywanganensis from the western edge of the Shan Plateau approximately 90 km to the northwest. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all members of the C. linnwayensis group by a number of statistically different morphological characters, discrete color pattern differences, and its heavy tuberculation. It also bears an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 5.0-7.6% from all other species combined based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs. The discovery of this new species on the Shan Plateau continues to underscore the fact that this region is rapidly emerging as a herpetological diversity hot-spot for Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.1, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716271

RESUMO

A herpetological survey of the Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary in Kachin State, Myanmar resulted in the discovery of a new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray along the eastern watershed of the Mokso Mountains. An integrative taxonomic analysis based on the mitochondrial ND2 gene, morphology, and color pattern recovered this new species, Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov., as the sister taxon to an undescribed species from Miao, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered notable genetically divergent (4.7%) phylogeographic structure between northern and southern populations of C. mombergi sp. nov. across only 14 km of continuous habitat. Conversely, genetic divergence did not exceed 9.2% between C. mombergi sp. nov. and the undescribed species from Miao from across 355 km of habitat. Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov. belongs to a well-supported, mitochondrial clade of 18 other species which now compose an expanded and redefined C. gansi group. Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov. is only the third species of Bent-toed Gecko reported from Kachin State and indicates that additional herpetological surveys are needed in unexplored forested areas.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Florestas , Índia , Mianmar , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.3, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716638

RESUMO

A new species of limestone karst-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. dayangbuntingensis sp. nov., is described from Dayang Bunting Island of the Langkawi Archipelago off the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is the third species of the group to be described from the archipelago after C. langkawiensis and C. macrotuberculatus. The new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. This discovery underscores the need for continued surveys of the many islands in the archipelago to properly ascertain its true herpetological diversity.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4656(3): zootaxa.4656.3.7, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716814

RESUMO

We describe a cryptic new species of gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch from the southern Western Ghats of Kerala. This medium-sized Cnemaspis species is differentiated from all other Indian congeners by a suite of the following distinct morphological characters: heterogeneous mid-dorsal scales, 6-7 supralabials; 113-120 paravertebral rows of tubercles; 71-85 mid-dorsal scales; absence of spine-like tubercles on flanks; subimbricate, smooth ventral scales; 135-140 mid-ventral scales; subdigital lamellae under fourth digit of manus 23-25; subdigital lamellae under fourth digit of pes 24-25; males with 7-8 precloacal pores; median row of subcaudals enlarged, smooth, a series of two large scales alternating, containing one divided scale; head and neck colouration brownish-yellow, consistent in adult males; adult females with orange coloured head and neck. Recent new descriptions of Cnemaspis species together with the present discovery show that the southern Western Ghats species have been overlooked by previous studies. Therefore we suggest further studies to evaluate the diversity of Cnemaspis in this region.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , , Cabeça , Índia , Masculino , Coluna Vertebral
10.
Zootaxa ; 4656(3): zootaxa.4656.3.11, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716818

RESUMO

A new species of Ansonia is described from the Shan Plateau of Myanmar based on an integrative taxonomic analysis that differentiates it from all other congeners. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNA-val recover A. kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. as the sister species to A. inthanon from Thailand but differs from it and other congeners by at least a 5.0% sequence divergence. It is further differentiated by the following combination of morphological characters: (1) maximum SVL 24 mm in males and females; (2) first finger shorter than second; (3) absence of interorbital and tarsal ridges; (4) presence of light-coloured interscapular spot; (5) presence of yellow rictal tubercle; (6) absence of wide, light-coloured patch below eye; (7) presence of large, discrete, bright-yellow submandibular spots along the underside of lower jaw; (8) iris yellow-gold; (9) presence of markings on the snout consisting of streaks below the eye to the lip, and on the canthus rostralis to the nostril; (10) dorsum grey-brown with orange-beige spots, a dark-brown X-shaped marking on the back surrounding the interscapular spot, and dark-coloured markings on rump; (11) fore- and hind limbs with orange-beige cross-bars; and (12) venter light-gray with yellow spotting, especially near flanks and underside of hind limbs. Ansonia kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. is the westernmost known record for the genus and the only species west of the Salween Basin. Its discovery echoes the increasing number of herpetological discoveries being made in upland regions fringing the Ayeyarwady and Salween Basins.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mianmar , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4646(3): zootaxa.4646.3.4, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717003

