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1.
Zootaxa ; 4867(1): zootaxa.4867.1.1, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311201

RESUMO

The Chinese bees of the genus Anthidium Fabricius, 1804, are reviewed. Twenty-one species are confirmed to occur in China, five of which are described and illustrated as new Chinese endemics: Anthidium (Anthidium) pseudomontanum Niu Zhu, sp. nov., A. (A.) pseudophilorum Niu Zhu, sp. nov., A. (A.) tasitiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov., A. (A.) xuezhongi Niu Zhu, sp. nov., and A. (Proanthidium) qingtaoi Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. The previously unknown female of A. (A.) kashmirense Mavromoustakis, 1937 and male of A. (P.) kashgarense (Cockerell, 1911) are described for the first time. Anthidium (A.) furcatum Wu, 2004 (junior primary homonym, nec Anthidium furcatum Ducke, 1908) is replaced with its valid and available synonym A. (A.) striatum Wu, 2004. New synonymies are also established for A. (A.) kashmirense Mavromoustakis, 1937 = A. (A.) nigroventrale Wu, 1982, syn. nov., and A. (A.) florentinum (Fabricius, 1775) = A. (A.) helianthinum Wu, 2004, syn. nov. The non-Chinese Anthidium amabile Alfken, 1933 (junior primary homonym, nec Anthidium porterae var. amabile Cockerell, 1904) is unavailable and the available name Anthidium (Proanthidium) minimum Pasteels, 1969, is valid for this species. Updated synonymies and distributional data are provided for some widespread Palaearctic species including two now adventive in the New World. For Chinese species, the distribution and floral associations of each are provided along with illustrations and a key to the known species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China , Feminino , Masculino
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179746

RESUMO

Incongruence among phylogenetic results has become a common occurrence in analyses of genome-scale data sets. Incongruence originates from uncertainty in underlying evolutionary processes (e.g. incomplete lineage sorting) and from difficulties in determining the best analytical approaches for each situation. To overcome these difficulties, more studies are needed that identify incongruences and demonstrate practical ways to confidently resolve them. Here we present results of a phylogenomic study based on the analysis 197 taxa and 2,526 Ultraconserved Element (UCE) loci. We investigate evolutionary relationships of Eucerinae, a diverse subfamily of apid bees (relatives of honey bees and bumble bees) with more than 1,200 species. We sampled representatives of all tribes within the group and more than 80% of genera, including two mysterious South American genera, Chilimalopsis and Teratognatha. Initial analysis of the UCE data revealed two conflicting hypotheses for relationships among tribes. To resolve the incongruence, we tested concatenation and species tree approaches and used a variety of additional strategies including locus filtering, partitioned gene-trees searches, and gene-based topological tests. We show that within-locus partitioning improves gene-tree and subsequent species-tree estimation, and that this approach, confidently resolves the incongruence observed in our data set. After exploring our proposed analytical strategy on eucerine bees, we validated its efficacy to resolve hard phylogenetic problems by implementing it on a published UCE data set of Adephaga (Insecta: Coleoptera). Our results provide a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for Eucerinae and demonstrate a practical strategy for resolving incongruence in other phylogenomic data sets.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16400, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009441

RESUMO

Landscape-scale bark beetle outbreaks alter forest structure with direct and indirect effects on plants and animals in forest ecosystems. Using alpine spruce forest and a native bee community as a study system, we tested how tree mortality from bark beetles impacts bee foraging habitats and populations. Bees were collected across the growing season (early-, middle-, and late-season) for two years using passive trapping methods, and collections were used to analyze patterns in species abundances and diversity. Three important findings emerged: (1) forest stands that were post-outbreak had 62% higher floral density and 68% more floral species during peak bloom, respectively, than non-affected stands; (2) bee captures were highest early-season (June) and were not strongly affected by bark beetle outbreak; however, mean number of bee species and Shannon-Weiner diversity were significantly higher in post-outbreak stands and this effect was pronounced early in the growing season. Corresponding analysis of ß-diversity indicated higher accumulation of bee biodiversity in post-outbreak stands and a turnover in the ratio of Bombus: Osmia; (3) bee captures were linked to variation in foraging habitat, but number of bee species and diversity were more strongly predicted by forest structure. Our results provide evidence of increased alpine bee biodiversity in post-outbreak stands and increased availability of floral resources. We conclude that large-scale disturbance from bark beetle outbreaks may drive shifts in pollinator community composition through cascading effects on floral resources, mediated via mortality of overstory trees.

