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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 102080, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933687

RESUMO

A 27 years-old Dutch male returning from Nepal presented with a painful abscess on the left forearm without fever or other systemic complications. Signs and symptoms consisted of culture of the abscess material revealed Burkholderia pseudomallei. Laboratory results, chest X-ray and CT scan of the abdomen were without abnormalities. The patient was initially treated with 2 weeks of ceftazidime and continued with a 6-week oral eradication phase with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered without complications. Melioidosis is encountered relatively infrequently as an imported condition, mainly from Southeast Asia with focus on Thailand. Melioidosis from Nepal is a rarity and has previously been described in only four cases, with possible acquisition abroad in three of those.

2.
Acta Trop ; 219: 105914, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831345

RESUMO

Background In 2016, the third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3) task force provided revised definitions for sepsis and septic shock. This study explores knowledge regarding sepsis among health workers in Lambaréné, Gabon. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey about sepsis among health workers from the referral regional hospital, the research center, and primary care health facilities in the Lambaréné region. Participants were from the referral regional hospital, the research center, and primary health care facilities. A score of one was given to each correct answer. The global score out of a possible score of twenty was calculated, and the proportion of correct responses was determined. Results A total of 115 health workers (physicians, nurses and assistant nurses) completed the questionnaire, of which 48.7% (56/115) provided a valid definition of sepsis, but 74% (85/115) had never heard about the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score. The proportion of correct answers was comparable across the three health profession categories. The median global score across all health workers was 11 [IQR, 9-14.5] out of 20. Physicians attained higher global scores [14 (IQR, 11-15)] than assistant nurses [11 (IQR, 8-13), P=0.007]; their global score was comparable to that of nurses. Conclusion There are considerable knowledge gaps regarding sepsis among health workers in Lambaréné, potentially impairing the prompt recognition and management of sepsis. There is a need to establish periodic up-to-date training to improve sepsis knowledge.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772308

RESUMO

There are no comprehensive data on viral hepatitis from Sierra Leone; however, a huge disease burden has been observed in different subpopulations. This review summarizes available data on hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) prevalence in Sierra Leone and identifies knowledge gaps. Despite the non-uniformity of the studies and the lack of systematic case recording, different reports published in recent decades yielded a hepatitis B prevalence of 8.7% among healthcare workers, 11.3% among pregnant women, 15.2% among blood donors and 16.7% in school-age children. The actual HBV prevalence in the general population was reported as 21.7%; similar to what was reported for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). HCV prevalence is 8% and 7% in male and female blood donors, respectively, 4.1% in PLHIV and 2.0% in school children. There are significant knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C in Sierra Leone, despite the high burden reported in a few studies. There are limited programmatic interventions on the control and prevention of viral hepatitis in the country. Therefore, well-structured representative studies should provide a solid understanding of the true prevalence of hepatitis B and C to inform best possible public health measures in Sierra Leone.

4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 102007, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For certain vaccines, dosing can be reduced by intradermal (ID) immunization without loss of immunogenicity, as an alternative to standard routes of administration. However, a certain level of dose-sparing might also be achieved by reducing doses of intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) vaccines. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review comparing identical reduced amounts of antigen delivered by either ID, or IM/SC routes (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42020151725). RESULTS: Of 6015 articles identified, we included 26 articles, covering eight different vaccines. Equivalent immune responses were demonstrated in 19/26 studies, and 7/26 studies suggested inferior immune responses after IM/SC immunization. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that fractional dosed IM/SC vaccination is at best as immunogenic, but potentially inferior to ID vaccination. The safety profiles were at large comparable, although minor local adverse events were more common after ID delivery. Future vaccine trials, depending on the platform used, should add a fractional dose IM/SC arm, besides a fractional dose ID arm.