RESUMO

A review of the taxonomic status of the Smooth Slug Snake (Asthenodipsas laevis) in Borneo resulted in the discovery of two previously unrecognised species from the highlands of Sabah, East Malaysia. Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi sp. nov. and A. stuebingi sp. nov. are presumed to be closely related to A. laevis based on similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from A. laevis by their dorsal scale rows of 15/15/15 vs 15/15/13 and the presence of a sharp vertebral keel. Asthenodipsas jamilinaisi sp. nov. can be further differentiated from A. stuebingi sp. nov. by the greatly enlarged size of the vertebral scales, higher number of ventrals in males (173-175 vs 165), higher number of subcaudals (53 vs 35-47) and colour pattern (dark overall with indistinct bands vs lighter head and body with clear, distinct bands and a dark neck patch). The discovery highlights the need for more careful examination of much of the herpetofauna of Borneo that still remains underestimated and understudied. There is an urgent need for continued surveys into its diversity and the collection of genetic material for integrated taxonomic revisions.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Bornéu , Malásia , Masculino
12.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 95, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that Bayesian species delimitation based on the multispecies coalescent model can produce inaccurate results by misinterpreting population splits as species divergences. An approach based on the genealogical divergence index (gdi) was shown to be a viable alternative, especially for delimiting allopatric populations where gene flow is low. We implemented these analyses to assess species boundaries in Southeast Asian toads, a group that is understudied and characterized by numerous unresolved species complexes. RESULTS: Multilocus phylogenetic analyses showed that deep evolutionary relationships including the genera Sigalegalephrynus, Ghatophryne, Parapelophryne, Leptophryne, Pseudobufo, Rentapia, and Phrynoides remain unresolved. Comparison of genetic divergences revealed that intraspecific divergences among allopatric populations of Pelophyrne signata (Borneo vs. Peninsular Malaysia), Ingerophrynus parvus (Peninsular Malaysia vs. Myanmar), and Leptophryne borbonica (Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, and Sumatra) are consistent with interspecific divergences of other Southeast Asian bufonid taxa. Conversely, interspecific divergences between Pelophryne guentheri/P. api, Ansonia latiffi/A. leptopus, and I. gollum/I. divergens were low (< 3%) and consistent with intraspecific divergences of other closely related taxa. The BPP analysis produced variable results depending on prior settings and priors estimated from empirical data produced the best results that were also congruent with the gdi analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the evolutionary history of Southeast Asian toads is difficult to resolve and numerous relationships remain ambiguous. Although some results from the species delimitation analyses were inconclusive, they were nevertheless efficacious at identifying potential new species and taxonomic incompatibilities for future in-depth investigation. We also demonstrated the sensitivity of BPP to different priors and that careful selection priors based on empirical data can greatly improve the analysis. Finally, the gdi can be a robust tool to complement other species delimitation methods.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/classificação , Bufonidae/genética , Loci Gênicos , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Fluxo Gênico , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Zootaxa ; 4545(2): 230-248, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790898

RESUMO

Since the book-formatted, monographic treatment of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent islands by Grismer (2011), 47 additional species have been added to that fauna bringing the total to 174. One species, Cyrtodactylus stresemanni, was removed from the lizard fauna based on its likely mislabeled type locality; 44 species were described as new-29 gekkonids, 11 scincids, five agamids, and one dibamid; and three others, Cnemaspis narathiwatensis, Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus, and Scincella melanosticta were recently discovered in northern Peninsular Malaysia. Taxonomic changes for seven previously described species occurring after 2011 are noted and significant, new locality records are documented here for additional species. The intent of this review is to provide an up to date peer-reviewed checklist for the lizard species of this region prior to a pending updated book monograph.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ilhas , Malásia , Singapura
14.
Zootaxa ; 4554(1): 1-62, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790979

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis using color pattern, morphology, and 1449 base pairs of the ND2 mitochondrial gene and its five flanking tRNAs demonstrated that eight species-level lineages occur within the Cyrtodactylus intermedius complex (Cyrtodactylus intermedius sensu stricto, C. phuquocensis and related populations) of the Cardamom mountains and associated highlands that have a sequence divergence ranging 3.4-8.9%. Additionally, each lineage is discretely diagnosable from one another based on morphology and color pattern and most occur in specific geographic regions (upland areas, karst formations or islands) that prevent or greatly restrict interpopulation gene flow. Six of these lineages were masquerading under the nomen C. intermedius and are described as the following: Cyrtodactylus auralensis sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Aural, the highest mountain in Cambodia; C. bokorensis sp. nov. endemic to the Bokor Plateau, Cambodia; C. cardamomensis sp. nov. from the main block of the Cardamom mountains; C. thylacodactylus sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Dalai the northernmost peak of the Cardamom mountains; C. laangensis sp. nov. endemic to the Phnom Laang karst formation, Cambodia; and C. septimontium sp. nov. from the Bay Núi Hills of southwest Vietnam.