4.
Ecol Lett ; 23(11): 1589-1598, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812695

RESUMO

Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using generalised additive models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over 9 years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the first community-wide quantification of the drivers of bee phenology. Bee emergence was sensitive to climatic variation, advancing with earlier snowmelt timing, whereas later phenophases were best explained by functional traits including overwintering stage and nest location. Comparison of these findings to a long-term flower study showed that bee phenology is less sensitive than flower phenology to climatic variation, indicating potential for reduced synchrony of flowers and pollinators under climate change.

5.
Biodivers Data J ; 8: e49285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292276

RESUMO

Background: Here we present a checklist of the bee species found on the C. Hart Merriam elevation gradient along the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Elevational gradients can serve as natural proxies for climate change, replacing time with space as they span multiple vegetation zones over a short geographic distance. Describing the distribution of bee species along this elevation gradient will help predict how bee communities might respond to changing climate. To address this, we initiated an inventory associated with ecological studies on pollinators that documented bees on the San Francisco Peaks. Sample sites spanned six life zones (vegetation zones) on the San Francisco Peaks from 2009 to 2019. We also include occurrence data from other studies, gathered by querying the Symbiota Collection of Arthropods Network (SCAN) portal covering the San Francisco Peaks region (hereafter referred to as "the Peaks"). New information: Our checklist reports 359 bee species and morphospecies spanning five families and 46 genera that have been collected in the Peaks region. Prior to our concerted sampling effort there were records for 155 bee species, yet there has not been a complete list of bee species inhabiting the Peaks published to date. Over a 10-year period, we documented an additional 204 bee species inhabiting the Peaks. Our study documents range expansions to northern Arizona for 15 species. The majority of these are range expansions from either southern Arizona, southern Utah, or the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado. Nine species are new records for Arizona, four of which are the southernmost record for that species. An additional 15 species are likely undescribed.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 708, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959812

RESUMO

Drylands worldwide are experiencing ecosystem state transitions: the expansion of some ecosystem types at the expense of others. Bees in drylands are particularly abundant and diverse, with potential for large compositional differences and seasonal turnover across ecotones. To better understand how future ecosystem state transitions may influence bees, we compared bee assemblages and their seasonality among sites at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA) that represent three dryland ecosystem types (and two ecotones) of the southwestern U.S. (Plains grassland, Chihuahuan Desert grassland, and Chihuahuan Desert shrubland). Using passive traps, we caught bees during two-week intervals from March-October, 2002-2014. The resulting dataset included 302 bee species and 56 genera. Bee abundance, composition, and diversity differed among ecosystems, indicating that future state transitions could alter bee assemblage composition in our system. We found strong seasonal bee species turnover, suggesting that bee phenological shifts may accompany state transitions. Common species drove the observed trends, and both specialist and generalist bee species were indicators of ecosystem types or months; these species could be sentinels of community-wide responses to future shifts. Our work suggests that predicting the consequences of global change for bee assemblages requires accounting for both within-year and among-ecosystem variation.

7.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.3, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716797

RESUMO

This revision of the bee genus Bathanthidium Mavromoustakis, 1953, treats 12 species, with 11 recorded from China, including Bathanthidium fengkaiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. Two species are proposed as new combinations in genus Bathanthidium: Anthidium (s. str.) bicolor Wu, 2004, A. (s. str.) monganshanensis Wu, 2004. The two new combinations (B. bicolor, B. monganshanense) are in Bathanthidium (Manthidium), previously considered to include only the type species from Burma and Laos (published records from northeastern India and Malaysia are based on misinterpreted localities). Trachusa (Paraanthidium) concavum (Wu, 1962) and Stelis siamensis Friese, 1925 are synonymized with B. binghami (Friese, 1901). Bathanthidium circinatum Wu, 2004 is transferred to Pseudoanthidium Friese forming the new combination P. (s. str.) circinatum (Wu, 2004). The distribution of each species is given, new distribution sites are marked by asterisk (*) especially. Our results confirm that the genus Bathanthidium has higher species diversity than previously documented and that this diversity is centered in China.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China , Índia , Laos , Malásia , Mianmar
8.
Zootaxa ; 4646(2): zootaxa.4646.2.3, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717014

