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1.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 7, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, the built environment emerged as a conceptually important determinant of obesity. As a result, an abundance of studies aiming to link environmental characteristics to weight-related outcomes have been published, and multiple reviews have attempted to summarise these studies under different scopes and domains. We set out to summarise the accumulated evidence across domains by conducting a review of systematic reviews on associations between any aspect of the built environment and overweight or obesity. METHODS: Seven databases were searched for eligible publications from the year 2000 onwards. We included systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses and pooled analyses of observational studies in the form of cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal cohort, ecological, descriptive, intervention studies and natural experiments. We assessed risk of bias and summarised results structured by built environmental themes such as food environment, physical activity environment, urban-rural disparity, socioeconomic status and air pollution. RESULTS: From 1850 initial hits, 32 systematic reviews were included, most of which reported equivocal evidence for associations. For food- and physical activity environments, associations were generally very small or absent, although some characteristics within these domains were consistently associated with weight status such as fast-food exposure, urbanisation, land use mix and urban sprawl. Risks of bias were predominantly high. CONCLUSIONS: Thus far, while most studies have not been able to confirm the assumed influence of built environments on weight, there is evidence for some obesogenic environmental characteristics. Registration: This umbrella review was registered on PROSPERO under ID CRD42019135857.

2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 30, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular health index (CVHI) introduced by the American Heart Association is a valid, accessible, simple, and translatable metric for monitoring cardiovascular health in a population. Components of the CVHI include the following seven cardiovascular risk factors (often captured as life's simple 7): smoking, dietary intake, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, and total cholesterol. We sought to expand the evidence for its utility to under-studied populations in sub-Saharan Africa, by determining its association with common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 9011 participants drawn from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. We assessed established classical cardiovascular risk factors and measured carotid intima-media thickness of the left and right common carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasonography. Adjusted multilevel mixed-effect linear regression was used to determine the association of CVHI with common CIMT. In the combined population, an individual participant data meta-analyses random-effects was used to conduct pooled comparative sub-group analyses for differences between countries, sex, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 51 ± 7 years and 51% were women, with a mean common CIMT of 637 ± 117 µm and CVHI score of 10.3 ± 2.0. Inverse associations were found between CVHI and common CIMT (ß-coefficients [95% confidence interval]: Burkina Faso, - 6.51 [- 9.83, - 3.20] µm; Ghana, - 5.42 [- 8.90, - 1.95]; Kenya, - 6.58 [- 9.05, - 4.10]; and South Africa, - 7.85 [- 9.65, - 6.05]). Inverse relations were observed for women (- 4.44 [- 6.23, - 2.65]) and men (- 6.27 [- 7.91, - 4.64]) in the pooled sample. Smoking (p < 0.001), physical activity (p < 0.001), and hyperglycemia (p < 0.001) were related to CIMT in women only, while blood pressure and obesity were related to CIMT in both women and men (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This large pan-African population study demonstrates that CVHI is a strong marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common CIMT and importantly demonstrates that primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in this understudied population should target physical activity, smoking, obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia.