5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigates drivers of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using a childhood ecosystem approach in South Africa. An ecosystem approach toward identifying risk factors for PTB may identify targeted interventions. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of children presenting at a primary care facility or tertiary hospital with possible TB. Characterization of the childhood ecosystem included proximal, medial, and distal determinants. Proximal determinants included child characteristics that could impact PTB outcomes. Medial determinants included relational factors, such as caregiver health, which might impact interactions with the child. Distal determinants included macro-level determinants of disease, such as socioeconomic status and food insecurity. Children who started on TB treatment were followed for up to 6 months. Multivariate regression models tested independent associations between factors associated with PTB in children. RESULTS: Of 1202 children enrolled, 242 (20%) of children had confirmed PTB, 756 (63%) were started on TB treatment, and 444 (37%) had respiratory conditions other than TB. In univariate analyses, childhood malnutrition and caregiver smoking were associated with treated or confirmed PTB. In multivariate analyses, proximal factors, such as male gender and hospitalization, as well as low socioeconomic status as a distal factor, were associated with PTB. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions may need to target subgroups of children and families with elevated proximal, medial, and distal risk factors for PTB. Screening for risk factors, such as caregiver's health, may guide targeting. The provision of social protection programs to bolster economic security may be an important intervention for attenuating childhood exposure to risk factors.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 237-245, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adult cancer patients stratified by type of underlying malignancy, age, and capsular serotype and to assess herd effects of childhood pneumococcal vaccination. METHODS: All adult IPD cases reported to the Dutch pneumococcal surveillance system between 2004 and 2016 were included in this study. IPD incidence rates (IR) stratified by subtype of malignancy were calculated per 100 000 patient-years of follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated to compare IRs between groups. RESULTS: A total of 7167 IPD cases were included, of which 1453 were in patients with malignancies. For patients with hematological malignancies (HM) and solid organ malignancies (SOM), IRs were 482/100 000 and 79/100 000, respectively, compared with 15/100 000 in controls. The highest incidence was observed among patients with multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer (3299/100 000, 2717/100 000, 538/100 000, 559/100 000, and 393/100 000, respectively), and in patients ≥50 years old. Among HM patients, the incidence of IPD declined significantly after the implementation of infant pneumococcal vaccination (IRR 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.84); among SOM patients, the decline was not statistically significant (IRR 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.72-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: The IPD disease burden in cancer patients remains high. Large differences in IPD incidence between the different types of cancer demand tailored guidance regarding pneumococcal vaccination.

8.
Microb Genom ; 7(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555243

RESUMO

Human tuberculosis (TB) is caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The MTBC comprises several human-adapted lineages known as M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, as well as two lineages (L5 and L6) traditionally referred to as Mycobacterium africanum. Strains of L5 and L6 are largely limited to West Africa for reasons unknown, and little is known of their genomic diversity, phylogeography and evolution. Here, we analysed the genomes of 350 L5 and 320 L6 strains, isolated from patients from 21 African countries, plus 5 related genomes that had not been classified into any of the known MTBC lineages. Our population genomic and phylogeographical analyses showed that the unclassified genomes belonged to a new group that we propose to name MTBC lineage 9 (L9). While the most likely ancestral distribution of L9 was predicted to be East Africa, the most likely ancestral distribution for both L5 and L6 was the Eastern part of West Africa. Moreover, we found important differences between L5 and L6 strains with respect to their phylogeographical substructure and genetic diversity. Finally, we could not confirm the previous association of drug-resistance markers with lineage and sublineages. Instead, our results indicate that the association of drug resistance with lineage is most likely driven by sample bias or geography. In conclusion, our study sheds new light onto the genomic diversity and evolutionary history of M. africanum, and highlights the need to consider the particularities of each MTBC lineage for understanding the ecology and epidemiology of TB in Africa and globally.

11.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398458

RESUMO

Medical research in sub-Saharan Africa is of high priority for societies to respond adequately to local health needs. Often enough it remains a challenge to build up capacity in infrastructure and human resources to highest international standards and to sustain this over mid-term to long-term periods due to difficulties in obtaining long-term institutional core funding, attracting highly qualified scientists for medical research and coping with ever changing structural and political environments. The Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné (CERMEL) serves as model for how to overcome such challenges and to continuously increase its impact on medical care in Central Africa and beyond. Starting off as a research annex to the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon, it has since then expanded its activities to academic and regulatory clinical trials for drugs, vaccines and diagnostics in the field of malaria, tuberculosis, and a wide range of poverty related and neglected tropical infectious diseases. Advancing bioethics in medical research in Africa and steadily improving its global networks and infrastructures, CERMEL serves as a reference centre for several international consortia. In close collaboration with national authorities, CERMEL has become one of the main training hubs for medical research in Central Africa. It is hoped that CERMEL and its leitmotiv "to improve medical care for local populations" will serve as an inspiration to other institutions in sub-Saharan Africa to further increase African capacity to advance medicine.