RESUMO

The Chinese bees of the genus Trachusa Panzer, 1804 are reviewed. Nine species are confirmed to occur in China. Three new species are described and illustrated: Trachusa (Paraanthidium) pingdaensis Niu, sp. nov., T. (P.) staabi Niu, sp. nov. and T. (P.) wuae Niu, sp. nov. The distribution of each species is given. An illustrated key to the Chinese species is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China
9.
Biodivers Data J ; (7): e30062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728742

RESUMO

Background: Over three years (2013-2015), we sampled bees using nets and bowl traps on four diversified vegetable farms in Gallatin County, Montana, USA, as part of a study evaluating the use of wildflower strips for supporting wild bees and crop pollination services on farmlands (Delphia et al. In prep). We document 202 species and morphospecies from 32 genera within five families, of which 25 species represent the first published state records for Montana. This study increases our overall understanding of the distribution of wild bee species associated with agroecosystems of the northern US Rockies, which is important for efforts aimed at conserving bee biodiversity and supporting sustainable crop pollination systems on farmlands. New information: We provide a species list of wild bees associated with diversified farmlands in Montana and increase the number of published bee species records in the state from 374 to at least 399. The list includes new distributional records for 25 wild bee species, including two species that represent considerable expansions of their known ranges, Lasioglossum (Dialictus) clematisellum (Cockerell 1904) with previously published records from New Mexico, Arizona, California and Utah and Melissodes (Eumelissodes) niveus Robertson 1895 which was reported to range from New York to Minnesota and Kansas, south to North Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0207566, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653514

RESUMO

Thousands of species of bees are in global decline, yet research addressing the ecology and status of these wild pollinators lags far behind work being done to address similar impacts on the managed honey bee. This knowledge gap is especially glaring in natural areas, despite knowledge that protected habitats harbor and export diverse bee communities into nearby croplands where their pollination services have been valued at over $3 billion per year. Surrounded by ranches and farmlands, Pinnacles National Park in the Inner South Coast Range of California contains intact Mediterranean chaparral shrubland. This habitat type is among the most valuable for bee biodiversity worldwide, as well as one of the most vulnerable to agricultural conversion, urbanization and climate change. Pinnacles National Park is also one of a very few locations where extensive native bee inventory efforts have been repeated over time. This park thus presents a valuable and rare opportunity to monitor long-term trends and baseline variability of native bees in natural habitats. Fifteen years after a species inventory marked Pinnacles as a biodiversity hotspot for native bees, we resurveyed these native bee communities over two flowering seasons using a systematic, plot-based design. Combining results, we report a total of 450 bee species within this 109km2 natural area of California, including 48 new species records as of 2012 and 95 species not seen since 1999. As far as we are aware, this species richness marks Pinnacles National Park as one of the most densely diverse places known for native bees. We explore patterns of bee diversity across this protected landscape, compare results to other surveyed natural areas, and highlight the need for additional repeated inventories in protected areas over time amid widespread concerns of bee declines.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Parques Recreativos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Animais , California , Geografia , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Zootaxa ; 4511(1): 1-193, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486225

RESUMO

Anthophora (Micranthophora) comprises the largest subgenus of Anthophora in the Western Hemisphere, with 26 species. Though previously synonymized with the Anthophora (Heliophila), A. (Micranthophora) is here confirmed as a subgenus, morphological and multi-gene molecular phylogenetic evidence refute this and the synonymy of A. (Micranthophora) to A. (Heliophila) is formally rejected. Characters for (Micranthophora) are given and a key to species is provided. Seven new species are described: Anthophora (Micranthophora) caudata Orr, sp. nov.; Anthophora (Micranthophora) chihuahua Orr, sp. nov.; Anthophora (Micranthophora) escalante Orr, sp. nov.; Anthophora (Micranthophora) parkeri Orr, sp. nov.; Anthophora (Micranthophora) rara Orr, sp. nov.; Anthophora (Micranthophora) striata Orr, sp. nov.; and Anthophora (Micranthophora) timberlakei Orr, sp. nov. Further, four new synonyms are enacted: A. arthuri and A. flexipes to A. albata, A. nigritula to A. exigua, and A. xanthochlora to A. pachyodonta. Distributional and phenological data, as well as known details of nesting biology and floral specialization, are provided. Future research directions and species of potential conservation interest are also discussed.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Filogenia , Animais , Abelhas , Biologia
12.
Biodivers Data J ; (6): e27161, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425605