3.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598382

RESUMO

Introduction: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality globally. Consumption levels in Southern Latin America are among the highest in the world. Objectives: To describe consumption patterns and adherence to guidelines in the general adult population of Southern Latin America, as well as exploration of reasons for alcohol cessation and the advising role of the health worker in this decision. Methods: In 7,520 participants from the Centro de Excelencia en Salud Cardiovascular para el America del Sur (CESCAS) cohort, consumption patterns were described and the proportion excessive drinkers (i.e. >7 units/week for women and >14 for men or binge drinking: >4 (women) or >5 (men) units at a single occasion) was calculated. Former drinkers were asked if they had quit alcohol consumption on the advice of a health worker and/or because of health reasons. Furthermore, among former drinkers, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess which participant characteristics were independently associated with the chance of quitting consumption on a health worker's advice. Results: Mean age was 54.8 years (SD = 10.8), 42% was male. Current drinking was reported by 44.6%, excessive drinking by 8.5% of the population. In former drinkers, 23% had quit alcohol consumption because of health reasons, half of them had additionally quit on the advice of a health worker. The majority of former drinkers however had other, unknown, reasons. When alcohol cessation was based on a health worker's advice, sex, country of residence, educational status and frequency of visiting a physician were independent predictors. Conclusion: In this Southern American population-based sample, most participants adhered to the alcohol consumption guidelines. The advising role of the health worker in quitting alcohol consumption was only modest and the motivation for the majority of former drinkers remains unknown. A more detailed assessment of actual advice rates and exploration of additional reasons for alcohol cessation might be valuable for alcohol policy making.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies from high income countries report that HIV-positive people have an impaired systolic and diastolic cardiac function compared to HIV-negative people. It is unclear if results can be translated directly to the Sub-Saharan Africa context. This study assesses electro- and echocardiographic characteristics in an urban African population, comparing HIV-positive people (treated and not yet treated) with HIV-negative controls. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. We enrolled HIV-positive participants from three randomized controlled trials that had recruited participants from routine HIV testing programs. HIV-negative controls were recruited from the community. Data were collected on demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medical history and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 394 HIV-positive participants and 153 controls were enrolled. The mean age of HIV-positive participants was 40±9 years (controls: 35±10 years), and 34% were male (controls: 50%). Of HIV-positive participants 36% were overweight or obese (controls: 44%), 23% had hypertension (controls: 28%) and 12% were current smoker (controls: 37%). Median time since HIV diagnosis was 6.0 years (IQR 2.3-10.0) and median treatment duration was 4.0 years (IQR 0.0-8.0), 50% had undetectable viral load. The frequency of anatomical cardiac abnormalities was low and did not differ between people with and without HIV. We observed no relation between HIV or anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and systolic or diastolic heart function. There was an association between ART use and corrected QT interval: +11.8 ms compared to HIV-negative controls (p<0.01) and +18.9 ms compared to ART-naïve participants (p = 0.01). We also observed a higher left ventricular mass index in participants on ART (+7.8 g/m2, p<0.01), but this association disappeared after adjusting for CD4 cell count, viral load and HIV-duration. CONCLUSION: The low number of major cardiac abnormalities in this relatively young, well managed urban African HIV-positive population is reassuring. The increase in corrected QT interval and left ventricular mass may contribute to higher cardiac mortality and morbidity in people living with HIV in the long term.

6.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 467, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There is insufficient population-based data on CKD in Nigeria that is required to estimate its true burden, and to design prevention and management strategies. The study aims to determine the prevalence of CKD and its risk factors in Nigeria. METHODS: We studied 8 urban communities in Kwara State, North-Central zone of Nigeria. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, urinalysis, weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference were obtained. Albuminuria and kidney length were measured by ultrasound while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was derived from serum creatinine, using chronic disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Associations of risk factors with CKD were determined by multivariate logistic regression and expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred and fifty-three adults ≥18 years (44% males) with mean age of 44.3 ± 14.4 years, were screened. Mean kidney lengths were: right, 93.5 ± 7.0 cm and left, 93.4 ± 7.5 cm. The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 24%; diabetes 4%; obesity 8.7%; albuminuria of > 30 mg/L 7%; and dipstick proteinuria 13%. The age-adjusted prevalence of CKD by estimated GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or Proteinuria was 12%. Diabetes (aOR 6.41, 95%CI = 3.50-11.73, P = 0.001), obesity (aOR 1.50, 95%CI = 1.10-2.05, P = 0.011), proteinuria (aOR 2.07, 95%CI = 1.05-4.08, P = 0.035); female sex (aOR 1.67, 95%CI = 1.47-1.89, P = 0.001); and age (aOR 1.89, 95%CI = 1.13-3.17, P = 0.015) were the identified predictors of CKD. CONCLUSIONS: CKD and its risk factors are prevalent among middle-aged urban populations in North-Central Nigeria. It is common among women, fueled by diabetes, ageing, obesity, and albuminuria. These data add to existing regional studies of burden of CKD that may serve as template for a national prevention framework for CKD in Nigeria. One of the limitations of the study is that the participants were voluntary community dwellers and as such not representative for the community. The sample may thus have been subjected to selection bias possibly resulting in overestimation of CKD risk factors.