12.
Infection ; 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting the blood cell. As a chronic disease, schistosomiasis particularly impacts on the human host's haematological profile. We assessed here the impact of urogenital schistosomiasis on the full blood counts (FBC) as proxy diagnostic tool for schistosomiasis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children living in Lambaréné, Gabon. Schistosomiasis status was determined using urine filtration technique. EDTA blood samples were analysed using a Pentra ABX 60® analyzer. RESULTS: Compared to their infection-free counterparts, school children infected with Schistosoma haematobium displayed an altered FBC profile, with changes in all three blood cell lines. Adjusted for praziquantel intake, soil-transmitted helminthic infections and Plasmodium falciparum infection status, schistosomiasis was independently associated with a decreasing trend of mean haemoglobin (ß = - 0.20 g/dL, p-value = 0.08) and hematocrit (ß = - 0.61%, p-value = 0.06) levels, a lower mean MCV (ß = - 1.50µm3, p-value = 0.02) and MCH (ß = - 0.54 pg, p-value = 0.04), and higher platelet (ß = 28.2 103/mm3, p-value = 0.002) and leukocyte (ß = 1.13 103/mm3, p-value = 0.0003) counts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Schistosomiasis is associated with a characteristic FBC profile of schoolchildren living in Lambaréné, indicating the necessity to consider schistosomiasis as a single cause of disease, or a co-morbidity, when interpreting FBC in endemic areas.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, published data regarding long-lasting immunological rabies memory after a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-schedule are scarce. We tested the hypothesis that rabies booster immunization elicits rapid anamnestic responses. METHODS: For this observational study, we included participants who had received PrEP 10-24 years before inclusion. We measured rabies antibody titers before, and on days 3, 7 and 14 after one single intramuscular booster. RESULTS: All 28 participants responded adequately regardless route of administration or (2-dose vs. 3-dose) PrEP-regimen. CONCLUSION: Rabies immunological memory is reactivated within 7 days after a single intramuscular booster immunization, even when administered 10-24 years after PrEP.

14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008988, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical skin disease, caused by Leishmania protozoa. In Pakistan, where CL caused by L. tropica is highly endemic, therapy with pentavalent antimonials is the standard of care, but has significant toxicity when used in systemic therapy, while are no evidence-based safer alternative treatment options for L. tropica. The efficacy of oral miltefosine has not been studied in CL caused by L. tropica. We evaluated effectiveness and tolerability of miltefosine in patients with previous treatment failure or with contraindications to systemic antimonial treatment. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of a cohort of CL patients who were treated with a 28-day course of miltefosine between December 2017 and August 2019, in urban Quetta, Pakistan, an area endemic for L. tropica. Descriptive analyses were performed, and effectiveness was assessed by initial response after treatment, and final cure at routine follow up visits, six weeks to three months post-treatment. Tolerability was assessed by routinely reported adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 76 CL patients in the cohort, 42 (55%) had contraindications to systemic antimonial treatment, and 34 (45%) had failure or relapse after antimonial treatment. Twelve patients defaulted during treatment and 12 patients were lost to follow up. In the remaining 52 patients, final cure rate was 77% (40/52). In those with contraindications to systemic antimonial treatment the final cure rate was 83% (24/29) and in the failure and relapse group 70% (16/23). Twenty-eight patients (40.0%) reported 39 mild to moderate adverse events with the main complaints being nausea (41.0%), general malaise (25.6%), and stomach pain (12.8%). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that miltefosine is an effective second line treatment in CL in areas endemic for L. tropica. Prospective studies with systematic follow up are needed to obtain definitive evidence of effectiveness and tolerability, including identification of risk factors for miltefosine treatment failure.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 207-213, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infection, tuberculosis and malaria are the big three communicable diseases that plague sub-Saharan Africa. If these diseases occur as co-morbidities they require polypharmacy, which may lead to severe drug-drug-gene interactions and variation in adverse drug reactions, but also in treatment outcomes. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes are the major cause of these variations, but such polymorphisms may support the prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity. There is little information on allele frequencies of pharmacogenetic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs used to treat HIV-infection, TB and malaria in the Republic of Congo (ROC). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the occurrence and allele frequencies of 32 pharmacogenetic variants localized in absorption distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and non-ADME genes and to compare the frequencies with population data of Africans and non-Africans derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. RESULTS: We found significant differences in the allele frequencies of many of the variants when comparing the findings from ROC with those of non-African populations. On the other hand, only a few variants showed significant differences in their allele frequencies when comparing ROC with other African populations. In addition, considerable differences in the allele frequencies of the pharmacogenetic variants among the African populations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings contribute to the understanding of pharmacogenetic variants involved in the metabolism of drugs used to treat HIV-infection, TB and malaria in ROC and their diversity in different populations. Such knowledge helps to predict drug efficacy, toxicity and ADRs and to inform individual and population-based decisions.