RESUMO

Background: Wild bees that were collected in conjunction with a larger study are presented as a checklist of species for the Northern Rockies Ecoregion of Montana, USA. Over the course of four field seasons (2013-2016), 281 species and morphospecies in 32 genera and five families were collected using insect nets, and identified. This paper addresses the distinct lack of studies monitoring bee species in Montana and contributes to a basic understanding of fauna in the northern Rocky Mountains. New information: With this study, the number of known bee species in Montana increases by at least six species, from 366 (Kuhlman and Burrows 2017) to 372. Though literature was not reviewed for all the species on this checklist, published records in Montana revealed no listings for Andrena saccata Viereck; Anthidiellum notatum robertsoni (Cockerell); Ashmeadiella meliloti (Cockerell); Ashmeadiella pronitens (Cockerell); Colletes lutzi lutzi Timberlake; and Dioxys productus (Cresson).

13.
PeerJ ; 6: e5867, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425889

RESUMO

Interest in bees has grown dramatically in recent years in light of several studies that have reported widespread declines in bees and other pollinators. Investigating declines in wild bees can be difficult, however, due to the lack of faunal surveys that provide baseline data of bee richness and diversity. Protected lands such as national monuments and national parks can provide unique opportunities to learn about and monitor bee populations dynamics in a natural setting because the opportunity for large-scale changes to the landscape are reduced compared to unprotected lands. Here we report on a 4-year study of bees in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (GSENM), found in southern Utah, USA. Using opportunistic collecting and a series of standardized plots, we collected bees throughout the six-month flowering season for four consecutive years. In total, 660 bee species are now known from the area, across 55 genera, and including 49 new species. Two genera not previously known to occur in the state of Utah were discovered, as well as 16 new species records for the state. Bees include ground-nesters, cavity- and twig-nesters, cleptoparasites, narrow specialists, generalists, solitary, and social species. The bee fauna reached peak diversity each spring, but also experienced a second peak in diversity in late summer, following monsoonal rains. The majority of GSENM's bees are highly localized, occurring in only a few locations throughout the monument, and often in low abundance, but consistently across the four years. Only a few species are widespread and super-abundant. Certain flowering plants appear to be inordinately attractive to the bees in GSENM, including several invasive species. GSENM protects one of the richest bee faunas in the west; the large elevational gradient, incredible number of flowering plants, and the mosaic of habitats are all likely contributors to this rich assemblage of bees.

14.
Zootaxa ; 4450(1): 26-40, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313855

RESUMO

The Afrotropical bee genus Cyphanthidium Pasteels is revised. It comprises four species. Cyphanthidium gessorum, new species, and Cyphanthidium whiteheadi, new species, are described as well as the previously unknown female of Cyphanthidium intermedium. A key for identifying the species is given. Supplemental information is provided on the recently published revisions of Serapista and Plesianthidium.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Animais , Feminino
15.
Biodivers Data J ; (6): e25230, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853776

RESUMO

Background: The native bee fauna of Mississippi, USA has been historically poorly sampled, but is of particular relevance to determine range limits for species that occur in the southern United States. Currently published literature includes 184 species of bees that occur within the state of Mississippi. Additions to the list of native bees known for Mississippi are reported with notes on range, ecology and resources for identification. New information: The geographic ranges of seven additional species are extended into the state of Mississippi: Andrena (Melandrena) obscuripennis Smith, 1853, Anthemurgus passiflorae Robertson, 1902, Dieunomia bolliana (Cockerell 1910), Diadasia (Diadasia) enavata (Cresson 1872), Peponapis crassidentata (Cockerell 1949), Triepeolus subnitens Cockerell and Timberlake, 1929 and Brachynomada nimia (Snelling and Rozen 1987). These records raise the total number of published species known from the state to 191. Anthemurgus and Brachynomada are also genera new to Mississippi.