7.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1971-1979, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131310

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify targets for the prevention of hypertension and its associated disease burden, we used the 2-sample Mendelian randomization method to investigate the causal associations of 18 cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle behaviors with hypertension. From European-descent genome-wide association studies, we selected genetic variants (P<5×10-8) for type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose, lipids, body mass index, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, physical activity, sleep duration, insomnia, and educational level. We extracted the genetic associations with hypertension from 2 European cohorts: the FinnGen Study (15 870 cases and 74 345 controls) and UK Biobank (54 358 cases and 408 652 controls). The inverse-variance weighted method was used as main analysis method. Genetically predicted triglycerides (pooled odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD, 1.17 [1.10-1.25]), body mass index (OR per 1 SD, 1.42 [1.37-1.48]), alcohol dependence (OR, 1.10 [1.06-1.13]), and insomnia (OR, 1.17 [1.13-1.20]) were associated with a higher odds of hypertension. Higher genetically predicted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR per 1 SD, 0.88 [0.83-0.94]) and educational level (OR per 1 SD, 0.56 [0.54-0.59]) were associated with a lower odds of hypertension. Suggestive evidence was obtained for type 2 diabetes, smoking initiation and alcohol consumption with a higher hypertension odds, and longer sleep duration with a lower hypertension odds. This Mendelian randomization study identified high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, alcohol dependence, insomnia, and educational level as causal risk factors for hypertension. This implicates that these modifiable risk factors are important targets in the prevention of hypertension.

8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(14): e212-e214, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245755
9.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to validate trial patient eligibility screening and baseline data-collection using text-mining in electronic healthcare records (EHRs), comparing the results to those of an international trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In three medical centers with different EHR vendors, EHR-based text-mining was used to automatically screen patients for trial eligibility and extract baseline data on nineteen characteristics. First. the yield of screening with automated EHR text-mining search was compared with manual screening by research personnel. Second, accuracy of extracted baseline data by EHR text mining was compared to manual data entry by research personnel RESULTS: 568 (0.6%) of 92,466 patients visiting the out-patient cardiology departments were enrolled in the trial during its recruitment period using manual screening methods. Automated EHR data screening of all patients showed that the number of patients needed to screen could be reduced by 73,863 (79.9%). The remaining 18,603 (20.1%) contained 458 of the actual participants (82.4% of participants). In trial participants, automated EHR text-mining missed a median of 2.8% (Interquartile range [IQR] across all variables 0.4-8.5%) of all data points compared to manually collected data. Overall accuracy of automatically extracted data was 88.0% (IQR 84.7-92.8%). CONCLUSION: Automatically extracting data from EHRs using text-mining can be used to identify trial participants and to collect baseline information.

10.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 534, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed health workers' adherence to neonatal health protocols before and during the implementation of a mobile health (mHealth) clinical decision-making support system (mCDMSS) that sought to bridge access to neonatal health protocol gap in a low-resource setting. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional document review within two purposively selected clusters (one poorly-resourced and one well-resourced), from each arm of a cluster-randomized trial at two different time points: before and during the trial. The total trial consisted of 16 clusters randomized into 8 intervention and 8 control clusters to assess the impact of an mCDMSS on neonatal mortality in Ghana. We evaluated health workers' adherence (expressed as percentages) to birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice and cord sepsis protocols by reviewing medical records of neonatal in-patients using a checklist. Differences in adherence to neonatal health protocols within and between the study arms were assessed using Wilcoxon rank-sum and permutation tests for each morbidity type. In addition, we tracked concurrent neonatal health improvement activities in the clusters during the 18-month intervention period. RESULTS: In the intervention arm, mean adherence was 35.2% (SD = 5.8%) and 43.6% (SD = 27.5%) for asphyxia; 25.0% (SD = 14.8%) and 39.3% (SD = 27.7%) for jaundice; 52.0% (SD = 11.0%) and 75.0% (SD = 21.2%) for cord sepsis protocols in the pre-intervention and intervention periods respectively. In the control arm, mean adherence was 52.9% (SD = 16.4%) and 74.5% (SD = 14.7%) for asphyxia; 45.1% (SD = 12.8%) and 64.6% (SD = 8.2%) for jaundice; 53.8% (SD = 16.0%) and 60.8% (SD = 11.7%) for cord sepsis protocols in the pre-intervention and intervention periods respectively. We observed nonsignificant improvement in protocol adherence in the intervention clusters but significant improvement in protocol adherence in the control clusters. There were 2 concurrent neonatal health improvement activities in the intervention clusters and over 12 in the control clusters during the intervention period. CONCLUSION: Whether mHealth interventions can improve adherence to neonatal health protocols in low-resource settings cannot be ascertained by this study. Neonatal health improvement activities are however likely to improve protocol adherence. Future mHealth evaluations of protocol adherence must account for other concurrent interventions in study contexts.