16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29-30: 100576, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294820

RESUMO

Background: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarise the literature regarding the immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV) in adult people living with HIV (PLWH) in the era of advanced combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: The systematic review protocol was published online (PROSPERO ID: CRD 42020153137). We searched Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and the Global Health Library for publications from 2000 to June 11, 2020. We included all studies in adult PLWH that reported vaccine immunogenicity outcomes. The primary outcome was seroconversion rate (SCR) after PCV, PPSV and PCV/PPSV combined. For random-effects meta-analysis, we included studies defining SCR as a ≥ 2-fold increase in IgG from baseline, and reporting SCR for serotypes 6B, 14, or overall SCR, 1-3 months after vaccination. Findings: Our search identified 1597 unique studies, of which 115 were eligible for full-text assessment. Of these, 39 met the inclusion criteria (11 RCTs; 28 cohort studies). A high degree of heterogeneity was observed. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled overall SCRs were 42% (95% CI 30-56%), 44% (95% CI 33-55%) and 57% (95% CI 50-63%) for PLWH who received PPSV, PCV or a combination of PCV/PPSV, respectively. Compared to PPSV alone, a combination of PCV/PPSV yielded higher SCRs (OR 2.24 95% CI 1.41- 3.58), whereas we did not observe a significant difference in SCR between PCV and PPSV23 alone. There were no statistically significant differences in geometric mean post-vaccination antibody concentrations between vaccination schedules. Vaccination at higher CD4 cell counts improved immunogenicity in 8/21 studies, especially when PCV was administered. No studies assessed the long-term immunogenicity of PCV followed by PPSV23. Quality of evidence ranged from poor (n = 19) to good quality (n = 7). A limited number of pneumococcal serotypes was assessed in the majority of studies. Interpretation: We show that the recommended immunisation schedule consisting of a combination of PCV13/PPSV23, is immunogenic in PLWH in the era of advanced cART. However, the durability of this vaccination schedule remains unknown and must be addressed in future research. Vaccination with PCV should be delayed until immunological recovery (CD4>200) in recently diagnosed PLWH for optimal immunogenicity. The evidence gathered here supports wide implementation of the combination of PCV/PPSV23 for all PLWH. We recommend reassessment of this strategy once higher-valent PCVs become available. Funding: HMGG is funded by a public research grant of ZonMw (project number 522004005).

17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101924, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is predominantly a neglected tropical parasitic disease but may also be acquired by travellers. We aimed at summarizing knowledge on sonographic presentation of VL to better understand sonographic features of VL. METHODS: PubMed was searched for studies and case reports presenting original data on sonographic findings of VL, published before August 13th, 2019. Demographic, clinical, and sonographic data were extracted and summarized in a qualitative approach. RESULTS: A total of 36 publications were included in this review; 27 of these were case reports and the remainder were prospective or retrospective studies. No study reported systematic cross-sectional comparative imaging. Overall, publications reported on 512 patients with VL of whom 12 were reported HIV-infected. Spleno- and hepatomegaly were the most frequently reported findings. Further relevant and repeatedly reported findings were splenic and hepatic lesions, abdominal lymphadenopathy, pleural and pericardial effusion and ascites. Reported focal splenic lesions were heterogeneous in size, shape, and echogenicity. Several publications reported gradual diminution and resolution of sonographic findings with VL treatment. CONCLUSION: Available literature on sonographic findings of VL is limited. Available reports indicate that spleno- and hepatomegaly, free fluid, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and focal splenic lesions may be common sonographic features in patients with VL. Because of the apparent overlap of sonographic features of VL, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and other other conditions, interpretation of sonographic findings needs to be made with particular caution.