16.
Biodivers Data J ; (6): e24071, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773960

RESUMO

Background: Here we present the results from a two-year bee survey conducted on 18 managed emergent wetlands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas, USA. Sample methods included pan traps, sweep netting and blue-vane traps. We document 83 bee species and morphospecies in 5 families and 31 genera, of which 37 species represent first published state records for Arkansas. The majority of species were opportunistic wetland species; only a small number were wetland-dependent species or species largely restricted to alluvial plains. New information: We present new distributional records for bee species not previously recorded in managed emergent wetlands and report specimens of thirty-seven species for which no published Arkansas records exist, expanding the known ranges of Ceratina cockerelli, Diadasia enavata, Lasioglossum creberrimum, Svastra cressonii and Dieunomia triangulifera. We also distinguish opportunistic wetland bee species from wetland-dependent and alluvial plain-restricted species.

17.
Zootaxa ; 4370(3): 279-282, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689848

RESUMO

The little known osmiine genus Stenoheriades Cockerell, previously thought to be restricted to the Afrotropics, the Mediterranean region, and the Arabian Peninsula, is here recorded from tropical Asia in the form of S. bifida, new species. This disjunct distribution adds to a growing list of endemic megachilids in southern India. The new species exhibits novel morphologies in the Megachilidae that also distinguish it from previously known species groups in Stenoheriades.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Arábia , Ásia , Abelhas , Índia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4337(1): 1-37, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242429

RESUMO

The eleven species of the North American subgenus Osmia (Diceratomsia) are revised, four of which are new: Osmia (Diceratosmia) exquisita, n. sp., from Honduras; Osmia (Diceratomia) gonzalezi, n. sp., and Osmia (Diceratomia) spinulifera, n. sp., from Mexico; and Osmia (Diceratomsia) lacunosa, n. sp., from the Bahamas. Diagnoses for the remaining seven species and a key to the males and females of all species are provided. We newly designate a neotype for Osmia botitena Cockerell, junior synonym of Osmia subfasciata Cresson, and remove from synonymy Osmia marilaunidii Cockerell, new status. In addition, we review the known nesting biology, floral hosts, and geographic range of each species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Bahamas , Abelhas , Biologia , Feminino , Honduras , Masculino , México
19.
Zootaxa ; 4358(2): 351-364, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245474

RESUMO

Haetosmia is a species-poor genus of osmiine bees (Megachilidae) containing six species, which inhabit deserts and semideserts from the Canary Islands to Central Asia. Formerly considered to be restricted to the southern Palaearctic region, the genus is shown here to occur also in the northern Afrotropical region. The females of all six Haetosmia species collect pollen from the narrow-tubed flowers of Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) with the aid of specialized pollen-harvesting bristles on the proboscis. Current knowledge suggests that Haetosmia species are restricted to sandy habitats, excavate their nests in the ground and use chewed leaves to construct their urn-shaped brood cells, which are placed side by side in an enlarged chamber at the end of the nesting burrow. The taxonomic revision of Haetosmia revealed the existence of two undescribed species, H. ethiopiensis spec. nov. from eastern Africa and H. pakistaniensis spec. nov. from Pakistan. Due to clear morphological gaps and overlapping distribution area with the nominotypical subspecies, H. brachyura altera (Peters 1974) is elevated to species rank. Keys for the identification of the six Haetosmia species are provided.


Assuntos
Abelhas , África Oriental , Animais , Feminino , Paquistão , Pólen , Espanha
20.
Zookeys ; (712): 87-111, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134037

RESUMO

A systematic study of Perdita subgenus Procockerellia Timberlake and the related subgenus Allomacrotera Timberlake results in the synonymy of the latter with the former, and two specific synonymies: Perdita (Hexaperdita) glamis Timberlake is a junior synonym of Perdita (Procockerellia) stephanomeriae Timberlake, while Perdita (Procockerellia) brachyglossa Timberlake is a junior synonym of Perdita (Cockerellia) imbellis Timberlake. Perdita (Procockerellia) moldenkei Timberlake is moved to subgenus Cockerellia Ashmead. A revised subgeneric diagnosis and key to the three included species are provided. Diagnoses of species are updated with novel characters; distributions and biological data are expanded. A gynandromorph of P. (Procockerellia) moabensis Timberlake, the first known in the genus Perdita, is reported.

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