11.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 35-42, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest levels of alcohol consumption are observed in Europe, where alcohol as contributing cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) is also most significant. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption patterns across European regions and adherence to the current guidelines in patients with a recent CHD event. METHODS: The ESC-EORP survey (EUROASPIRE V) has been conducted in 2016-2017 at 131 centers in 27 European countries in 7350 patients with a recent CHD. Median alcohol consumption, as well as the proportion of abstainers and excessive drinkers (i.e. >70 g/week for women and >140 for men, as recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention), was calculated for each region. To assess adherence to guidelines, proportions of participants who were advised to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and participants who were incorrectly not advised were calculated per region. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (SD: 9.5), 75% were male. Abstention rates were 53% in males and 77% in females, whereas excessive drinking was reported by 9% and 5% of them, respectively. Overall, 57% of the participants were advised to reduce alcohol consumption. In the total population, 3% were incorrectly not advised, however, this percentage differed per region (range: 1%-9%). In regions where alcohol consumption was highest, participants were less often advised to reduce their consumption. CONCLUSION: In this EUROASPIRE V survey, the majority of CHD patients adhere to the current drinking guidelines, but substantial heterogeneity exists between European regions.

12.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2972-2982, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: General population studies have shown that elevated Lp(a) (lipoprotein[a]) levels are an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease and subsequent cardiovascular events. The role of Lp(a) for the risk of secondary MACE in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is unknown. Our objective is to assess the association of elevated Lp(a) levels with the risk of secondary MACE in patients undergoing CEA. METHODS: Lp(a) concentrations were determined in preoperative blood samples of 944 consecutive patients with CEA included in the Athero-Express Biobank Study. During 3-year follow-up, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), consisting of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, were documented. RESULTS: After 3 years follow-up, Kaplan-Meier cumulative event rates for MACE were 15.4% in patients with high Lp(a) levels (>137 nmol/L; >80th cohort percentile) and 10.2% in patients with low Lp(a) levels (≤137 nmol/L; ≤80th cohort percentile; log-rank test: P=0.047). Cox regression analyses adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors revealed a significant association between high Lp(a) levels and 3-year MACE with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.69 (95% CI, 1.07-2.66). One-third of MACE occurred within 30 days after CEA, with an adjusted hazard ratio for the 30-day risk of MACE of 2.05 (95% CI, 1.01-4.17). Kaplan-Meier curves from time point 30 days to 3 years onward revealed no significant association between high Lp(a) levels and MACE. Lp(a) levels were not associated with histological carotid plaque characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: High Lp(a) levels (>137 nmol/L; >80th cohort percentile) are associated with an increased risk of 30-day MACE after CEA. This identifies elevated Lp(a) levels as a new potential risk factor for secondary cardiovascular events in patients after carotid surgery. Future studies are required to investigate whether Lp(a) levels might be useful in guiding treatment algorithms for carotid intervention.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prognóstico , Risco , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984058

RESUMO

The new radiotherapy high field, 1.5 Tesla MRI-guided linear accelerator (MR-Linac) is being clinically introduced. Sensing and evaluating opportunities and barriers at an early stage will facilitate its eventual scale-up. This study investigates the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of MR-Linac into prostate cancer care based on 43 semi-structured interviews with Dutch oncology care professionals, hospital and division directors, patients, payers and industry. The analysis was guided by the Non-adoption, Abandonment, Scale-up, Spread, and Sustainability framework of new medical technologies and services. Opportunities included: the acquirement of (1) advanced MRI-guided radiotherapy technology with (2) the potential for improved patient outcomes and (3) economic benefits, as well as (4) professional development and (5) a higher hospital quality profile. Barriers included: (1) technical complexities, (2) substantial staffing and structural investments, (3) the current lack of empirical evidence of clinical benefits, (4) professional silos, and (5) the presence of patient referral patterns. While our study confirms the expected technical and clinical prospects from the literature, it also reveals economic, organizational, and socio-political challenges.