18.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101908, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, tafenoquine was approved for malaria chemoprophylaxis. We evaluated all available data on the safety and efficacy of tafenoquine chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019123839). We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL and Cochrane databases. Two authors (JDM, PS) screened all papers. RESULTS: We included 44 papers in the qualitative and 9 in the quantitative analyses. These 9 randomized, controlled trials included 2,495 participants, aged 12 to 60 years with 27.3% women. Six studies were conducted in Plasmodium spp.-endemic regions; two were human infection studies. 200mg weekly tafenoquine and higher dosages lead to a significant reduction of Plasmodium spp. infection compared to placebo and were comparable to 250 mg mefloquine weekly with a protective efficacy between 77.9 and 100% or a total risk ratio of 0.22 (95%-CI: 0.07 - 0.73; p = 0.013) in favour of tafenoquine. Adverse events (AE) were comparable in frequency and severity between tafenoquine and comparator arms. One study reported significantly more gastrointestinal events in tafenoquine users (p ≤ 0.001). Evidence of increased, reversible, asymptomatic vortex keratopathy in subjects with prolonged tafenoquine exposures was found. A single, serious event of decreased macular sensitivity occurred. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of G6PD-normal adults show that weekly tafenoquine 200mg is well tolerated and effective as malaria chemoprophylaxis focusing primarily on Plasmodium falciparum but also on Plasmodium vivax. Our safety analysis is limited by heterogenous methods of adverse events reporting. Further research is indicated on the use of tafenoquine in diverse traveller populations.

20.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 38: 101902, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standby emergency self-treatment (SBET) is often recommended as an anti-malaria strategy for travellers to low-risk endemic areas. This self-treatment enables competent malaria therapy, if medical assistance is unavailable. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends performing reliable diagnostic tests before starting antimalarial treatment. For the self-diagnosis of malaria in travellers, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) can be used to confirm the infection before SBET is used. The aim of this research is to assess the use of RDT and/or SBET in travellers. METHODS: We searched the databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL) using terms and synonyms for 'self-diagnosis' and 'self-treatment' combined with 'malaria' and 'travel'. Articles in English, French and German were included. Potential articles were screened and extracted by two authors (KU and PS). Only original articles and case reports documenting the self-use of RDT and/or SBET in travellers were included. Data were extracted using a standardised approach. We defined 'correct use' of RDT and SBET. Data on number and performance of RDT and SBET use, as well as malaria verification were collected in an Excel table. Five meta-analyses were performed using a random effects model and calculating pooled proportions. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018108874). RESULTS: The research resulted in 867 articles of possible relevance on RDT and 955 articles on SBET. After screening, a total of 4 articles on RDT use and 17 articles for SBET use in travellers were included in the systematic review. Most of the RDT were performed and interpreted properly by the travellers (pooled proportion 88%, 95% confidence interval (CI) from 64% to 97%), whereby the proportion of correct performance was increased after a pre-travel test run (97%). Major problems in the implementation such as pricking finger, placing blood drop, identifying lines and interpreting results could be discovered. We found data on 1025 SBET uses in studies of travellers to high-risk African countries. In these studies, the pooled proportion of SBET uses was 6% (95% CI from 2% to 13%). We found 545 SBET uses in studies of travellers to countries of mixed malaria risk. In these studies, the pooled proportion of SBET uses was 2% (95% CI from 1% to 7%). Furthermore, the evaluation showed a high proportion of correct SBET use (pooled proportion 69%, 95% CI from 35% to 90%). As a cause for incorrect use, errors in dosage (under- or overdose), disregard of minimal incubation period (< 7 days since first possible malaria exposure) and absence of fever were identified. Four cases of post-SBET severe adverse events were documented. In a third of travellers who used SBET, a Plasmodium spp. infection could be detected (pooled proportion 31%, 95% CI from 16% to 51%). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that the majority of travellers were able to use RDT and SBET correctly. Standardised pre-travel instructions and specific training are indicated to increase the proportions of correct RDT and SBET use. With improved and user-friendly technology, RDT may become an integral part of SBET malaria recommendations for travellers. Combined use of RDT and SBET could be an appropriate strategy for selected subgroups of travellers to low-risk, remote malaria areas. Future research should focus on combined RDT and SBET strategies.

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