Assuntos
Elettaria , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Camboja , Filogenia , Vietnã
15.
Zootaxa ; 4514(1): 53-64, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485952

RESUMO

The taxonomic position of the rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray to other species of homalopsids has remained uncertain due to the scarcity of specimens in collections and the lack of genetic material for comparison. Here we report the first molecular phylogenetic examination of this species based on recently acquired material. The study recovered R. indica nested within the clade of advanced, fanged homalopsids and the sister species to Erpeton tentaculatus Lácèpede. We also present notes on variation observed in the new specimens as well as range extensions for the species.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Filogenia , Animais , Malásia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4500(4): 553-573, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486050

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis of a monophyletic subgroup of the salamandrid genus Tylototriton revealed that a newly discovered population from Ngar Su Village, 1 km south of Ywangan, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species and most closely related to T. shanorum from approximately 80 km to the west in the vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan State. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. differs from other closely related species of Tylototriton on basis of varying combinations of characteristics associated with it shorter head, larger size, rib nodule morphology, and overall drab, very dark, coloration, along with its genetic differentiation. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. also appears to breed later in the year than most other species. Unfortunately, this species like many other Asian newts, is being harvested for the pet and medicinal trade and given its restricted distribution, this could pose a serious threat to its long-term survival.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Filogenia , Animais , Mianmar , Salamandridae
17.
Zootaxa ; 4514(2): 202-214, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486214

RESUMO

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parachute Geckos (Genus Ptychozoon Kuhl van Hasselt, 1822) based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that a newly discovered population from the Mt. Popa volcano-a habitat island in the northern portion of the Bago Yoma mountains, Myanmar-is a new species, P. popaense sp. nov. This species is part of a clade that contains P. bannanense Wang, Wang, Liu, 2016 and P. lionotum Annandale, 1905 of Indochina. Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to its sister species P. lionotum  which manifests considerable geographic substructuring of genetic variation but differs from the nominate taxon by an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 16.0-17.1% and by discrete differences in morphology and color pattern. This discovery highlights the unique, insular nature of the Bago Yoma mountains of the Ayeyarwady Basin, which support other endemic gekkonids. It also underscores the growing diversity in this highly derived clade of cryptic, parachuting, geckos characterized by highly divergent genetic lineages, which may indicate the presence of additional, unrecognized species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Mianmar
18.
Zootaxa ; 4438(3): 528-550, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313134

RESUMO

A reassessment of the taxonomy of Lygosoma bampfyldei based on morphology and color pattern indicates that it is a species complex containing L. bampfyldei Bartlett, 1895 from the Rajang River, Sarawak and Croker Range, Sabah in East Malaysia; L. peninsulare sp. nov. from Bukit Larut, Perak and 13.5 km east of Jeli, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia; L. kinabatanganensis sp. nov. from the Kinabatangan District, Deramakot camp (=Deramakot Sabah Forestry Department), Sabah, East Malaysia; and L. schneideri Werner, 1900 from Djapura, Indragiri, Sumatra, Indonesia-resurrected herein from the synonymy of L. bampfyldei. The new taxonomy aligns itself well with a growing body of literature demonstrating that semi-fossorial and fossorial Sundaic skinks are more diverse than previously considered.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Bornéu , Cor , Indonésia , Malásia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4434(2): 250-264, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313185

RESUMO

Previously, only one species of torrent frog (Amolops larutensis) was thought to occur throughout Peninsular Malaysia. However, genomic work has demonstrated that populations from eastern Peninsular Malaysia form two separate lineages that are genetically distinct from A. larutensis that is now restricted to the western half of Peninsular Malaysia. This study demonstrates that all three lineages can be morphologically distinguished from each other, thereby providing additional support for the recognition of the eastern lineages as two distinct species. These lineages are described herein as Amolops gerutu sp. nov. from the eastern states of Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang, and A. australis sp. nov. from the southern-most state of Johor. In general, these two new species form a clade that is sister to A. larutensis and can be readily distinguished from it by having: (1) considerably denser and more pronounced dorsal tubercles, and (2) the posterodorsal surface of thighs having dense, dark stippling as opposed to broad vermiculations. Although differences in other morphometric characters were detected, their utility as diagnostic characters should be applied with caution due to the large intraspecific variation that overlaps among different species in many of the characters we measured. As such, we advocate for the use of tuberculation and pattern of the posterodorsal portion of the thighs as primary diagnostic characters. These characters can readily distinguish A. larutensis from the two new species. To differentiate A. australis sp. nov. from A. gerutu sp. nov. and A. larutensis, body size can be a good diagnostic character as A. australis sp. nov. is significantly smaller in both males (mean = 31.04 ± 1.59 mm) and females (mean = 46.48 ± 3.2 mm). Additionally, we show a strong positive correlation between body size and elevation, with populations from montane forests (>900 m asl) being considerably larger than populations at lower elevations.


Assuntos
Ranidae , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Florestas , Malásia , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4472(2): 365-374, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313374

RESUMO

The Sundaic swamp clade of the genus Cyrtodactylus contains nine species that collectively range through Peninsular Malaysia and its associated land bridge islands, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, and Pulau Natuna Besar. Ancestral range reconstruction analyses using BioGeoBEARS based on an updated molecular phylogeny of the nine Sundaic swamp clade species of Cyrtodactylus demonstrated that this lineage evolved in Peninsular Malaysia, dispersed independently to Sumatra and Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia and most likely back into Peninsular Malaysia from Sumatra. This scenario is consistent with climate-driven, cyclical, ephemeral, geographic reconfigurations of Sundaic landmasses from at least the mid-Miocene to present.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Indonésia , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia , Singapura , Áreas Alagadas
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