14.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 53, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923347

RESUMO

Background: This paper presents a feasibility study of data linkage between global air pollution data and clinical medical data to assess the associations of PM2.5 with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Cardiovascular risk factor data were obtained from the SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients from 10 countries in Europe, Asia, and the Middle-East. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using recent global WHO PM2.5 maps combining satellite and surface monitoring data for the location of the 71 participating centers. Associations of PM2.5 with risk factors were assessed by mixed-effect generalized estimation equation models adjusted by sex, age, exercise, body mass index, and smoking. In the final model there was further adjustment for country. Results: Linkage between cardiovascular risk factor data and PM2.5 via the postal address of participating hospitals was shown to be feasible, however with several limitations noted.Eight thousand three hundred and ninety two patients (30% women) were included. Globally, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was significantly associated with decreased BP and increased glucose. After controlling for country, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with decreased BP and increased LDL (SBP: -0.45 mmHg [95% CI: -0.85, -0.06]; DBP: -0.47 mmHg [-0.73, -0.20]; LDL: 0.04 mmol/L [0.01, 0.08]). The association with glucose attenuated (0.08 mmol/L [-0.23, 0.16]). Conclusion: It is feasible to link PM2.5 and cardiovascular risk factors but it is still challenging to interpret these observed associations due to unavailability of potential confounders. After country adjustment, PM2.5 was associated with small increases in LDL and small decreases in BP. Highlights: - There are limited studies on the association between air pollution and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with established coronary heart disease in low- and middle-income countries;- Data linkage is an efficient and cost-effective method to maximize the use of existing data to investigate more health related research questions;- It is feasible to determine global associations of air pollution and cardiovascular risk factors by data linkage but it is still challenging in terms of interpretation.

15.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 57, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923350

RESUMO

Highlights:  - Despite clinical evidence of its effectiveness in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, uptake of fixed dose combination therapy (FDCs) for CVD has been poor.- A symposium was held bringing together stakeholders on this issue, including from academia, government and NGOs.- The conclusion made was that what is now needed to improve implementation of FDCs is country-specific health systems analyses to design appropriate implementation strategies.- Implementation strategies must look beyond listing on the WHO Essential Medicines List to consider approaches to improving FDC availability, accessibility, affordability, and adherence.- Strategies might include incorporation of FDCs into the WHO HEARTS technical package, simplified treatment and monitoring algorithms, decentralisation of medicine dispensing and task-sharing for treatment management.

16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 476, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is limited evidence on the effect of antenatal exposure to non-organophosphate household pesticides on infant health. Our hypothesis is that antenatal exposure to non-organophosphate household pesticides will be associated with birth sizes and infant growth rate. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 284 mother-infant pairs were studied. Mothers were recruited at the third trimester in two primary care centers and one private hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Mothers filled out questionnaires about exposure to non-organophosphate household pesticides at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight and length were measured at birth. Afterwards, the weight, height, and head circumference (HC) were measured at 7 days, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Linear mixed modeling and linear regression was performed to calculate growth rate of each infant. Multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounders was used to assess the association between household pesticides exposure and birth sizes and infant growth rate. RESULTS: Based on self-report questionnaires, 133 (46.8%) mothers were exposed to household pesticides during pregnancy. The mean HC at day 7 in the exposed group was - 7.1 mm (95%CI -13.1;-1.2) lower than in the non-exposed group. The difference was more prominent in the non-mosquito pesticide group (linear regression coefficient: - 22.1 mm, 95%CI -36.5;-7.6). No material associations were found between antenatal exposure to household pesticides with other growth measures, including weight gain, length gain, HC increment and weight-to-length gain rates. No modification of effects by breastfeeding was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that antenatal exposure to household non-organophosphate pesticides is associated with smaller head circumference at birth.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the use of high-sensitive cardiac troponin there remains a group of high-sensitive cardiac troponin negative patients with unstable angina with a non-neglectable risk for future adverse cardiovascular events, emphasising the need for additional risk stratification. Plasma extracellular vesicles are small bilayer membrane vesicles known for their potential role as biomarker source. Their role in unstable angina remains unexplored. We investigate if extracellular vesicle proteins are associated with unstable angina in patients with chest pain and low high-sensitive cardiac troponin. METHODS: The MINERVA study included patients presenting with acute chest pain but no acute coronary syndrome. We performed an exploratory retrospective case-control analysis among 269 patients. Cases were defined as patients with low high-sensitive cardiac troponin and proven ischemia. Patients without ischemia were selected as controls. Blood samples were fractionated to analyse the EV proteins in three plasma-subfractions: TEX, HDL and LDL. Protein levels were quantified using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Lower levels of (adjusted) EV cystatin c in the TEX subfraction were associated with having unstable angina (OR 0.93 95% CI 0.88-0.99). CONCLUSION: In patients with acute chest pain but low high-sensitive cardiac troponin, lower levels of plasma extracellular vesicle cystatin c are associated with having unstable angina. This finding is hypothesis generating only considering the small sample size and needs to be confirmed in larger cohort studies, but still identifies extracellular vesicle proteins as source for additional risk stratification.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/metabolismo , Cistatina C/análise , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Instável/sangue , Angina Instável/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/metabolismo , Dor no Peito/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Cistatina C/metabolismo , Eletrocardiografia , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Troponina/sangue
18.
Circulation ; 142(6): 546-555, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD. METHODS: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; I2=28%; P-heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity. CONCLUSIONS: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2240-2249, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648717

RESUMO

AIMS: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small double-membrane plasma vesicles that play key roles in cellular crosstalk and mechanisms such as inflammation. The role of EVs in combined organ failure such as cardiorenal syndrome has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to identify EV proteins that are associated with renal dysfunction, heart failure, and their combination in dyspnoeic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood samples were prospectively collected in 404 patients presenting with breathlessness at the emergency department at National University Hospital, Singapore. Renal dysfunction was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . The presence of heart failure was independently adjudicated by two clinicians on the basis of the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Protein levels of SerpinG1, SerpinF2, Cystatin C, and CD14 were measured with a quantitative immune assay within three EV sub-fractions and in plasma and were tested for their associations with renal dysfunction, heart failure, and the concurrence of both conditions using multinomial regression analysis, thereby correcting for confounders such as age, gender, ethnicity, and co-morbidities. Renal dysfunction was found in 92 patients (23%), while heart failure was present in 141 (35%). In total, 58 patients (14%) were diagnosed with both renal dysfunction and heart failure. Regression analysis showed that Cystatin C was associated with renal dysfunction, heart failure, and their combination in all three EV sub-fractions and in plasma. CD14 was associated with both renal dysfunction and the combined renal dysfunction and heart failure in all EV sub-fractions, and with presence of heart failure in the high density lipoprotein sub-fraction. SerpinG1 and SerpinF2 were associated with heart failure in, respectively, two and one out of three EV sub-fractions and in plasma, but not with renal dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first data showing that Cystatin C and CD14 in circulating EVs are associated with both renal dysfunction and heart failure in patients presenting with acute dyspnoea. This suggests that EV proteins may be involved in the combined organ failure of the cardiorenal syndrome and may represent possible targets for prevention or treatment.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12257, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704130

RESUMO

Diagnosing stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) is challenging, especially in females. Currently, no blood test is available. Plasma extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging as potential biomarker source. We therefore aimed to identify stress induced ischemia due to stable IHD with plasma extracellular vesicle protein levels in chest pain patients. We analyzed 450 patients suspected for stable IHD who were referred for 82Rb PET/CT in the outpatient clinic. Blood samples were collected before PET/CT and plasma EVs were isolated in 3 plasma subfractions named: TEX, HDL, LDL. In total 6 proteins were quantified in each of these subfractions using immuno-bead assays. CD14 and CystatinC protein levels were independent significant predictors of stress-induced ischemia in the LDL and the HDL subfraction and SerpinC1 and SerpinG1 protein levels in the HDL fraction. Subgroup-analysis on sex revealed that these associations were completely attributed to the associations in women. None of the significant EV proteins remained significant in men. Plasma EV proteins levels are associated with the presence of stable IHD in females presenting with chest pain. This finding, if confirmed in larger cohort studies could be a crucial step in improving diagnostic assessment of women with suspected IHD.

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